Rodent Tuber is an anticancer herbal plant from Araceae family which is very sensitive to environmental condition and has a low plantlet reproduction rate. This research was aimed to an obtain effective method of micropropagation on Rodent Tuber plant with high rate multiplication factors. The source of explants used the mother plant originating from Medan (Indonesia). MS medium supplemented with the combination of 0.5 mg/L of BAP and various concentrations of NAA was used. Explants were successfully induced in medium containing 0.5 mg/L of BAP and 0.5 mg/L of NAA. Growing media for plant multiplication were ½ MS and MSO. In the treatment media, BAP was given in five different concentrations, i.e. 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 mg/L. The result showed that, ½ MS medium added with 1.5 mg/L of BAP was effective in inducing the production of 4.20 ± 1.03 plantlets. In vitro root induction of Rodent Tuber was achieved in MSO medium supplemented with 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 mg/L of NAA. MSO medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L of NAA could induce the formation of 43.20 ± 21.21 new roots. Viability percentages of Rodent Tuber from Medan acclimatization was 100%. The usage of MS basal media enriched with BAP and NAA is able to effectively increase the production of new plants and roots of Rodent Tuber plant.
Plants manage water stress conditions through a variety of signalling networks, which maintain physiological balances of the plants. The phytohormone, abscisic acid (ABA), regulates growth and development of plants by acting on different physiological features of plants. Various stress factors including drought result in raising the endogenous ABA concentration in plant cells. Abscisic acid modifies gene function and its transformation in plants when plants are experiencing stress conditions. Molecular mechanisms show signalling functions of ABA in plants. Several researchers have demonstrated the different roles of ABA in plants such as regulation of stomatal aperture, production of secondary metabolites and signalling cross-link with other molecules. Researchers also show significant interest in and place importance on the signalling regulation of ABA on the growth and physiology of plants. Therefore, this review highlights the signalling pathway of ABA with or without other molecules to restrain growth and physiological parameters of plants under climate change conditions.
Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae; Neem tree) is a resourceful medicinal plant. Almost all parts of the plant are used in traditional and folklore medicine. This study was conducted to measure antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in a crude extract of different parts of the neem tree. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay (FRAP) were used to evaluate antioxidant activity, while total phenolic and total flavonoid compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminium chloride (AlCl3) assay, respectively. Bark and leaf extract showed higher free radical scavenging activity, with IC50 value of 23.27 and 55.07 (µg/ml) respectively, while seed extract showed the lowest activity, with IC50 of 672.36 (µg/ml; (P<0.05). The bark extract revealed significantly higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content than the leaf and seed extract (P<0.05). Flavonoid content in leaf extract was found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than in seed and bark extract; however, bark extract showed significantly lower flavonoid content than seed extract. These results suggest that the potency of Azadirachta indica makes it a good source of natural antioxidant compounds.
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of soil acidification due to application of different doses of elemental sulphur (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g S kg-1 soil) on Al3+ solubility at 0, 20 and 40 days after incubation. Maize plants were grown after soil treatment with the elemental S and were allowed to grow for 45 days. The results showed that addition of elemental sulphur significantly increased the soil acidity; each g S decreased soil pH for 1.52 units. The Al3+ concentration in soil remained rather unchanged from the pH value of 7.3 to around 5 and experienced a 22000-time increase at the pH value of 4. Soil acidification from the background of 7.03 to 6.29 resulted in 41.83% increase in root Al3+ concentration and it was not significantly affected with further soil acidification. Soil acidification progressively decreased Al3+ concentration in the stem but it failed to affect Al3+ concentration in the leaves. The optimum rate of sulphur for maize without the risk of Al3+ toxicity under greenhouse conditions was 0.82 g S kg-1 soil. Further evaluation under field conditions is required.
The aim of this study is to enhance betalain production in red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) callus through supplementation of the precursor L-tyrosine. Red-pigmented calli were produced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salt medium supplemented with 2 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 4 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ) and different concentrations of L-tyrosine (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg/L). The addition of 20 mg/L L-tyrosine was able to increase betacyanin production by 1.5-fold compared to calli grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salt medium (MSO). The results also revealed that betalain production (calli cultured with 20 mg/L L-tyrosine) was higher than MS medium with 2 mg/L NAA and 4 mg/L TDZ (without L-tyrosine) up to 1.7-fold. Four compounds, namely betacyanin, betaxanthin and two additional compounds, phenolic and flavonoid compounds, were detected in the red-pigmented calli treated with 20 mg/L L-tyrosine that were not found in the fresh fruit sample. This indicates that the callus system has potential to produce betalain pigment and that red-pigmented calli could be an important antioxidant source.
Plants are the most common host for fungal communities. However, vegetables and herbs traditionally consumed by the Malay community have not been thoroughly investigated for their association with fungi. The main objective of the present study is to identify the Ascomycetes fungi associated with Eurycoma longifolia Jack and vegetables traditionally consumed by the Malay community. In the present study, we isolated and identified 34 isolates of the Ascomycetes fungi obtained from five traditional vegetables (Oenanthe javanica, Cosmos caudatus, Persicaria odorata, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus and Cantella asiatica) and Eurycoma longifolia Jack. The isolates are identified as eight species, which are Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium solani, Penicillium paraherquei and Trichoderma asperellum. Aspergillus and Fusarium are dominant among the isolated fungi. This report provides additional information on the diversity of fungi isolated from traditional vegetables and Eurycoma longifolia based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequence analysis.
Traditional vegetables, Aspergillus species, Fusarium species, Penicillium species and Trichoderma species
The interaction between dung beetles and primates was studied at Telaga Tujuh, Langkawi Island, Malaysia using such as observation and sampling method. The dung beetles were caught, and their dung balls collected. The beetles were identified as Paragymnopleurus maurus, and their dung balls were identified as originating from Macaca fascicularis, using a molecular approach involving the cytochrome b (Cytb) marker. This is the first record of Paragymnopleurus maurus from the study site in the Langkawi Islands and from this part of Malaysia. Paragymnopleurus maurus is attracted to the omnivorous dung of M. fascicularis, because it is a preferred food source for the beetle. Daytime is the active period for P. maurus and this study shows that the foraging area of P. maurus is restricted to the forest, even though the beetle's food source (M. fascicularis' s dung) can be found outside the forest.
Primate, new record, dung beetle, species interactions, Langkawi Island
A buffalo-breeding farm run on an extensive grazing system without feed supplementation was selected for this study. Farm records between 2004 and 2011 were analysed for selected parameters, particularly calving rate, calving interval, average daily gain of calves and calf mortality. Following the analysis, interventions were implemented in January 2012, which included increase in pasture area from 399 to 441 acres followed by application of organic fertiliser. The selected breeder buffaloes were prepared for breeding by supplementing palm kernel cake-based feed at the rate of 1.5 kg/animal/day for two weeks before breeder males were introduced at the rate of one male to 20 females. Weaning age was reduced from six to three months. Prior to the intervention, proximate analysis of pasture revealed 7.6% crude protein content; approximately 79% of breeder buffaloes were found with a body score of >3; the average annual calving rate was 22%; the calving interval was 24±11.2 months; average daily gain of calves was 0.89±0.21 kg; the average birth weight was 28.31±3.26 kg; and calf mortality was 26.8±7.0%. Following intervention, proximate analysis of grass revealed 12% crude protein content. With feed supplementation, the percentage of breeder females with a body score of >3 increased to 95%, leading to an average annual calving rate of 50%. Average birth weight was significantly (p<0.05) improved to 35.4±5.39 kg, while the average daily gain was 0.95±0.32 kg. Subsequently, the average calving interval was reduced to 15.2±9.2 months. Similarly, calf mortality rate was significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 17.6±4.7%. In conclusion, improved management, particularly of pasture and feeding, significantly enhanced the performance of farmed buffaloes.
Farmed buffaloes, feed supplementation, pasture, performance, body weight
The newly detected noxious weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is an invasive alien species in Malaysia. The degree of seriousness of the invasion of parthenium weed can be predicted from the condition of weed seed bank in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the soil seed bank of parthenium weed at different soil depths in five different locations of Ulu Yam Baru, Batang Kali, Selangor, Malaysia. The soil samples were collected from four depths, 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-15 cm and 15-20 cm; and five sampling areas were chosen, namely a waste disposal site, a vegetable farm, a cattle farm, a stretch of roadside and an undisturbed area of fallow land. The seeds were extracted using sieve shakers at the laboratory of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus. On average, 1321 seeds/m2 (13.21 million seeds/ha) were found at the depth of 0-5 cm, 218 seeds/m2 (2.18 million seeds/ha) at the depth of 5-10 cm and 121 seeds/m2 (1.21 million seeds/ha) at the depth of 10-15 cm. No seed was found at the depth of 15-20 cm. The number of seeds varied in different locations as well. The highest number recorded, 1108 seeds/m2 (11.08 million/ha), was from the sample taken from the waste disposal site, followed by the vegetable farm, with 514 seeds/m2 (5.14 million seeds/ha). The maximum number of weed seeds (3547 seeds/m2) was from the surface layer of the waste disposal site and the total number of seeds varied from 4432-396 seeds/m2, and seeds remained within 15 cm soil depth. The collected seeds from the different soil depths showed 70.6% viability in a seed germination test. The total accumulation of 8300 seeds/m2 (83.00 million seeds/ha) in soil of 15-cm depth in Batang Kali is a threat to the environment.
Parthenium weed, weed seed bank, sieve shaking, soil depth
A study was conducted to elucidate the effects of using different media (MS, ½MS, VW) supplemented with different combinations of 15% coconut water, 10% potato extract and 5% mashed banana with an extra 0.2% activated charcoal on seed germination of Dendrobium signatum Rchb.f. in In vitro cultures. The results showed that the most suitable media, providing 100% seed germination, were MS added to 10% potato extract, ½MS supplemented with 10% potato extract and MS added to 5% mashed banana. Young plantlets were then transferred to MS and ½MS medium supplemented with various kinds of cytokinin including BA, Kinetin and TDZ at the concentrations of 0, 1 and 2 mg/l, and combined with 0 and 0.5 mg/l of NAA for plantlet development. The results showed that young shoots could be differentiated and regenerated into plantlets in all the treatments. The results revealed that the most suitable medium for shoot proliferation and root induction was ½MS medium with 2 mg/l BA added and combined with 0.5 mg/l NAA.
Dendrobium, In vitro culture, cytokinin, seed germination, organic supplements
In 2014, disease symptoms of yellowing, foot rot and drying of leaves were observed in vineyards in Hormozgan province, Iran. The goal of the present study was to characterise fungal isolates associated with black foot of grapevines (Vitis spp.) using multi-gene DNA analysis (partial translation elongation factor-1 [tef1], internal transcribed spacers [ITS rDNA] and ß-tubulin) and pathogenic characteristics of the isolates from the grapevines. Twenty-five isolates were obtained from diseased plants and identified as Campylocarpon fasciculare (14), Fusarium solani (7) and F. decemcellulare (4) through morphological characteristics. The three DNA regions analysed supported the morphological concept. All fungal isolates were evaluated for their pathogenicity on one-year-old rooted grapevine cultivar Askari in the planthouse. Typical root rot symptoms were observed within 90 days after inoculation. Campylocarpon fasciculare and an unnamed phylogenetic species of FSSC 20 were reported for the first time for Iranian mycoflora, indicating that grapevine vineyards have become the new host plants for F. decemcellulare .
Grapevine, black disease, fungal species, multi-locus analysis, morphology
Overfishing and depletion of wild fish stock are a major problem facing the fisheries sector in Nigeria, hence the need to carry out an extensive research on the biology of wild species. The aim of this study was to provide contributory information on the biology of Synodontis schall from Ogun River, Nigeria. Ninety fish samples were obtained from local fishermen bi-monthly between February and August, 2015. The length and weight of the specimen were measured and length-weight relationship was determined using the formula W=aLb. Gut content of the specimens was studied using the frequency of occurrence and numerical method. Index of stomach fullness was also determined monthly. Gut content revealed both plants and animal items consisting mainly of insects, rotifers, crustaceans, fish parts, algae etc. indicating omnivorous feeding habit. Percentage stomach fullness was higher during the peak of the wet season (July and August). Total length, standard length and weight of specimens were ranged between 15.4 and 29.0 cm, 10.1 and 23.5 cm and 50 g and 198 g, respectively. Length-weight analyses gave the values of 'b', 'a', and 'r' as 1.520, 1.115 and 0.8967, respectively, exhibiting a negative allometric growth pattern. The study therefore, shed light on the biology of the species and thus, contributes to documented facts about the species from the Akomoje reservoir, with a view towards developing the aquaculture of the reservoir.
Allometric growth pattern, frequency of occurrence, length-weight relationship, negative allometric growth, numerical method, Ogun River, stomach fullness, Synodontis schall
This study was conducted to compare five growth functions (Brody [B), Logistic [L], Gompertz [G], Von Bertalanffy [VB] and Richards [R]) in describing the body weight changes across age in three broiler ecotypes. Each chick was wing-tagged at day old and weighed on a weekly basis up to 10 weeks of age. Aforementioned non-linear growth models were fitted to appraise age-body weight relationship using procedure NLIN of the S.A.S (Version 9.1). G, L and VB functions converged with a low number of iterations ranging from 8 to 33 in Marshal, 7 to 10 in Naked Neck and 5 to 9 in Normal Feathered chickens. VB had the highest number of iterations (33, 10 and 9) for Marshal, Naked Neck and Normal Feathered chickens, respectively. The G, VB and L models fitted the growth curves of all the chicken ecotypes very well, and the fitting degrees R2 were all above 99.89. Based on all the criteria used for comparing these models in the three ecotypes, it can be established that the L function gave the best fit for the age-body relationship although G and VB functions were equally good in predicting the growth curves of the chickens. B and R functions were not good in fitting chicken growth data in this study with respect to parameter estimates, convergence criteria and p values.
An increase in temperature is predicted to have a negative effect on plant growth and development, thereby leading to its loss of yield. Higher air temperature has damaging effects on plant physiology, including its photosynthetic mechanism. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of short-term high temperatures on photosynthesis at PSII, and the growth of rice cultivars at the heading stage. The experiment was carried out with two rice cultivars, namely, PT60 and Dular under 45°C for 30 minutes. The results showed that panicles and leaf tips of rice cv. PT60 had chlorophyll bleaching, and at day 5 after heat treatment (DAH), the symptoms were very severe. On the other hand, all plant parts of cv. Dular remained green at 5th DAH. Fluorescence parameters in cv. Dular remained unchanged after heat treatment. In contrast, cv. PT60 exhibited a significant decrease in all fluorescence parameters. Also, the electron transport rate in cv. PT60 drastically declined after exposure to heat. The growth of cv. PT60 was inhibited by heat stress as indicated by a slight reduction in plant height, whereas cv. Dular continued growing after heat exposure. Therefore, the cultivar PT60 was susceptible to heat, and the cultivar Dular seemed to be tolerant to heat during the heading stage.
High temperature stress, fluorescence parameter, height, rice
High demand by consumers for poultry meat and products devoid of residue of antibiotics and micro-organisms has been the drive for recent research into the Nigerian poultry industry. This study was carried out to investigate the potential effect of Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) on carcass, blood and meat cholesterol of broiler chickens. A total of 90 two-week old broiler chickens were randomly allotted to three levels of administration of ethanolic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus: control (0 ppm), 7.5 ppm and 15 ppm. Data obtained on carcass characteristics, serum metabolites and meat lipid profiles were subjected to a completely randomised design. Most carcass indices considered were not influenced (p>0.05) except those for the legs and breast. Breast meat (%) was highest in 15 ppm group. Meat lipoprotein content was significantly (p<0.05) affected by oyster mushroom administration except for triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (LDL). High density lipoprotein (HDL) was highest in the 15-ppm dosed group, while LDL was lowest in meat obtained from the 15-ppm dosed group. In conclusion, the use of oral administration of Pleurotus ostreatus at 15 ppm in water can increase HDL and decrease the concentrations of LDL, VLDL and triglycerides in thigh meat.
The objective of the study was to determine the content of moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fibre, total sugar and amino acid profile for the medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans. Three-month-old Sabah Snake Grass/Belalai Gajah (C. nutans) was collected from You Dun Chao Herb Farm (YDC) and Yik Poh Ling Herb Farm (YPL) in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. All the experiments were conducted in triplicate. Total crude fibre was found significantly higher in the stem samples. A comparison of non-shaded and shaded samples from YDC revealed higher (p<0.05) moisture, protein, ash, total crude fibre and total sugar content in the shaded samples for both leaves and the stem. Total fat was higher (p<0.05) in the shaded leaves than in the non-shaded leaves but it was the opposite for the stem. In comparing non-shaded samples from the two different farms for moisture, protein, ash, fat and total sugar content, the YPL leaves and stems showed significantly higher amounts than the YDC samples. The leaves of C. nutans contained more amounts of all essential and non-essential amino acids than the stem. Aspartic acid exhibited significantly higher amounts in both leaves (3.48, 1.08 and 2.13% of dry weight sample for YPL, YDC non-shaded and shaded samples, respectively) and stem (2.17, 0.95 and 1.96% of dry weight sample for YPL, YDC non-shaded and shaded samples, respectively) than the other amino acids. Geographical factors and planting conditions revealed different nutritive composition.
Clinacanthus nutans, Malaysia, nutritive value, Sabah snake grass
The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of integrated management of stem canker and black scurf disease affecting the potato plant. The integrated management options were: T1 = Poultry manure (PM) + seed trematent (ST) with Azoxystrobin (0.05%), T2 = PM + ST-Azoxystrobin (0.10%), T3 = PM+ST-Boric acid (3.0%), T4 = PM + ST-Carboxin (0.20%), T5 = PM + ST- Carbendazim (0.10%), T6 = PM + soil drenching (SD) - Azoxystrobin (0.05%), T7 = PM + SD-Azoxystrobin (0.10%), T8 = PM + SD-Carboxin (0.20%), T9 = PM + SD-Carbendazim (0.10%) and T10 = Untreated control. The integrated management significantly influenced the disease incidence, yield attributes and yield of potato. The lowest disease incidence (11.2%) and percentage of disease index (4.58) were found in T7 (poultry manure at 5 t ha-1 before 25 days of planting, DAP + soil drenching with Azoxystrobin at 0.10% during sowing and 45 DAP) followed by T6 (PM 5 t ha-1 + soil drenching with Azoxystrobin at 0.05%). The minimum weight of russet (480 g plot-1), deformed (450 g plot-1) and Sclerotia infected (150 g plot-1) tubers were also recorded in T7. The highest healthy tuber (1900.05 g plot-1) and tuber yield (22.4 t ha-1) were found in the same treatment. Therefore, poultry manure
5 t ha-1 before 25 DAP + soils drenching with Azoxystrobin at 0.10% during sowing and 45 DAP can be recommended to produce healthy tubers and maximum tuber yield of potato.
Potato, stem canker, black scurf, fungicide, poultry manure
The papaya plant yields a lot of by-products after its fruit is harvested. Papaya leaves contain a bio-active phytochemical that can serve as a potential source of natural antibacterial agents. Phytochemical screening has discovered that papaya leaf extract contains compounds such as alkaloids, tannins and saponins. Crude alkaloid detection by Dragendorff's test was positive. Chemical structure characterisation of extracted crude alkaloids revealed by 1H-NMR spectrum testing was partial, as the spectrum identified only the chemical structure corresponding to aliphatic carbon compounds. Crude alkaloid dissolved in organic solvent dichloromethane showed no antifungal properties towards Candida albicans. Antibacterial properties of crude alkaloid dissolved in dichloromethane were selective on both Gram positive and negative bacteria. Kirby Bauer test results showed negative inhibition for both Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) and Salmonella typhi (Gram negative) but inhibition was positive for antibiotic resistant bacteria, MRSA (Gram positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram negative) bacteria. Inhibition efficacy increased with the amount of crude alkaloids used. The present study supports the use of papaya by-products as an alternative natural antibiotic for both the community and healthcare personnel.
Alkaloid, Carica papaya leaves, dichloromethane, 1H-NMR, antibacterial and antifungal properties
Molecular analysis, particularly sub-genotype classification, and study on the relationship of recent Malaysian NDVs with other isolates from around the world are lacking. Therefore, in the present study, a molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted to characterise six Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) isolated between 2014 and 2015 from vaccinated commercial poultry flocks. Partial Fusion (F) and Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes were amplified from IBS046/2014, IBS060/2014, IBS061/2014, IBS074/2014, IBS160/2015, and IBS162A/2015 isolates using one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the recently isolated strains of NDV belonged to sub-genotype VIIa and lineage 5a. Moreover, deduced amino acid sequence at the F protein cleavage site of the isolates revealed either 112RRQKRF117 or 112KRRKRF117 consistent with the motif found in velogenic pathotypes. The study concluded that the genotype VIIa was the causative agent of recent ND outbreaks in vaccinated broiler flocks from Malaysia. Interestingly, five out of the six isolates characterised in this study had a unique F0 protein cleavage site (112KRRKRF117). Further studies are required to determine the role of these motifs on the virulent potential of the isolates.
Genotype VII Newcastle disease virus, F protein cleavage site, F and HN phylogenetic analysis
Sea cucumber breeding was carried out in Universiti Malaysia Sabah Hatchery Facilities in April 2015. Approximately 690,000 eggs were fertilised with a hatching rate of 9%, an estimated 60,000 larvae were produced. In June, the surviving 359 sea cucumber juveniles were sorted according to size. In late July, it was found that only 30 juvenile sea cucumbers had survived, and the remaining were dead, with multiple ulcers on the skin and excessive mucus covering the entire body. In December 2015, a total of 20 juvenile sea cucumbers were sampled for bacterial isolation and histopathological examinations. Vibrio alginolyticus was isolated and histopathological examinations revealed peracute inflammation and accumulation of extensive mucus surrounding the body.