The long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is commonly used for biomedical researches. However, genetic variation within a population or among populations can significantly affect phenotypical outcomes of treatments tested on model organisms. As such, it is important for studies involving model organisms originating from different, or even the same geographical locations to have sufficient genomic and transcriptomic background of the model organisms that is used. This paper summarises the utilisation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to sequence genomes and transcriptomes of long-tailed macaques from various geographical populations in general and the Malaysian long-tailed macaque in particular, and its importance in the context of population genetic studies.
Bacterial cellulose had been proven to be a very versatile natural polymer produced by bacteria. One of the major constraints in producing bacterial cellulose is the high cost of fermentation medium. This study examines the potential use of papaya juice as a low-cost fermentation medium for the production of bacterial cellulose. The fermentation of Acetobacter xylinum 0416 was carried out under static fermentation with an initial pH of 5.5, a temperature of 28±1°C and a fermentation period of 5 days using different juice extracted from ripe and unripe papaya. The highest production of bacterial cellulose was detected in ripe papaya pulp juice with a total weight of 35.37 g/l. Juice obtained from various parts of the fruit produced bacterial cellulose between 3.33 g/l and 16.10 g/l. By referring to the standard medium (Hestrin-Schramm (HS) medium), ripe papaya pulp juice shows the highest potential to be used as an alternative for the production of bacterial cellulose. This is due to its high glucose concentration that provide suitable conditions for A.xylinum 0416 to grow and produce bacterial cellulose.
Acetobacter xylinum 0416, bacterial cellulose, fermentation medium, papaya juice
Homogentisate prenytransferase (HPI) generally catalyses prenylation reactions in tocochromanol and plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis, while homogentisate solanesyltransferase (HST) is specific to reaction leading to plastoquinone, an essential component in the synthesis of carotenoid, a powerful antioxidant and precursor to vitamin A. In Aquilaria spp. abiotic stress in the form of wounding is the main trigger for the production of a highly-valued terpene-rich wood known as agarwood. Putative HST cDNA, AmHST1 was cloned from total RNA of callus tissue of Aquilaria malaccensis using reverse transcription approach. Based on a partial HST sequence, specific primers were initially designed to amplify the internal open reading frame region followed by RACE, which successfully amplified the cDNA. The partial length AmHST1 cDNA measured about 1182 bp nucleotides and encodes a polypeptide of 392 amino acid. Sequence alignment revealed that AmHST1 shares 74% - 77% similarity with HPT from Arabidopsis and Theobroma cacao. Gene expression analysis indicated that the AmHST1 expression was suppressed in wounded tissues. Results suggest that there should be a potential trade-off between genes involved in plastoquinone and terpenoid synthesis as they both share similar upstream genes and precursors. When facing a major abiotic stress such as wounding, the latter is favoured.
Variability is germane in crop improvement. The ability of molecular markers to reveal polymorphism can assist in identifying the specific loci of a particular trait in crops. Sequence related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) is a useful technique for determining the genetic diversity of plants and was used to discriminate fifty 'egusi' melon accessions from different parts of Nigeria. The fifty accessions were subjected to SRAP analysis and 65.48% of the bands were found to be polymorphic with similarity coefficients of the accessions ranging from 0.51 - 0.96. Accessions DD98/3, NG/AU/MAR/09/012, NG/OE/MAR/09/015, NG/AO/APR/09/032 and A17 were found to be distinct from all other accessions. The high level of polymorphism exhibited by the 'egusi' melon accessions show they would be useful for maintaining genetic diversity in future breeding programs.
Sixteen (16) crossbred (White Fulani, Muturu & Keteku) calves aged 7-10 months and with an average weight of 69.78 ± 8.81 kg were sampled in a 12-week experiment to evaluate the response of calves to supplementation of legume - based concentrate diets. These calves graze on natural pastures. The sampld calves were allotted in a completely randomised design into four treatment groups and offered 25% Leucaena leucocephala, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Glricidia sepium based concentrate diets and natural pastures (control) for treatments 1 - 4 respectively. Data were collected on feed intake, weight gain, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood profile and faecal egg count of calves. The supplementation of forage legume concentrate diets improved (P < 0.05) DM intake and weight gain of calves with best results were observed in calves fed Glricidia sepium concentrate diets with 450.56 g/day and 188.45 g/day respectively. Nutrient digestibility (%) and nitrogen balance varied (P < 0.05) across treatment groups. Blood parameters did not differ (P > 0.05) across treatments and falls within the normal range for healthy calves, while the supplementation of forage legume concentrate diets reduced (P < 0.05) faecal egg count (egg/g) to ascertain the level of worm burden in calves. The study concluded that supplementation with legume concentrate diets improved the performance of calves with Gliricidia forage supplemented concentrate diet recommended for calves' optimum performance.
Keeping pets is a growing trend in Malaysia. This retrospective study involves data analysis of cases of dogs and cats submitted to the Post-Mortem Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia between 2005 and 2015. A total of 37 disease conditions were diagnosed among dogs with septicaemia (10.2%), mammary gland tumor (8.4%) and canine distemper (7.9%) were significantly (p<0.05) more frequently diagnosed. In cats, a total of 27 disease conditions were diagnosed with traumatic injuries (19.5%), feline infectious peritonitis (15.1%) and sporotrichosis (12%) were significantly (p<0.05) more frequent. Poor awareness among pet owners towards the health requirements of their pets is a main reason for the above.
Post-mortem, common, health problems, diseases, dogs, cats
Bekasam functions as an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase. Fractionation was required to determine the bioactive peptide which functions as a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Steps taken for this research were the production of Bekasam used salt (15%), rice (15%) and Lactobacillus acidophilus as a culture starter, extraction and fractionation of Bekasam to assay its HMG-CoA reductase inhibition. The results showed that six fractions from Bekasam extract had different inhibition activity. The fraction of Bekasam extract without evaporation (F1) contained 3 peptides (peptide of 7.69 kD; 10.71 kD and 20.22 kD). Extract free supernatant fraction (F2) contained 4 peptides (peptide of 7.69 kD; 10.71 kD; 20.22 kD and 35.38 kD). Fractions of Bekasam extract in the F3 contained 2 peptides (7.69 kD and 10.71 kD). Furthermore, fractionation in the F4 can separate only one peptide band with molecular weight 7.69 kD. Peptides were not discovered in the F3 and F4 fraction while F6 and F4 fractions had the higher inhibition fraction to HMG-CoA reductase activity (92.86%). There was peptide 7.69 kD in F4 fraction and lovastatin (148.30 ppm) in F6 fraction.
The relationships among sperm parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat semen were determined. The semen samples were extended in Tris-egg yolk extender and assessed for sperm motility, acrosome and membrane integrities, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations from 0 to 240 h of storage at 5°C. All the parameters were found to have highly significant correlations (positive/negative) except between motility and MDA concentration as well as abnormality and MDA concentration. This study suggests that a significant correlation exists among the sperm parameters of WAD goat bucks and the semen stored at 5°C up to 48 h is suitable for artificial insemination beyond which deterioration to sperm viability occurred.
This report describes a case of diaphragmatic rupture with migration of small and large intestines into the thoracic cavity of an 18-year-old Criollo pony. The pony was initially presented to the University Veterinary Hospital (UVH), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), with mild colic and increased respiratory effort. A diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture was made based on thoracic auscultation, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings. Due to financial constraints, surgical management was not an option and so the pony was managed medically. The pony was diagnosed with diaphragmatic rupture and concurrent bronchopneumonia and was observed closely. Mild colic was treated with analgesics while dyspnoea was managed symptomatically with bronchodilators and antibiotics. The pony remained clinically stable for more than eight (8) weeks. However, another episode of colic lead to a deterioration in its clinical condition and subsequent death. Post-mortem findings revealed migration of loops of small intestines and part of the large colon into the thoracic cavity. There was a linear tear (estimated to be about 15cm in length) in the right dorsal segment of the diaphragm at the border of the muscular and fibrous portion, which confirmed our clinical and diagnostic imaging findings of diaphragmatic rupture that had caused the pony to suffer from colic and dyspnoea.
The cost to dispose of sludge is very high, and Malaysia usually treats it by composting. However, composting is not a feasible method because it is time consuming. The application of sewage sludge on cropland is economical method because it provides the plant nutrients. However, it has a serious impact on the plants, animal and environment due to high concentration of heavy metals. Therefore, phytoremediation is a green technology to remove pollutants especially heavy metals from contaminated soil. This study was conducted to determine the potential of Ricinus communis to remove heavy metal in soil. The seedlings were planted on six different planting media T0 (100% soil-Control), T2 (80% soil + 20% sewage sludge), T3 (60% soil + 40 % sewage sludge), T4 (40% soil + 60% sewage sludge), T5 (20% soil + 80% sewage sludge) and T6 (100% sewage sludge). The highest accumulation of Mn was observed in leaves. Ricinus communis were found to be suitable as phytoremediators to clean heavy metals especially Mn as its TF value was higher than BCF.
Heavy metals, manganese, phytoremediation, sewage sludge
The non-edible seed oil of the Jatropha plant is a renewable and sustainable material to produce vegetable oil-based epoxy and epoxy acrylate as raw polymeric material. The objective of this study is to synthesis Jatropha seed oil-based epoxy and acrylate epoxy resins through conventional methods. An epoxy ring of Epoxidised Jatropha Oil (EJO) was formed through an in-situ epoxidation process using hydrogen peroxide and formic acid as an oxygen donor and oxygen carrier respectively. Acrylated Epoxidised Jatropha Oil (AEJO) was produced by reacting EJO with acrylic acid with the existence of triethylamine and 4-methoxyphenol as a catalyst and inhibitor respectively. The measured oxirane-oxygen content (OOC) of EJO was 4.99%. The acid value of the AEJO was determined at 4.42 mg KOH/g. Both the EJO and AEJO were characterised by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopies.
In papermaking, blending or mixture of fibres is one of the ways to enhance mechanical properties of paper. The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of paper manufactured from mixture of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf fibres. The papers were prepared according to 10, 30, 50 and 70 percentages of kenaf whole stem blended into oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres. The preparation and testing of papers were carried out based on TAPPI Test Methods. Results showed that using kenaf whole stem fibres improved the mechanical properties of the blended papers and complied with the standard requirement for writing and printing grade paper.
Kenaf whole stem, papermaking, paper properties, pulp properties, oil palm empty fruit bunch
The objective of this study was to have a better understanding of the effect of alkaline pH medium in the retention of filler in papermaking using kenaf bleached pulp. Three stages of experiments were carried out involving papermaking at alkaline pH medium 8 to 13, usage of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), Albacar (ABC) of needle-shaped and Albafil (ABF) of circular-shaped, and the application of low and high molecular weight of polyacrylamides (PAM LM and PAM HM). Paper samples were manufactured based on TAPPI Test Method T295 om-88. Characterisation of specimens in terms of filler content, tensile, tear and burst strength were carried out. The results showed that pH medium influenced the inter-fibre bonding of the fibres during papermaking whereby pH 8-9 is found as the best medium in producing stronger paper. The findings are significant in order to suit the pH according to certain shape and size of such fillers.
Alkaline papermaking, kenaf, paper strength, precipitated calcium carbonate, retention