Riverine fruits, including lipid-rich Dacryodes rostrata, are commonly consumed by the omnivorous Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) and other tropical riverine cyprinids in their natural habitats. To increase its aquaculture production, feeding the fish with an optimized diet that meets all its nutritional requirements is of crucial importance. This study was performed to investigate the effects of varying levels of D. rostrata oil on the growth performance, body composition and fatty acid profile of juvenile Malaysian mahseer. Juveniles (1.81 g ± 0.11) were fed the test diets (0, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5% D. rostrata oil) for 12 weeks in triplicated groups. Crude palm oil (CPO) was used as the control. Fish given 0% D. rostrata oil showed the greater growth performance, while juveniles fed 2.5% D. rostrata oil demonstrated the highest muscular retention of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs), which have beneficial health effects for human consumers. From the results, it was suggested that T. tambroides juveniles be fed with 5% CPO for the grow-out period. A finishing diet containing 2.5% D. rostrata oil was suggested for the fish towards the end of its culture period to achieve the highest concentration of long-chain PUFAs (both n-3 and n-6) in the muscle tissue, which is an important criteria for the health of humans as fish consumers.
Dacryodes rostrata, fatty acid, growth, mahseer, Tor tambroides
Coffee consists of a variety of chemical compounds that has not been documented to have resistance on insects. Hence, this research was conducted to study the impact of coffee extracts impregnated in gel bait towards survival and feeding behaviour of Tapinoma indicum (ghost ant), Pheidole megacephala (big-headed ant) and Monomorium pharaonis (Pharaoh ant) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The three coffee species used were Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora and Coffea liberica. The coffee extracts were obtained using Soxhlet extraction method, diluted to 0.01%, 0.05% and 0.10% concentration, and eventually impregnated into two sets of gel bait at with the first set (Set I) sugar solution and the second set (Set II) with distilled water. The overall results indicated that Coffea arabica gave highest mortality on all three ant species and higher concentration of extracts showed higher ant mortality in most bioassays. The higher mortality in lower concentration bioassays was probably due to their lower repellency percentages. Furthermore, Set I bioassays had higher mortality as the sugar used act as food attractant. T. indicum was the most susceptible species. Owing to the low mortality, the low concentration of coffee used was not effective in killing household ants but it did repel them.
A glasshouse experiment was conducted to screen and select the efficient AM fungi for inoculating two drought susceptible soybean cultivars MAUS 2 and MAUS 212. Screening was done using 10 different species of AM fungi. Plant parameters like plant height, stem diameter, biovolume index, total leaf area, dry biomass, P concentration, and mycorrhizal parameters like root colonization, spore number in the root zone soil were recorded according to the standard procedures. Based on the improvement in plant parameters like biovolume index, total leaf area, shoot and root dry biomass, plant P uptake, pod and seed yield, it was concluded that Ambispora leptoticha was the best AM fungus for inoculating both the cultivars MAUS 2 and MAUS 212.
Ambispora leptoticha, AM fungi, plant growth response, soybean
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are gram-positive, catalase-negative and non-spore forming bacteria known to have many advantages such as starter culture in food fermentation, as antimicrobial agent and plant growth promoter. Limited information on various LAB present in Malaysian fruits hampers further study to explore their potential as autochthonous inoculants in food fermentation, plant disease control and growth promotion. Therefore, the objectives of this study are firstly to isolate and identify LAB from honeydew, ciku, mango and mata kucing by investigating their morphological and biochemical characteristics, secondly to determine the identity of the isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and finally to examine phylogenetic relationship of the LAB present in the fruits. The isolates were subjected to Gram staining, acidity and catalase tests, followed by molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of the bacteria. Out of 33 isolates, eight isolates were gram- positive, catalase-negative and acid producers, suggesting that they are potentially LAB. 16S rRNA sequencing and NCBI Blast analysis identified the presence of Lactococcus sp., Leuconostoc sp., Weissella sp. and Aerococcus sp. in the fruit samples with sequence identity 94-97%. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the 16S rRNA sequences using Neighbor-Joining method. This study has assisted in collecting more information about the diversity of LAB in Malaysian fruits, which can be further explored in future for their application as bioinoculant in food fermentation or as biocontrol agent and plant growth promoter in agricultural field.
Sheath blight is referred to be a serious soil-borne disease resulting in financial losses towards rice farming. The existing research focused towards examining the potential of Bacillus subtilis strain AK38 (GenBank ID: KY458554. 1) and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AK18 (GenBank ID: KY458552. 1), isolated from maize (Zea mays L. ) rhizosphere, to regulate sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani in rice (Oryza sativa L. ) as well as to examine their impact on plant development. Biocontrol attributes of selected strains, biofilm examination, root colonisation and gnotobiotic examination had been determined. AK38 and AK18 bacterial strains created biofilm effectively and live in rice rhizosphere even after 30 days of the plantation with 5.2 Ã— 105 and 4.8 Ã— 105 CFU/g of root. The quantity of auxin synthesis was registered 31.2Î¼g mlâˆ’1 in the 72 hr of incubation. Additional plant development attributes i.e. siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, HCN production was confirmed positive with regard to each isolate. The statistical study of data shown significant improvement in root and shoot size 95% and 78.4%, respectively, over control. In addition, 77% decline within disease incidence has been demonstrated in vivo trials.
Biocontrol, biofilm, rhizosphere, PGP, sheath blight, Zea mays L.
Acid sulfate soils (ASS) have been described as the "nastiest" soils on earth because of their harmful impacts on various soil and environmental systems. ASS pose no problems unless the sulfidic soil materials are disturbed or exposed and the sulfides are oxidized, leading to production of sulfuric soil materials and generation of sulfuric acidity. In sulfidic soil, unless there is disturbance or exposure in the deep soil, only the surface soil seems to be frequently exposed and disturbed, leading to oxidation as a result of oxygen penetration. We have reported recently the importance of soil carbon and nitrogen in amelioration of ASS but the roles on the surface soil was not clearly established. In this study, the roles of surface soil carbon and nitrogen in regulating the surface soil redox potential (Eh) and pH of sulfidic soil material of ASS was investigated following the addition of different sources of soil carbon and nitrogen. The results showed the mechanisms involved in curtailing of sulfidic soil material oxidation and acidification were dependent on the type of metabolic substrates and the microbial ecology the resources were capable of establishing. Addition of a single nutrient source, e.g. glucose, capable of engaging a few soil microbes, was ineffective in preventing sulfidic soil oxidation, whereas addition of complex metabolic substrates, e.g. organic matter, as a source of multiple resources for microbial metabolism effectively reduced the Eh and highly increased the pH, even under aerobic soil conditions.
The aim of this study was to examine the antifungal effect of dried Garcinia atroviridis fruits extract (GAFE) in combination with gum arabic (GA) against red-fleshed dragon fruits (Hylocereus polyrhizus) anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as well as to determine the efficiency of dried GAFE in maintaining the postharvest quality of dragon fruits. in vitro results showed that the inhibition in mycelial and conidial growth was dose-dependent and greatest inhibition was recorded at 15 mg/mL dried GAFE+10% GA. Such concentration also conferred fungistatic effects to fungal growth and spore germination in vitro. Concentration at 10 mg/mL dried GAFE+10% GA exhibited similar effectiveness comparable to commercial fungicide (Mancozeb at 3.2 mg/mL) to control anthracnose disease in dragon fruits. In addition, fruits treated with 10 mg/mL dried GAFE+10% GA markedly suppress disease incidence and severity as well as effectively maintained SSC and TA level throughout cold storage. On the other hand, lower dried GAFE concentrations (1 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL dried GAFE+10% GA) suppressed weight loss and retained tissue firmness throughout shelf life of dragon fruits. Coating application at highest concentration of 15 mg/mL dried GAFE+10% GA impaired physicochemical quality by displaying phytotoxic effect on the dragon fruits.
Four species of Carangid fishes from Matang Mangrove Estuaries, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia were selected for the study of length-weight relationships (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR). A total of 308 individuals were collected from September 2015 to August 2016 by push net (mesh sizes ranges from 2.5 to 5.0 cm). Overall, the growth coefficient (b) values were 2.005, 3.014, 3.452 and 3.194 for Carangoides malabricus, Atule mate, Decapterus macrosoma and Selaroides leptolepis, respectively. Growth coefficient of three species (A. mate, D. macrosoma and S. leptolepis) in the present study were within expected range of 2.5 - 3.5 and this indicated that those species have normal growth pattern. This research serves as the first record of LWR and LLR data for four species of Carangid fishes in the Matang Mangrove Estuaries and surrounding ecosystem, Malaysia.
Carangid, length-weight relationship, Matang mangrove, Malaysia
The paddy field ecosystem is an important habitat for water birds, as well as some migratory species due to the abundance of food resources. We want to determine which factors influence bird species abundance, diversity, and composition in different paddy field sites with different rice growing stages. Rapid assessments of birds were conducted in three paddy fields located on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia: Pahang (Pekan), Terengganu (Besut) and Kelantan (Melor). The survey method involved point count sampling. From the survey, Pekan recorded 1,141 individuals from 17 species, Melor with 992 individuals from 11 species, and Besut, with 348 individuals from eight species. The Ardeidae family was the most dominant, at 71%, at all study areas, followed by the Rallidae (21.43%), Columbidae (14.29%) and Halcyonidae (14.29%). The species richness and assemblages were found to correlate with the rice-growing cycle, where the post-harvest (land preparation) and seedling (vegetative) stages were associated with the highest species incidence, as demonstrated in Pekan and Melor, due to these sites being inundated or flooded. Species abundance was statistically significant for different feeding guild groups based on Welch's F (4, 4.095) = 68.027, p<0.05. Carnivorous birds were most common during the post-harvest and seedling stage, in contrast to insectivorous/granivorous birds, which were most common during the flowering stage. This study could aid in pest management in relation to bird communities in the paddy field ecosystem through the application of biological control practices instead of chemicals, without compromising rice yield.
The effects of extraction solvent system (boiling water, water at room temperature, 50% aqueous methanol and 100% methanol), drying (oven drying and sun drying) and storage (refrigeration) on the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities of the extracts from Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Sabah Snake Grass) leaves were studied. TPC was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using three different methods, namely i) 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, ii) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and iii) beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. Boiling water extraction of fresh leaves resulted in the highest TPC and DPPH and FRAP activities. However, methanolic (100% methanol) extract from the fresh leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity in BCB. Both oven drying and sun drying caused a significant decrease in the antioxidant capacity with sun drying resulting in a lower TPC than oven drying. Cold storage (at 4 ± 2oC) for three weeks after drying resulted in a decrease in TPC. A significant decrease was observed in DPPH, FRAP and BCB activities after three weeks of refrigeration storage. TPC was strongly correlated to DPPH, 1/EC50 (r2 = 0.969, p < 0.05) and FRAP (r2 = 0.991, p < 0.01) activities. However, there was no correlation between TPC and BCB. In conclusion, boiling water extraction of fresh C. nutans leaves resulted in the highest TPC and antioxidant activities. Drying and storage resulted in deterioration of the TPC and antioxidant activities of C. nutans leaves.
The potential of the usage of palm kernel cake (PKC)-coconut based feeds has been considered as an alternative to commercial feed due to their low cost and abundance in availability and accessibility in Malaysia. However, previous studies have shown that the use of high fiber feed such as PKC resulted in poor performance of poultry due to low digestibility and palatability. In this study, a total of 400 village chickens from purebred and crossbred strains were reared to evaluate the effects of PKC and coconut-based feeding on their production performance. Body weight (BW), carcass evaluation, abdominal fat, meat conversion percentage, proximate analysis, and amino acid profile analyses were recorded in the study. The results showed that the Type A feed that contained higher fiber level resulted in poorer BW and carcass weight for both strains. It could be suggested that inconsistent size of fiber particles could influence the chicken's digestibility. However, it was also shown that the quality of the meat of the village chicken and Type A feed were better in terms of having lower abdominal fat and crude fat contents. It also resulted in higher CP in crossbred strain meat which is correlated significantly with meat conversion percentage. Type B-fed chicken meat recorded low meat conversion percentage indicating higher formation in bone mass and feather, which is supported by the data of the ash in crossbred strain, indicating higher formation of mineral build-up such as bone mass. Furthermore, there were 11 amino acids that were recorded to be significantly higher in Type A-fed chicken meat compared with Type B-fed chicken meat, indicating a higher meat quality. In conclusion, the usage of Type-A feed as daily feed for village chicken was beneficial and exhibited prominent values in terms of quality and cost-effectiveness. However, more studies should be done to improve the digestibility and palatability of Type A feed to improve in their overall performances so that it can be used widely in poultry, particularly in village chicken farming.
PKC-coconut-based, proximate analysis, purebred, crossbred, village chicken
The present study is aimed at investigating the influence of cooking on antioxidant and the inhibitory ability of eggplant on enzymes linked to hyperglycemia and induced lipid peroxidation in rat's kidney (in vitro). The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity reducing power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and α-glucosidase and amylase enzymes were assayed to evaluate the effect. The results showed that cooking (P < 0.05) significantly increased TPC and TFC contents thereby enhancing DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. Also α-amylase, α-glucosidase and Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation inhibition in rat's kidney are enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) upon cooking. These results showed that cooking enhanced the ability of the eggplant to inhibit enzymes linked to diabetic mellitus and lipid peroxidation in kidney of rats in vitro.
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of recipients physiological condition on pregnancy rate and subsequent kidding in does. Oestrus was synchronised by inserting controlled internal drug release device (CIDR, 0.33 g natural hormone progesterone; EAZI-BREED CIDR, Pharmacia & Upjtohn Limited, NZ) and an i.m. injection of 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) (FolligonÂ®; Intervet International B.V., EU). A total of 31 Boer crossbred (Boer Ã— local) recipient does were divided into two treatment groups namely intact group (15 does) and used group (63 does). Intact group may be defined as those goats that had not used for any surgery, while used group may be defined as those goats that had been used for surgery such as laparoscopic ovum pick up, embryo transfer. On Day 7 after CIDR removal, ovaries were checked for corpus luteum (CL) and recipient does with functional CL were only used as recipients. After flushing, recovered embryos were examined under a stereomicroscope and only transferrable embryos (morula and blastocyst) were transferred. Uterine horn was exteriorised over the surface of abdomen with the help of a grasping forceps and a surgical blade. One to 3 fresh embryos along with a small amount of flushing medium were transferred into the lumen of the anterior part of the uterine horn. Once completed, the uterine horn was placed back into the peritoneal cavity and the incision was sutured. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed at around 30 to 35 days after embryo transfer by using a real-time ultrasound scanner. The average numbers of embryos transferred per recipient doe were 2.60 and 2.56 for intact and used groups, respectively. The percentage of pregnancy was 26.67 for intact group. No pregnancy was recorded in used group. Average embryo survival rate was calculated based on the number of kids born, which was 7.69. Average gestation length was 148 days. From the findings obtained in this research, it could be concluded that intact does were favourable as recipient in ET programme than repeated surgery does.
Vegetables are considered as an important part of a healthy diet. However, there have been reports showing contamination of vegetables with parasites. This study aimed to assess parasite contamination of freshly harvested vegetables from selected organic and conventional farms in the Philippines. A total of 252 freshly harvested vegetables were collected from 20 farms through systematic random sampling and were processed by means of sedimentation technique. Positive samples were subjected to molecular analysis for further identification of species. Results showed that 58 out of 252 (23.02%) vegetable samples were contaminated with parasites eggs/cysts/oocysts. The parasites found were Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Toxocara sp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris suum, Hymenolepis sp., unknown trematode egg, Isospora, Balantidium, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium. Ascaris suum had the highest contamination rate in organic and conventional farms at 13.09% and 8.33%, respectively. Cryptosporidium (≥800 oocysts/ kg) and Giardia intestinalis (≥240 cysts/kg) had the highest mean density in both farms. Also, lettuce showed the highest contamination rate among the sampled vegetables in both types of farms. Furthermore, results revealed that texture of vegetables, distance to the soil substrate, and farming practices could possibly contribute to the parasite contamination of vegetables in this study. These findings have important implications on public health that may aid regulatory agencies for prevention and control strategies for food safety.
The use of green manures as alternatives to minimize the usage of chemical fertilizers that are very expensive and also environmentally unfriendly is considered as a good agronomic practice. However, the effect of each green manure on soil properties and crop yield depends on its chemical composition. Hence field experiments were conducted in sandy soil during 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 to compare impacts of green manures (GM) and N15:P15:K15 fertilizer on soil properties, growth, root yield, mineral, starch and hydrocyanic acid (HCN) contents of cassava. The GM from leaves of: Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.), Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp.) and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) were applied at 5 t ha-1, and the NPK fertilizer was applied at 400 kg ha-1. There was a no fertilizer (control). Application of GMs reduced soil bulk density and increased soil organic matter (OM), N, P, K, Ca, Mg, growth and fresh root yield of cassava compared with the control. The NPK fertilizer had no effect on soil bulk density and soil OM, but increased soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, growth and fresh root yield of cassava compared with the control. Gliricidia increased growth and fresh root yield of cassava compared with other GMs and NPK fertilizer. In the first year (2015/2016) and compared with control; Gliricidia, Moringa, Leucaena, Neem and NPK fertilizer increased fresh root yield of cassava by 53, 33, 30, 29 and 28%, respectively. In the second year (2016/2017), these treatments increased fresh root yield of cassava by 85, 65, 61, 60 and 36%, respectively. The GMs and NPK fertilizer increased mineral and starch contents and reduced HCN content in the cassava tuber roots compared with the control. Use of GM has potential to improve soil properties, and growth, fresh root yield and nutritional contents of cassava than does NPK fertilizer. The Gliricidia treatment best improved soil properties and cassava productivity as indicated by the benefit:cost ratio. For those growing cassava for fresh root quantity Gliricidia is recommended as green manure. Moringa is recommended as green manure for those that desire fresh root quality.
An experiment was conducted at Breeder Seed Production Centre (BSPC), Debiganj, Panchagarh under AEZ-3 (Tista MeanderFloodplain Soil) during the Rabi season of 2013- 14 and 2014-15 to study the effect of foliar application of zinc on the yield and quality of potato. The treatments comprised foliar application with six different concentration of zinc such as: T1 (0 ppm Zn), T2 (140 ppm Zn), T3 (280 ppm Zn), T4 (420 ppm Zn), T5 (560 ppm Zn) and T6 (700 ppm Zn). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The tuber yield of potato was significantly influenced by the foliar application of different concentration of zinc. The maximum yield (37.2 and 36.7 t ha-1 for 2013-14 and 2014-15, respectively) was found in 560 ppm Zn application. The highest dry matter content of potato tuber was found in this treatment. The highest gross margin and marginal benefit cost ratio were recorded in the same treatment. T5 (560 ppm Zn) also showed the minimum weight and rottage loss of potato tuber. Therefore, foliar application of 560 ppm Zn can be recommended for quality potato production.
The structural characterization of two phenazines, produced simultaneously through biosynthesis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 were studied. The phenazine antibiotics play an important role in antimicrobial activities and potentially could be used in biopesticide formulation to control basal stem rot of oil palm. The antibiotics were identified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and confirmed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The specific representations in the FTIR spectra of the purified compounds such as absorption peaks at 1353.68 (aromatic nitro compound), 1118.84 and 729.43 cm-1 (aromatic ring) were indications of phenazine (PHZ) whereas, absorption peaks at 1717.92 (carboxylic acid), 861.78 and 738.54 cm-1 (aromatic ring) were indicatives of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). The structures of the compounds were further confirmed by 1H NMR/13C NMR spectroscopy as PHZ (C12H8N2) and PCA (C13H8N2O2). Ganoderma boninense was sensitive to purified phenazine antibiotics especially phenazine and a concentration of 1000 ppm completely inhibited the mycelial growth. As far as we know, this is the first study where purified phenazine antibiotics isolated from P. aeruginosa UPMP3 were structurally characterised and tested to have positive antagonism against G. boninense.
Antibiotics, antifungal, bacteria, FTIR, NMR, phenazine, SEM
Environmental sustainability of recent adoption of organic farming as a wholesome practice in sub-Saharan Africa needs to be investigated, in order to guide agricultural policy makers. Consequently, an assessment of soil chemical properties was done in an organic farm with different land uses. The experiment was 5 Ã— 3 factorial design (five land uses and three soil depths) replicated temporally (two contrasting seasons) and spatially (four replications). Samples collected systematically at 0 - 20, 20 - 40 and 40 - 60 cm depths were analysed for pH, organic carbon, nutrients and heavy metals. Results indicated that manure application limed the soil. Soil pH ranged from 5.1 to 6.3 in grass-land and 5.8 to 6.4 in amaranth farm during dry and wet seasons, respectively. Generally, nutrients and heavy metals were concentrated at 0-20 cm depth. The effect of season on the parameters was erratic. Amounts of mobile, exchangeable and labile Cu were 0.13 - 0.19, 0.07 - 0.15 and 1.39 - 1.74 mg kg-1, respectively while water soluble and mobile fraction Zn ranged from 0.15 - 0.20 and 0.29 - 0.62 mg kg-1. Comparatively, all the metals labile pool was most abundant, while Pb was the most abundant metal. There was no evidence of heavy metal accumulation in the organic system.
Heavy metals, land use, organic farming, soil nutrients
Extensive processing of sea cucumber causes body deformation of the marine organism, hence causing difficulties in species identification of processed sea cucumbers. Due to the copresence of cases of unlabelled or mislabelled sea cucumber products in Malaysian markets and worldwide, a study was conducted to determine the species identities of processed sea cucumbers from selected Malaysian markets using non-protein-coding 12S mitochondrial rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analyses based on the distance-based Neighbour Joining method, and the character-based methods i.e. the Maximum Parsimony method, Maximum Likelihood method, and the Bayesian Analysis method of 81 ingroup sequences representing 63 processed sea cucumber specimens, 13 fresh and processed reference samples for species identification, and five fresh additional specimens from Teluk Nipah Beach, Pangkor Archipelago and Manukan Island, Sabah suggested the presence of three main clusters i.e. a gamat family cluster consisting of family Stichopodidae (Stichopus horrens, Stichopus vastus, and Thelenota anax) and two clusters of timun laut family comprising family Holothuriidae (Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota, Holothuria (Metriatyla) scabra, Holothuria (Metriatyla) lessoni, Holothuria (Halodeima) atra, and Holothuria (Halodeima) edulis) and family Caudinidae (Acaudina molpadioides). The outcomes of this study also highlighted the availability of 40 new 12S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences deposited in the GenBank that can be utilised by the enforcement agencies to monitor and overcome the issues of species substitution and product mislabelling of processed sea cucumber products in Malaysian markets.
Vegetative compatibility provides valuable information on genetic diversity of certain fungal population including Fusarium species. Fusarium species are capable of causing mass spoilage of perishable vegetable fruits such as tomato either in the field or in storage. A total of 81 Fusarium isolates comprising F. oxysporum (54 isolates), F. semitectum (22 isolates) and F. subglutinans (5 isolates) were examined for vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). Nit mutants were generated from minimal medium with chlorate (MMC) and potato dextrose agar with chlorate (PDC) media under varying degrees of chlorate (KClO3) concentrations from 4.5 - 6.0%. Four phenotyping media containing different nitrogen sources (NO2, NO3, NH4 and HX) were used to phenotype the Nit mutants into different classes: nit1, nit3 and NitM. All heterokaryon self-compatible (HSC) Nit mutants of Fusarium species were paired in all pairwise possible combinations on MM to classify them into VCG. Based on the index and distribution of the VCGs, isolates of F. oxysporum demonstrated high genetic diversity where 11 VCGs were recovered. Meanwhile, only three VCGs were recovered in F. semitectum isolates. Fusarium subglutinans isolates had the least number of VCGs where only two groups were recovered.
A regression model for estimate of body weight (BW) through body metric traits of Nigerian locally adapted turkeys using path analysis was developed. A total of 150 comprising 86 Lavender and 64 White plumages of both sexes were used. The body weight and five body metric traits which are the thigh length (TH), Keel length (KL), Shank length (SL), Breast girth (BG), Wing length (WL), Wing span (WS) and Body length (BL) were measured and analysed. Sex and genotype had significant effect on the body weight (Lavender: Male 565.26±36.79 g, Female 543.61±53.74 g; White: Male 629.06±46.21 g, Female 394.54±63.40 g) at 8 weeks of age. Pearson's correlations results between body weight and TH, KL, SL, BG, WL, WS as well as BL in both sexes indicated positive and highly correlation. However, Path analysis indicated that BL (path coefficient = 0.560; p < 0.05) only had positive and significant direct influence on the male body weights. In female turkeys, direct influence of other biometric traits was not significant on body weight. Also, KL (path coefficient = 0.497; p < 0.05) had the highest positive and significant direct influence on the body weight closely trailed by the BL (path coefficient = 0.391; p < 0.01). The KL via BL (R2= 0.18) had the highest influence on the female body weight. The other biometric traits had non-significant direct influence. TH had the utmost input to the body weight of the male turkeys via BL (R2= 0.065). Thus, selecting and improving BL for males; KL and BL for females will contribute positively to the BW of Nigerian locally adapted turkeys.
This study assessed the diversity and abundance of ferns species in ten 10 m Ã— 10 m plots which were established each, in less disturbed forest, most-disturbed forest and urbanized areas within the main campus of Universiti Sains Malaysia. Distance of at least 50 m was maintained between plots in each study site. The life forms of the fern species were documented together with their relative abundances. Also, diversity indices of the study sites such as Shannon index, Simpson index, Margalef index and Fisher's alpha were determined. Non-asymptotic rarefaction-extrapolation analysis was carried out to determine the significance differences between the species richness of each study site. One way anova using pairwise permutation test was done to determine the significance differences between the diversity indices in the sites. A total of twenty-three fern species belonging to 14 families were identified. The most abundant ferns are Lindsaea napaea (63.4% in less-disturbed forest), Pyrrosia lanceolata (36.0% in most-disturbed forest and 47.0% in urbanized area). Urbanized area was observed to have more epiphytic ferns while less-disturbed forest was more popupated by terrestrial ferns. The most accommodating host tree with the highest number of epiphytic fern species is Samanea saman. The result of rarefaction-extrapolation analysis showed that less-disturbed forest is significantly richer in species than the other sites while the diversity indices of more-disturbed forest and urbanized area are significantly higher than less-disturbed forest. This was attributed to the common fern species which were found almost in all plots sampled in the more-disturbed sites. The Shannon index in all the sites was less than 2. Therefore, Universiti Sains Malaysia campus having a low diversity of ferns could be regarded as a disturbed environment due to the high level of developments in it.
Diversity, ferns, Malaysia, Pyrrosia lanceolate, Samanea saman
The aim of the research was to determine the role of color in the early development of three species of amphibians (Triturus cristatus, Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria). The experiments were carried out in laboratory conditions, there were run 4-7 replicates. Standard filter systems were used. We monitored pace and stage of eggs' development, the mortality of eggs, and length of the hatched larvae. The color of illumination did not affect the rate of embryonic development of species with a short period of early development (R. arvalis and R. temporaria). Mortality at embryonic stages varied in different species. In all species red light negatively affected the survival of developing eggs. The larvae that started active feeding were larger in all three species with green-blue light than with white and, the more red, light.
Tissue expansion technique is one of the most important innovations in skin reconstructive surgery. In this study, anisotropic self-inflating hydrogel tissue expanders were implanted subcutaneously at different anatomical locations; frontal, right shoulder and right forelimb of horses. The resulting skin expansion were observed and recorded daily for the duration of 28 days by manual physical measurements. The rate of height growth and swelling that were recorded are 164.25% at the frontal region of the head, 189.13% at the shoulder region and 122.42% at the forelimb region. The growth of the tissue expander in the three sites could be summarized in three phases; biodegradable in week one, the peak of anisotropic expansion in week two and three, and final degree of swelling in week four.
An experiment was conducted to determine the nitrogen-corrected true and apparent metabolizable energy (TMEn and AMEn, respectively) of crude glycerin (CG) for Betong chicken using a precision-fed rooster assay. A total of 15 male Betong chickens were assigned to three groups (0, 10, and 15% CG) of the experimental diet. Based on this experiment, CG supplementation enhanced the GE, TMEn, and AMEn of an experimental diet as the CG level was escalated. The TMEn and AMEn of CG were 3138 and 3046 kcal kg-1 at 15% and 2977 and 2896 kcal kg-1 at 10%, respectively.
This case report describes the management of an outbreak of brucellosis in a mixed ruminant farm in Selangor, central region of Peninsular Malaysia. Two cows with a history of abortion and endometritis were presented to the University Veterinary Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Based on the history, physical examination and results of Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), brucellosis was highly suspected. This led to the screening of all the animals (n = 384) in the affected farm. The Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) revealed that 23 cattle were positive, while no agglutination was observed in goats and deer. A confirmatory test was performed on all the (n = 384) animals using the complement fixation test (CFT) and the results showed that two (2) cows and five (5) deer tested positive. The CFT positive animals were culled. Preventive steps were then taken where the remaining cattle in the herd were vaccinated once using the RB51 vaccine, while the deer and goats were not vaccinated. All animals in the herd were also recommended to be subjected for blood sampling every 4 months and the serum samples to be tested using competitive ELISA to distinguish between serological responses due to vaccination from infection. To overcome outbreak scenario of brucellosis in a farm, a prompt action and a concerted team work among relevant stakeholders are crucial to curb the situation.