Microalgae biomass has been recognised to have great potential as a source of novel bioactive compounds with industrial as well as health promoting applications in human, animal and aquatic lives. Several species of microalgae have undergone various screenings to identify and tap into these valuable resources, among them are the species of the genus Scenedesmus. Although it is more commonly known as a source of food for herbivorous zooplankton and in biofuel production because of its high lipid content, Scenedesmus has exhibited the potential of being a source of high-value compounds with antibacterial properties. These antibacterial activities have a wide range of applications in various industries that have not been broadly explored and fully exploited. This review aims to briefly cover four decades of research done on bioactive compounds, nutritional composition, biotechnological applications and antibacterial activities in Scenedesmus spp.
One hundred and sixty eight (168) one-week-old pullet chicks of Nera® strain were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the effect of malted sorghum sprouts (MSP) in diets of pullet chicks. The trial lasted for 10 weeks. There were three experimental diets containing 0, 150gkg-1 or 300gkg-1 levels of MSP. Each diet was fed to four replicate groups of 14 pullet chicks. The results showed that feed intake reduced (P<0.05) gradually as the level of MSP inclusion in the diet increased. MSP inclusion in diets also led to reduced final weight (P<0.05). Crude protein and fibre digestibility decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increase in dietary level of inclusion of MSP. The converse was the case for ash digestibility. Birds fed 300 gkg-1 MSP had high (P<0.05) level of packed cell volume and total serum protein, which was quite unexpected if the final weight and weight gain of the birds are taken into consideration. There was, however, an indication of impairment of protein utilisation when MSP was included as the birds in this group recorded significantly higher serum creatinine. It was concluded that there are some factors inherent in MSP, probably tannin and HCN that impair the utilisation of MSP based diets by pullet chick. It is apparent from the foregoing of inclusion of MSP even at 150g kg-1 depressed feed intake and growth. It is, therefore, not advisable to use MSP at a level up to 150g kg-1 especially for starting pullets.
Presently, the animal feed industry is suffering from inadequate and expensive conventional protein ingredients due to the increasing demand for food and feed products. This has led to the search for unconventional protein sources to fulfil market needs. In this study, the potential of selected palm oil wastes, namely palm pressed fibre (PPF) and palm oil decanter cake for bioprotein production, was investigated. Fermentation process was carried out aerobically in conical flasks with the working mass of 20 g each at 32°C for seven days. The performance of these palm oil wastes as substrates in solid state bioconversion of Aspergillus terreus UniMAP AA-1 strain were evaluated. A substrate with higher protein yield was chosen for the subsequent parameter screening using 2-level factorial design. Results showed that the protein content in PPF and palm oil decanter cake was increased up to 401 mg/L and 493 mg/L, respectively post-fermentation. Among the parameters studied, substrate concentration and inoculum size were found to significant affect bioprotein production. The highest protein content of 1683 mg/L was successfully produced from palm oil decanter cake at temperature of 35°C with 50% substrate concentration and 15% of inoculum size, suggesting its potential as an alternative protein source. Thus, this study provides preliminary data for future process optimisation of bioprotein production using the statistical approach.
Fifty-one genotypes of white jute from different geographic origins were evaluated to study their genetic variability with 11 morphological characters. Significant variation was observed among the genotypes for all the characters. Multivariate techniques were used to classify 51 genotypes. All the genotypes were grouped into six different clusters. Principal component analysis, principal coordinate analysis and canonical vector analysis gave similar results to that of cluster analysis. The highest inter-genotypic distance (1.84) was found between G15, G50 and the lowest distance between G38 and G26. The highest inter-cluster distance (14.37) was observed between cluster I, IV and the lowest distance (2.46) was between cluster III and V. The highest intra-cluster distance was found in cluster I and lowest in cluster V. Considering genetic parameters, high genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was observed in branches per plant. High heritability values with moderate genetic advance in percentage of mean were obtained for leaf width, petiole length, nodes per plant. Regarding the cluster distance, inter-genotypic distance and other agronomic performance, the genotypes G47, G33, G48 from cluster I; G27, G17, G23 from cluster III and G13, G40, G45 from cluster II were considered to be better parents for future use in hybridisation programmes.
Keywords: Principal component and coordinate analysis, canonical vector analysis, genotypic coefficient of variation, phenotypic coefficient of variation, white jute
Amplified chitinase gene sequence shared 99% homology with Musa acuminata class III acidic chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase gene sequence was 100% homologous to Musa x paradisiaca beta-1,3-glucanase. Three nucleotide-binding sites and the leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) type of putative RGCs and one serine/threonine kinase gene were characterised at the amino acid level. Kinase-2 (LVLDDVW) and kinase-3 (GSRIIITTRD) motifs in the nucleotide-binding domain were highly conserved in RGC2 and RGC3 and these genes belong to the non-TIR-NBS class RGCs. RGC1 was also clustered into non-TIR-NBS class RGCs; however, many residue substitutions were present in the kinase-2 and kinase-3 motifs. The sub-domain IX (LTEKSDVYSFGVVL) of serine/threonine protein kinase was highly conserved in RGC5 and it shared highest homology with PTH-2 from muskmelon. RT-PCR analysis revealed the differential expression of PR and RGC genes exhibited by different banana genotypes over sampling time. Chitinase was expressed during banana-FocR4 interaction in all three banana genotypes. However, its expression was high and constant in 'Rastali Mutiara' during banana-FocR4 interaction and resulted in very low disease severity in FocR4 inoculated plants (2%) compared to 'Rastali wild-type (16%) and 'Jari Buaya' (8%) at six weeks after inoculation. This suggests that chitinase may play an important role in disease resistance against FocR4. Besides, our study also shows that 'Rastali Mutiara' can be a potential source of disease-resistant genes for molecular breeding of banana.
Torch ginger (Etlingera elatior) inflorescence with its showy appearance can be used as a cut flower. However, the development of inflorescence has not been studied. The aim of this study is to determine the phenological stages of torch ginger inflorescence from the emergence of rhizome until full bloom stage using the extended BBCH scale. The growth stages of the inflorescence are categorised into peduncle elongation, inflorescence emergence, flowering and senescence. It takes about 60 days for the inflorescence to emerge from rhizome and develop to reach full-bloom stage with true flower opening. This study provides important information in understanding this crop.
A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the growth and reproductive performances of timorensis deer, Cervus timorensis, that were kept in farm. All 140 animals were allowed to graze at all times while supplemented feed of approximately 1 kg/animal/day was provided except during the rainy season between October and December when supplementation was 2 kg/animal/day. Available farm records between 2011 and 2014 were collected and analysed for growth and reproductive performances. Most fawning occurred between October and December (average rainfall 413 mm) with an apparent peak in December. Average annual fawning percentage for the past four years was 57% while the average rate of mortality for fawns and adults was 5.4% and 13.5%, respectively. The average daily weight gain for up to one year of age was 0.042±0.02 kg but after one year it was 0.052±0.01 kg. The average body weight of adult timorensis at 24 months old was 48.5±1.4 and 44.5±0.9 kg for male and female, respectively. Monthly rainfall showed significant (p<0.05) negative correlation with the ADG but showed positive correlation (p<0.05) with fawning. Body weight gain was high during the dry months of May and August (average rainfall 150 mm). There seemed to be a clear breeding season for timorensis deer in this study, which was within the moderate months of March to April (average rainfall 236 mm) when body weight started to increase.
Keywords: On-farm evaluation, timorensis deer, growth, reproductive status
Malaysia is taking efforts to be self-sufficient in rice production. However, the country is facing low availability of Cu and Zn in its soils. Even though these elements are required in small quantities for normal plant growth, their role in maximising yield is very impressive. The present study was conducted to assess the micronutrient Cu and Zn contents in selected paddy soils of Malaysia. Investigations carried out showed that marine alluvium [Guar, Sedaka, Keranji, Kuala Kedah, Kangkong, Sedu, Rotan and Kundur (Kedah)] and reverine alluvium; [Chempaka, Lubok Itek, Lating, Batu Hitam and Machang soil series (Kelantan)] were low in Cu and Zn contents. All soils were acidic in nature, with their pH values ranging from 4.3 to 6.5. Based on the results, extractable Cu and Zn concentration of soil varied within the range of 0.09-1.70 and 0.51-2.10 mg kg-1 in the soil series of Kuala Kedah and LubukItek, respectively. It was manifested that the micronutrient contents were below the critical level (Cu 0.1-1.0 mg kg-1 and Zn 0.5-3.0 mg kg-1)according to the method of extracting analysis; Mehlich-I. The sampling depth has shown a variation and the subsurface soil sampling exhibited lesser Cu and Zn contents as compared to the surface soil sampling. Findings of the research indicate that micronutrient deficiency occurs in the main rice regions of Malaysia, and this can be corrected by applying micronutrient fertiliser.
Hypothetically, leafy vegetables need water and nitrogen (N) simultaneously in their applications for good growth. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of four watering frequencies (watering once a day, once a week and once in every two weeks and no watering) and five levels of nitrogen (0, 34, 68, 136 and 272 kg N ha-1) on the vegetative and yield parameters of choy sum over a period of four weeks. The choy sum was grown in polyethylene bags under a rain shelter. The experimental design was a split-split plot with four replications. Plant vegetative and yield parameters measured weekly were plant height, leaf number, total leaf area, maximum root length, the various plant part weights and total tissue nitrogen. Water stress detrimentally affected choy sum's leaf growth more than root growth and the effect of water stress was more than nitrogen stress. Higher nitrogen rates in water-stressed condition increasingly reduced the number of leaves and height of the choy sum. Choy sum grown under once-a-day watering and once-a-week treatments did not experience water stress. The optimal soil water content and nitrogen application rate were 0.4 m3 m-3 and 30 to 40 kg N ha-1, respectively. The rate of 34 kg N ha-1 and once-a-week watering treatment generally gave the highest values for all the measured vegetative and yield parameters. Under lower and point of sufficient nitrogen rates, nitrogen was used for leaf thickness and weight rather than for intercepting light via leaf area expansion.
Keywords: Brassica, choy sum, drought, nitrogen fertiliser, water deficit, water stress
This report describes use of a standing frontonasal bone flap (SFF) technique to treat a case of primary sinusitis affecting the right frontal and maxillary sinuses in a horse. The diagnosis was made based on a history of prolonged unilateral nasal discharge, endoscopy and radiographic findings. A frontonasal bone flap was created and maxillary sinus trephination was performed while the horse was standing and sedated. Standing sedation throughout the whole procedure was achieved through constant rate infusion (CRI) technique with detomidine hydrochloride. The outcome of this case confirmed that standing frontonasal flap surgery provides an effective method to specifically treat primary sinusitis in a horse and eliminates the risk of general anaesthesia in order to perform such invasive surgery.
Keywords: Horse, sinusitis, frontonasal flap, standing surgery
This report describes a procedure of bladder tube cystotomy to relieve progressing bladder distension in a goat diagnosed to have obstructive urolithiasis. This one-year old Saanen buck was presented with a complaint of not passing urine and being in discomfort for almost three days. On physical examination, pulsation of the urethra in the perineal region could be felt and swelling and pain along the prepuce and perineum were indicated on deep palpation. Amputation of the urethral orifice and attempt to catheterise the urethra failed to relieve bladder distension; thus, bladder tube cystotomy procedure was performed. Following this procedure, all vital parameters returned to normal and normograde cystourethrogram was performed to radiographically assess the lower urinary tract of the goat. The outcome of this case supports that the bladder tube cystotomy technique provides an effective method to allow immediate relief of a distended bladder, allowing the urethra to heal as the urine outflow is diverted through the catheter and allows normograde cystourethrography to be performed.