A proposed framework to measure international students' satisfaction on their learning and living in Malaysia was developed based on literature reviews on international students (Chong, 2015). The proposed framework has five domains in measuring factors influencing international students' satisfaction, namely, academic internal environment, non-academic internal environment, external environment, image and perceived value. Each of these five domains has their own contributing variables or factors. This verification process is needed because the literature reviewed is limited in the context of Malaysia. Hence, an empirical study was conducted to verify the proposed framework by interviewing 20 international students from 14 nationalities at 11 private universities located in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The transcribed scripts and notes taken during the interview were analysed. Based on the data collected from the interviews, two objectives of the research were met. Firstly, it has verified and confirmed factors in measuring international students' satisfaction. Secondly, new variables were suggested by interviewees. The outcome of the research has contributed towards improvement of the proposed framework, thereby making it a more comprehensive model. This study and the proposed framework are useful to both the government and institutions of higher learning to improve their services. This will in turn help Malaysia to achieve its aspiration of becoming an international education hub.
Education hub, internationalization of higher education, international student satisfaction
Affiliative oriented organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) refers to teachers' voluntary acts in exhibiting helping behaviours towards students, colleagues, and schools. This paper sets out to discuss, in detail, how this study developed the Affiliative Oriented Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (AOCBS) to measure teachers' behaviour in forming OCB. In this study, a conceptual model for affiliative oriented OCB was built based on extensive literature review and served as a guideline in generating an initial set of 14 new items. Content validity was assessed by two academic supervisors and five experts in human resource, education, and psychometrics. Reviews by academic supervisors revealed three items that need to be refined to provide clarity to respondents. Furthermore, the expert review suggested removing six items due to low content validity index (CVI < 0.80). Thus, only eight items were retained as they represent the content specification. Future research is required to assess the construct validity and reliability of AOCBS, which will provide empirical evidence on the reliability and validity of this new instrument. AOCBS has the potential to measure and evaluate affiliative oriented OCB among teachers.
This paper introduces Fuzzy Delphi method as an educational tool to evaluate a technology- mediated education implementation model as part of a larger study. Specifically, the aim of the present study is to evaluate a mLearning implementation model as learning support for undergraduate students in formal language learning which was developed by the authors prior to this study. The study adopted the Fuzzy Delphi method to evaluate the model. Overall, from the findings presented in this paper, as the defuzzification values for all items in the questionnaire exceeded the minimum value of 33.6, the findings conclusively suggest that the participants have consensually agreed to all four aspects of evaluation of the model: 1) suitability of the elements (learning activities), 2) domain classification of the learning activities, 3) relationships among the learning activities, and 4) suitability of the model in teaching and learning activities in assisting students to fulfill their language learning needs and course outcomes. Thus, according to the participants or experts of the study, based on these aspects, the model is suitable to serve as a guide in the implementation of mLearning as learning support for undergraduate formal English language learning for Professional and Communication Skills course. The findings not only serve to introduce mLearning implementation model for language learning but also contribute to how the Fuzzy Delphi method could innovate assessment and evaluation of technology aided learning initiatives like mLearning.
Assessment, English language learning, Fuzzy Delphi, Interpretive Structural Modelling, mLearning, mLearning model, undergraduate
This study contributes to an understanding of the Malaysian socio-religious situation. Being a multi-religious country, Malaysia is not immune to contentious issues and incidents that challenge the relationship between different religious groups. Thus, it is crucial for the country to be conscious of its level of inter-religious relationship in order to maintain peaceful coexistence within the nation. This literature review is presented as a guideline to propose suitable indicators for the Socio-Religious Harmony Index (SRHI) instrument. This study uses the Design and Developmental Research (DDR) approach to conduct a Needs Analysis (Phase 1), development of the SRHI instrument (Phase 2) and evaluation of the index (Phase 3). This paper discusses Phase 2 of DDR, which is the development of the SRHI instrument. The method of this phase uses the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) involving 14 expert panels invited to participate in the development of the instrument through a workshop. There were two rounds of FDM sessions, where the first round was to determine the indicators and the second round was to determine the sub-indicators. The end output of this paper is to present the findings of selected indicators for this index instrument as it was determined in FDM round one and two. The result shows that all 22 proposed indicators were accepted for inclusion in the SRHI instrument with the highest ranking indicators being mutual respect and the lowest ranking indicator being acknowledgement. The result of FDM round two shows that 53 sub-indicators were accepted out of 58 sub-indicators. Lastly, this paper presents the overall indicators and respective sub-indicators for the SRHI instrument.
Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM), index instrument, Malaysia, social harmony, socio-religious relation
Many ESL students struggle with communicating English language orally. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a new role play technique which enhances speaking activities in the ESL classroom. "Time Out" role play provides students with opportunities to communicate freely and spontaneously in real-life situations. The researchers utilised a qualitative research design where 94 students (Form 4 and 5 classes) in a secondary school in Perak experienced this role play in classroom setting. Qual + qual mix-method was adopted where the dominant (big "Q") is observation and interview. The supplement (small "q") denotes grounded theory open coding. The data was collected from observations, open-ended questions and interviews with selected candidates. Three themes emerged which included influential experience learning, learning by force/compulsion and learning by observation. Role play is said to improve communication skills, enhance vocabulary and induce students for real-life communication. Time Out role play provides that opportunity for all students to communicate spontaneously within real-life like communicative situations. The result of this study indicates that Time-Out role play is successful in achieving the objectives set forth in the Oral Proficiency in English for Secondary Schools (OPS-English) and communication aspiration outlined in the National Education Blueprint (2013-2025).
Communicative competence, communicative language teaching, communication skills, personal belief, real-life situation, role play
The birth of the Internet has changed the processes of accessibility to information. A recent addition to this sphere is Web 2.0 applications which have transformed the entire landscape of information sharing in a multilateral fashion. This has provided people with an online platform to create access and interactions with others. These sites and apps are highly effective in learning and assist students in different academic interactions. However, students understand this sphere as a source of entertainment and social interactions. This attitude of students has transformed this platform into a source of distraction, which diverts their attention from effective learning and academic achievements. The earlier inquiries made into this particular area has formally disclosed that this web can augment student in learning and academic activities. Even so, less effort has been made to inquire the factors that can motivate students to harness this sphere for their academic excellence. The current study has been conducted with objectives to understand student adoption behaviour for this platform through site usefulness and information quality. Data was collected through a survey from undergraduate students from top five research universities in Malaysia and analysed with the help of SPSS Amos (Version 18). Applying technology acceptance models of Davis et al. (1989) and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology of Venkatesh et al. (2003) as a theoretical framework, the finding shows that site usefulness and information qualities significantly influence usage intention to use social media for academic purpose. However, information quality was found to be insignificant in influencing the actual behaviour
Information quality, information sharing behaviour, online learning, social media, usefulness
This paper presents the use of free web clicker (webclicker.org) to enhance active learning in large classroom. Web clicker platform works on any internet accessible device such as phones, pads, PCs, and laptops, without the need to purchase the clicker (hardware). The author used web clicker as pre/during/post lecture activity through concept questions. This helped to conduct formative assessment and identify misconceptions. The students also responded without peer pressure. To assess the effectiveness of using web clicker in enhancing active learning, surveys on two batches of students taking the same course in different time frame was conducted. An online survey with questionnaire consisting of five items on five-point Likert scale was used for which there were 47 respondents out of 127 students in the first batch and 76 respondents out of 151 students in the second batch. In addition, surveys through open-ended questions to get students' perception about the overall teaching and learning process were conducted. The overall result of the surveys was positive and in line with what was reported in literature. Web clicker encourages students to participate in the learning activity and motivates them to study.
Active learning, clickers, engagement, web clicker
The inculcation of critical thinking elements into the engineering undergraduate programme in Malaysia as one of the national Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC) priority has been included in nation's Vision 2020 to produce competent and innovative graduates with high ethical and professional standards. One of the major concerns raised in this inculcation model is the absence of Islamic critical thinking concept. The present concept of critical thinking taught in this country fails to connect with Islamic teaching and could lead to misunderstanding of the concept among Muslim engineering students. This paper aims to explore the elements of critical thinking embedded within the engineering curriculum in Malaysian higher learning institutions with particular interest to Muslim undergraduate students. The paper adopts the conceptual approach in stating the case for current implementation practices of critical thinking at higher learning and proposes a reformulation of how critical thinking based on Islamic teaching could be embedded into the formal learning institution elaborated through three main themes: a) the embedding of critical thinking in Malaysian faculties of engineering; b) the significance of elements of Islamic critical thinking to engineering education; and c) the accessibility of the main elements of Islamic critical thinking in engineering curriculum. Based on these themes, argument will be developed to illustrate the significance of Islamic critical thinking in relation to engineering education before finally reaching the approachable context on how to incorporate the elements of Islamic critical thinking which are yet to be identified within the content of Malaysian universities' engineering curriculum.
This article examines the representation of George Town Heritage within the context of George Town Heritage sites, and the annual George Town Festival (GTF). It explores the heritage sites of the various communities in Penang, Malaysia. It argues beyond the Eurocentric hegemony and representations of Penang history anchored on the British occupation of the island in 1786. There also exist other levels of hegemony and various forms of representations of the heritage in Penang. This is expressed by the narratives/historical representations of various settler communities such as the Chinese, Chinese Peranakans, Indian Muslims and the Eurasians. To showcase the manifestations of these various levels of representations of heritage, the paper adopts the method of combining historiography, participant observation and document study. The article applies Hall's (1997) notion of representation as its theoretical framework. Halls's theory articulates the asymmetry between the dominant discourse and the local discourse of Penang heritage. This asymmetry reveals absence, and alienation of certain local narratives of historical relevance. The paper interrogates the following: What sort of historical consciousness do the two-spaces of analysis espouse regarding the history of Penang? What are the historical imbalances and omissions in the representation of George Town Heritage? How can the local/oral history serve as a prognosis to the historical imbalance in the narration and depiction of the history/heritage of Penang? The paper recommends the need for the GTF, and George Town Heritage Sites to commemorate the historical journey that emerged in Penang before 1786.
George Town heritage, George Town festival, historiography, local history, Malay, Penang