The effects of cinnamon bark essential oil on the characteristics of edible film and the quality of fresh beef were investigated to determine its ability to extend fresh beef shelf life. Films were prepared by incorporating cinnamon bark essential oil (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2%) into a film mixture of tapioca starch and glycerol. The selected film and control solution were applied to evaluate fresh beef quality. The concentration of cinnamon bark essential oil did not affect the thickness but significantly affected the water vapor transmission rate, tensile strength, elongation and antibacterial activity of edible film. The water vapor transmission rate was found to be lowered with the increasing cinnamon bark oil concentration. An increase of tensile strength was observed with increasing oil concentration up to 1.5%. The elongation of film was significantly reduced to 58.56% while an improved antibacterial activity of edible film resulted by oil addition. Overall, results indicate that 2% cinnamon bark oil enriched film preserves freshness of beef. The addition of cinnamon bark oil to an edible coating is effective in reducing microbial growth and lipid oxidation while the edible film enriched with 2% cinnamon bark oil would maintain the freshness of beef as long as 15 days during storage.
Bacterial infection is the most common cause of contamination that affects wound healing. This study aims to investigate the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of three varieties of Malaysian honey represented by two polyfloral honey varieties - Kelulut and Tualang, as well as one monofloral honey − Acacia, against eight common bacteria that infect wounds. The factors contributing to the antibacterial properties of honey such as acidity, peroxide compounds, and non-peroxide compounds, were determined using the agar well diffusion assay method and compared with medical-grade Manuka honey used in wound care (UMF 18 +). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using honey concentrations of 1.3% to 90% (w/v). The MICs for Kelulut, Tualang, and Acacia ranged from 5% to 12.5% (w/v), 12.5% to 30% (w/v), and 25% to 50% (w/v) respectively. Meanwhile, the MBCs were found to range from 5% to 12.5% (w/v), 12.5% to 90% (w/v), and 25% to 90% (w/v) respectively. Kelulut showed the highest inhibition activity. The antibacterial properties of Malaysian honey were generally comparable to Manuka. However, Kelulut bore the closest resemblance and was highly dependent on an acidic environment as the major antibacterial factor. This effect was further supported by the presence of peroxide and non-peroxide compounds.
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is known for its functional properties but it is yet to be widely developed into food products. Lipid and gelling agents are crucial ingredients for the rheological characteristics of milk puddings. This study aimed to explore the potential of blends of fish gelatin and sodium alginate as gelling agents and a delivery system for VCO. A total of 15 pudding formulations were generated from a mixture design approach to determine the optimized proportions of VCO (6-13%), fish gelatin (2-6%), sodium alginate (0.15-0.75%), and water (65-75%). All 15 pudding formulations exhibited strong elastic characteristic with their G (storage modulus) values higher than the G (loss modulus). Formulations with high contents of gelatin (6%) and sodium alginate (0.28-0.75%) exhibited strong gel characteristics (tan δ < 0.1). The optimized formulation consisted of 10.68% VCO, 3.41% fish gelatin, 0.59% sodium alginate, and 68.33% water, with desirability of 0.874 against the viscoelastic properties and firmness of a commercial pudding. A significant increase was observed in firmness and free fatty acid (FFA) value of the optimized pudding from 3 weeks onwards, over the weekly evaluation of 4 weeks storage at 4 ± 1°C. The sensory assessment showed that rancidity of pudding was not significantly detected by panels throughout the 4 weeks of storage period.
Fish gelatin, mixture design, pudding, sodium alginate, virgin coconut oil
A study was conducted to determine the effects of ensiling on the proximate and mineral composition, anti-nutritional factors and microbial properties of ensiled cassava root-leaf blends at 50:50, 60:40, 70:30 and 80:20 ratios in an air tight sealed bottles and to also determine the blend that could replace maize in swine diet. The data was subjected to one-way analysis of variance in a completely randomized design. Results of the study indicated that blend 50:50 had highest value of crude protein 12.96%, while blend 60:40 had highest gross energy value of 4617.17 kcal/kg. Blend 70:30 had gross energy of 4180.95 kcal/kg and crude protein of 10.12%. Results of the mineral composition revealed that blend 50:50 had highest values of calcium 5.96 g/kg and phosphorus 1.98 g/kg. Anti-nutritional factors of the blends were drastically reduced after ensiling. Microbial load of ensiled blends revealed that only blend 70:30 recorded the presence of Lactobacillus spp., while Salmonella spp. was not detected in all the blends. It was concluded that ensiling was effective for removal of anti-nutritional factor, improving chemical composition and hygienic quality of ensiled product. Blend 70:30 was recommended as a replacement for maize in swine nutrition.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentration of monocalcium phosphate supplementation on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, gut morphology, meat quality, and bone quality of broiler chickens. A total of 108 day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups with 6 replicates and each replicate consist of 6 birds. Treatment 1 (control) was fed available commercial starter and finisher diets containing dicalcium phosphate. Treatment 2 and Treatment 3 were fed the same commercial diet but with added 0.5% and 1.0% of monocalcium phosphate respectively. Weekly body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were calculated to determine their growth performance. A total of 12 chickens per each treatment group were selected randomly and slaughtered for gut histomorphology, carcass characteristics, meat, and bone quality assessment at the end of the 42 days study period. In the present study, birds supplemented with 0.5% MCP showed significant increase (p > 0.05) in growth performance (body weight, body weight gain, and feed intake), gut histomorphology (villi height), and bone quality (bone weight, diaphysis diameter, medullary canal diameter, lateral wall thickness, medial wall thickness, and bone breaking strength). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the carcass characteristics and meat quality between treatment groups. In summary, monocalcium phosphate supplementation could be the key to reduce culling of lame broiler birds based on the positive effect on the growth performance, gut histomorphology and bone quality of broiler chickens without affecting the carcass characteristics and meat quality.
Bone quality, broilers, carcass characteristic, growth performance, gut histomorphology, meat quality, monocalcium phosphate
Probiotic has gained many interests as an alternative method in preventing and treating diseases in aquaculture. The benefits include improving feed value, inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic activity, growth promoting factors, and increase host immune response. This research was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of probiont Enterobacter sp. G87 in conferring protection to Artemia and seabass larvae against Vibrio harveyi infection. In preliminary in vivo test, Artemia nauplii was treated with Enterobacter sp. G87 at three different concentrations 104, 106 and 108 CFU mL-1 and challenged with V. harveyi at 105 CFU mL-1. After challenged, significant increased survival was found in Artemia (78±2%) treated with 106 CFU mL-1 of Enterobacter sp. G87 compared with challenged group with no probiont added (48±2%). From the results, two concentrations of probiont (106 and 108 CFU mL-1) were selected to be used in seabass larvae in vivo challenge assay. After challenged with V. harveyi at 105 CFU mL-1 highest survival was found in seabass larvae treated with 106 CFU mL-1 of Enterobacter sp. G87 (95±3%). Additionally, Enterobacter sp. G87 was also able to reduce Vibrio counts both in Artemia and seabass larvae culture. This study showed that probiont Enterobacter sp. G87 was able to protect Artemia nauplii and seabass larvae from Vibrio harveyi infection and has a potential to be further studied in a larger scale.
This article reports the antibiotics sensitivity and pathogenicity of Aeromonas veronii 5L isolated from diseased red hybrid tilapia. The antibiotic sensitivity of A. veronii 5L was determined towards 13 antimicrobial agents. Then, the bacterial inoculums ranging between 0 and 106 CFU/mL were used for intraperitoneal challenge in red hybrid tilapia juveniles. Aeromonas veronii 5L showed resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Following intraperitoneal exposure, mortality was observed as early as 24 h post infection leading to a total of 56.7% cumulative mortality at 102 CFU/mL, and 66.7% from 103 to 106 CFU/mL. Clinical signs and gross lesions including abdominal distension, detachment of scales and ulceration on the body surface, inflammation around the operculum and based of fins, hemorrhage of internal organs, and accumulation of fluid in abdominal cavity. Histopathological examinations revealed generalized congestion of the brain, necrotic hepatocytes, generalized tubular necrosis of kidney and multifocal necrosis of spleen with splenic infarction. The LD50-336h of A. veronii 5L was determined at 1.9 Ã— 103.73CFU/mL. This study revealed the capability of A. veronii as another important pathogen in tilapia culture in Malaysia.
Aeromonas veronii, antibiotic sensitivity, fish disease, pathogenicity, tilapia
Pepper (Capsicum L.) is a widely consumed vegetable in South West Nigeria because of its nutritional and medicinal potentials. This study is aimed at evaluating genetic diversity among 30 pepper accessions collected from different pepper-growing areas in South West Nigeria using SSR markers. Amplification potentials and bands clarity were considered for selecting 17 among 29 SSR markers screened. Genetic diversity was evaluated using principal coordinates analysis (PCoA), cluster analysis (CA), and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). The sum of 208 alleles was detected with an average value of 12.24 alleles per locus for each accession. Genetic diversity was high in all loci with the mean value ranging from 0.23 to 0.77. The result of AMOVA showed that 2 % of the genetic diversity was due to interspecific variations while 98 % of the differences were due to intraspecific variations among accessions. The results of cluster analysis showed clearly high genetic similarity coefficient at > 71 %. The intraspecific and interspecific genetic relationships observed could be an integral part of the useful tools for genetic improvement of the genus Capsicum through breeding purposes especially the wild varieties.
Capsicum, genetic diversity, Nigeria, South West, SSR
Standardized and optimized methods in preservation and storage of RNA samples on three different tissues were elucidated on fish tissues. The treatments used included excision of fresh tissues, preservation of tissues by immersing completely in RNAlater followed by immediate freezing at -80°C prior to RNA assays. Current data suggests that preserving fish tissues in RNAlater with subsequent storage at -80°C produced satisfactory amount of RNA from dorsal fin and gonad, but not from muscle tissues. The optimized method will provide an alternative storage method option and enables greater usage of RNAlater for preserving RNA from animal cells.
Fish tissues, preservation, RNA, RNAlater, storage
The entomofauna and the behavioral patterns of potential pollinators were studied on female and male flowers of the oil palms Elaeis guineensis, Elaeis oleifera and oleifera x guineenis (OxG) hybrids in the Pacific coast and Amazon basin productive regions in Ecuador. Insect population studies were performed using a stratified sampling method and the determination of insect activity by monitoring insect arrivals to female flowers in anthesis. Additionally, insect pollinator pollen-transport capacity and life cycles were determined for Elaeidobius kamerunicus, Grasidius hybridus, Couturierius constrictirostris and Mystrops costaricensis. Elaeis guineensis female flowers were visited only by Elaeidobius kamerunicus, in both locations, at the Amazon basin plantation and at the Pacific coast plantation. Elaeidobius kamerunicus was the most abundant species (1,960 individuals) on E. guineensis during the dry season in Amazonia. Elaeis oleifera and OxG hybrids showed high numbers of G. hybridus (771 and 194 individuals, respectively). Couturierius constrictirostris and M. costaricensis visited the flowers in lesser numbers. The activity studies showed that E. kamerunicus had diurnal behavior, while G. hybridus was active in the morning in the Amazon region and at dusk on the Pacific coast. Elaeidobius kamerunicus was the pollinator with the highest pollen loading capacity (8,273 grains/individual). The life cycle of C. constrictirostris was the longest (41.7 days in the Amazon region and 30.3 days on the Pacific coast), followed by E. kamerunicus, with 36.7 days in Amazonia and 30.3 days on the Pacific coast.
The pest ants-related predicament is increasing in urban area and becoming a problem for most of the citizen. The most common approach for pest ants control is the application of various insecticide spray. However, the long-term insect pest control must not be dependent on synthetic insecticides with many negative effects. Repellence and insecticidal effects from plants, Citrus hystrix, Mentha piperita and Ocimum basilicum have been reputed for different type of insect pests. The combination of an effective botanical insecticide and gel bait is ideal for the treatment of insect pests. In this study, the repellence and insecticidal effects of plant extracts obtained from three plant species with various concentrations (3 x 105, 5 x 105, 7 x 105, and 1 x 106 ppm) were against common urban pest ants, Tapinoma indicum, Pheidole megacephala and Monomorium pharaonic using repellence, insecticidal and gel bait bioassays. The three plant extracts usually repel ants with the efficacy being dependent on the ants and irrespective of plant species. Repellence and mortality of ants were negatively related to the higher percentage (100% = fully repelled; -100% = fully attracted; 0% = neither repelled nor attracted) of being repelled, the lower the death will be. Moreover, the optimal doses that make the fastest mortality of ants are not consistent between the insecticidal and gel bait bioassays.
While existing persimmon productivity in Indonesia has been gradually decreasing because of improper cultural practices and environmental conditions, species conservation has become increasingly crucial given its benefit to human health. Genetic identification of the persimmon (Diospyros kaki), the type found in Indonesia, would provide valuable genetic information about this persimmon cultivar. Nine selected random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers successfully yielded 32 polymorphic bands and 20 monomorphic bands. Amplified bands identified 20 persimmon samples that were derived from one genotype, given their similarity coefficient value of more than 0.76. The genotype was cultured under a controlled environment in order to produce clonal and healthy seedlings over a year. Although persimmon micropropagation had been successfully established at the initiation stage, but the explants growth of each treatment did not significantly differ. However, the highest mean of leaf number was achieved individually on treatment of Woody Plant Medium (WPM) and plant growth regulator (IBA 2 ppm + BAP 2 ppm); this is significant given that the number of formed leaves determines the persimmon multiplication rate. The regenerated shoot must be subcultured on modified culture medium for further persimmon micropropagation stages.
Sungai Chukai is a riparian sanctuary for synchronize firefly population. In riparian ecosystem, spider acts as top-invertebrate predator influencing the food-web. A survey of spider was conducted in Sungai Chukai, Terengganu, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to identify the assemblage of spider in the riparian area. Samples were collected in six sampling occasions from December 2017 to May 2018 using sweep net at both day and night. Collection of samples was done at 20 sampling points along the riverbanks with an averaged interval of 200 meter between each point. A total of 149 spider individuals from seven families (Araneidae, Clubionidae, Oxyopidae, Salticidae, Sparassidae, Tetragnathidae and Thomisidae) and 26 morphospecies were successfully collected. The most abundant family was Thomisidae (50 individuals; 33.56%) followed by Sparassidae (49 individuals; 30.87%) and Salticidae (24 individuals; 16.11%). There is no significant difference (p>0.05) for spider population between night and day. Three spider guilds had been identified according to its foraging pattern which are the orb-weaver, running hunter and ambush hunter. There is strong positive correlation between Araneidae and Dysderidae, Oxyopidae and Salticidae while Dysderidae is negatively correlated with Thomisidae and Sparassidae. This study adds to the inventories of spiders in Peninsular Malaysia.
Firefly sanctuary, Peninsular Malaysia, riparian, spider
The species of Zingiberales are sources of globally important spices and ornamental plants, and have long been used in Asian traditional medicine, cuisine and as herbs. Some species have high ornamental value due to their attractive foliage or flowers, including Zingiber spectabile Griff. Hybridization has been the major source of genetic variation in flower and ornamental breeding and understanding the flowering season and peaks of flowering is important for flower growers. Stigma receptivity, or the effective pollination period, is one of the important factors determining successful fertilization and has been rarely studied in Zingiberaceae. The objectives of this study were to examine the Z. spectabile reproductive biology, to investigate stigma receptivity under several flowering developmental stages, and their reproductive success. The inflorescence development of Z. spectabile from the start of the bracts opening to fully open bracts took 13-17 weeks. The ideal time for artificial pollination was between 11:00-13:00 hours, and the anthers dehisced prior to stigma receptivity. Our study demonstrates that Z. spectabile is self-compatible and cross-pollination does not increase fruit set and seed set.
This paper presents an experimental study of the effect of wood vinegar at different concentrations on the biological and physicochemical properties of the composts by using the solution with the ratio of wood vinegar to distilled water in the range of 1:100 to 1:500 (v/v). The composting process was conducted by in-vessel composting method within 60 days where temperature and pH were recorded daily. The composts were then analyzed on the microbe counts, pH, moisture content, water holding capacity, and nutrient contents. XRF and CHNS analyzers were used to measure the NPK content exist before and after composting process. This research attempted to investigate the effect of wood vinegar concentration towards physiochemical and biological properties of the composts. The results showed that lower concentration of wood vinegar could potentially enhance microbial activity which could accelerate the composting process. However, in terms of physical properties, sample 1:400 (v/v) had recorded the highest reading for water holding capacity and moisture content which were about 2 to 19 % (ml/100g) and 1 to 27 % (w/w) higher than other samples, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that sample 1:400 (v/v) shows the best condition where it has achieved well-balanced condition between physicochemical and biological properties.