Nitrogen is one of the vital elements for the growth and survival of many organisms. Atmospheric N2 can only be used by certain organisms like microbes that supply inorganic form of nitrogen to their host, insects, or plants via symbiotic or non-symbiotic interaction. Arthropods are diverse species on the earth, whose guts are inhabited by microbes that help in many physiological activities like N2 fixation. As N2 fixing bacteria ecologically play vital roles, many studies have demonstrated the presence of N2 fixing bacteria in termite gut. Study on termite's gut omics has also supported a complex systemic understanding of gut digestome that is imperative in understanding the termite holobiome. This review gathers a variety of information from multifarious research which has been done on the isolation and diversity of N2 fixing bacteria in various termite species.
Acetylene reduction, nifH, nitrogen, nitrogen fixation, termite gut
Wheat is one of the important cereal crops in the world and is the main staple food for many. Among the different environmental stresses, drought is the most critical threatening wheat productivity worldwide. This study evaluated and classified morphological and physiological characteristics of wheat genotypes in two non-stress and drought-stress conditions. A field study was conducted at the Research Station of Agricultural Faculty of Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran between 2012 and 2013. Thirty wheat genotypes with six replications were sown in a randomised complete block design. As indicated in the results analysis of variance, the studied genotypes were genetically different in all characteristics. The grain yield had positive correlation with straw yield, harvest index, and biological yield Based on factor analysis, in the non-stressed condition, the first factor was referred to as yield, and in the stressed condition, the first factor was called yield components. To classify genotypes, cluster analysis was performed on the Ward method. The results of the analysis were divided into three groups in non-stressed experiment genotypes while in stress experiment genotypes, they were divided into four groups. Considering the cluster analysis, the first group was presented as the optimal one in the non-stress condition. The results indicated that in order to obtain the desirable grain yield, we can increase most of the traits with positive and significant correlations with the yield.
Cluster analysis, water regimes, wheat genotypes, yield
Propolis produced by a stingless bee (Geniotrigona spp.), commonly known as "Kelulut" in Malaysia, is known to possess various medicinal values. It is a resinous product that is used to build the beehives. Chemical constituents of propolis differ and depend on many factors such as regions and species. To date, the study of the chemical constituents of Geniotrigona thoracica propolis from Malaysia is still lacking. Hence, this study report the chemical constituents from Malaysian G. thoracica propolis collected from Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) was derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS). The compounds were later identified by library searching Wiley 275 and NIST 02 mass spectral databases. Out of the 48 individual compounds identified, 30 compounds were identified for the first time from propolis. The main class group compounds were phenolic compounds and terpenoids. 1H-Pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, 1-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl) and fren-9(11)-en-2.alpha.-ol were the main identified phenolic compound and terpenoid, respectively.
Seventy percent of Indonesia's soybean demands and consumption are met from imports, and therefore, it is necessary to increase its local production. This study assessed the effects of harmonic frequency and sound intensity levels on the opening of stomata, the growth and yield of soybean. Experiments were conducted in a split plot design, with frequency harmony (F4: 4 kHz, F8: 8 kHz, F12: 12 kHz) being the main plots and sound intensity (A50: 50 decibels (dB), A80: 80 dB and A110: 110 dB) used as sub plots. The results showed there was no significant effect of frequency and intensity on the measured response (stomata opening). However, if they were compared with those at 0 frequency and 0 intensity, the stomata openings were significantly different based on t-test at p = 0.05. This means the opening of stomata was affected by resonance. In general, the sound level pressure attempted in the range of 50-110 dB had no effect on the width of stomata opening, but it affected to the growth and yield of soybean. The best growth of the leaf area and relative growth rate were in the presence of sound waves at a frequency of 4 kHz. Likewise, the best result of the average fresh weight of seed, dry weight of seed and harvest index were at a frequency of 4 kHz sound waves. The leaf area, seeds fresh and dry weight, and harvest index were also significantly highest at sound intensity of 50 dB. Therefore, to improve the productivity of soybean plants, exposure at a frequency of 4 kHz and sound intensity of 50 dB, followed by an application of leaf fertiliser according to recommended dosage is the best combination of treatment in growing soybean in Indonesia.
A study was conducted to evaluate the growth and yield performance of five purple sweet potato accessions on colluvium soil at Field 2, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor. The treatments comprised five purple sweet potato accessions (Accessions 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6) arranged in completely randomized design with four replications. Maximum tuber yield of purple sweet potato was highest (p < 0.05) in Accession 6 (34,563 kg ha-1) compared to the lowest yield in Accession 3 (9,331 kg ha-1). This was followed by Accession 2 (22,031 kg ha-1), Accession 1 (21,094 kg ha-1), and Accession 5 (22,900 kg ha-1). A similar trend was observed for crop growth rate (CGR) with the highest (199 kg ha-1 day-1 ) in Accession 6 and the lowest (60 kg ha-1 day-1 ) in Accession 3 (p < 0.05). Accession 6 reached the critical leaf area index (LAIcrit) of 2.79 at 90% of intercepted radiation compared to the Accessions 1, 2, 3, and 5 that did not reach the LAIcrit. Unexpectedly, the highest total intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was recorded by Accession 3 (340 MJ m-2), whereas Accession 6 showed the lowest (309 MJ m-2). In contrast, the highest radiation use efficiency (RUE) was obtained by Accession 6 with 7.58 g MJ-1 and the lowest was Accession 3 (2.16 g MJ-1 ). However, there was no significant difference in RUE among the rest of the accessions, except for Accession 6. To maximize the tuber yield, Accession 6 is the choice for cultivation in colluvium soil.
Leaf area index (LAI), radiation use efficiency (RUE), sweet potato, total intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), tuber yield
Organophosphate and carbamate pesticides were preliminarily determined in 33 vegetable samples from Ongkharak market (N = 13) and family farm (N = 20) in Sisa Krabue community at Ongkharak district of Nakhon Nayok province by a GT-test kit. More than 60% of samples contained pesticides, and eight samples had pesticides at harmful level, namely Alpinia galanga (Linn.) Swartz., Coriandrum sativum Linn., Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swing., Ocimum sanctum Linn., and Carica papaya Linn. from the Ongkharak market, and Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb., Ocimum sanctum Linn., Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swing. from the family farm. Then, heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Fe, Cr, Zn, and Cu) were determined in eight samples by an atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our new finding showed that Pb level exceeded permissible limit in O. sanctum Linn., C. aurantifolia (Christm) Swing., C. papaya Linn., purchased from the local market, and C. aurantifolia (Christm) Swing. and O. sanctum Linn. from the family farm. In addition, all samples had Fe and Cr levels above permissible limits, but Zn and Cu levels were below permissible limits. Moreover, 100.0%, 62.5%, 37.5%, 37.5%, and 25.0% of the analyzed samples had target hazard quotients above 1 for Cr, Pb, Cu, Fe, and Zn, respectively, which indicated potential health risks involving unsafe consumption from each heavy metal. Hazard index also indicated the health risks for female and male via consumption of each vegetable contaminated with multiple heavy metals. O. sanctum Linn., especially from the local market, had the highest risk.
Family farm, health risks, heavy metals, local vegetables, market
UPMC 1166 bacterial strain was isolated from SG1 liquid biofertiliser and has proven to have an ability to produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and fixed atmosphere nitrogen. The objectives of this research were to characterise UPMC 1166 isolate, to determine the growth kinetics, and effect of different protectants for preservation. UPMC 1166 were characterised phenotypically and genotypically. The growth kinetics was determined using viable cell count and optical density methods. The effect of different protectants on the viability of UPMC 1166, subjected to freeze–drying and freezing at -80°C, was studied. UPMC 1166 belonged to Gram-positive bacteria (with the size of 0.49 - 0.52 Ã— 1.56 - 2.34 Âµm), catalase positive, rod-shaped with the arrangement of single or paired bacilli, endospore forming and creamy white pigmentation colonies. Based on API biochemical test kit confirmed that UPMC 1166 was under the Bacillus genus. From BLAST, UPMC 1166 showed pairwise sequence similarity range of 99.0% and is closely related to Bacillus siamensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus vallismortis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mojavensis, and Bacillus atrophaeus. 16S rRNA gene sequence used for phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that UPMC 1166 is Bacillus methylotrophicus. To obtain the maximum viability after preservation, it is important to harvest cells during the late logarithmic phase of growth and to choose a suitable protective agent. UPMC 1166 needs approximately 16 h to reach the end of the logarithmic phase; consisting of a lag phase up to 2 h and the logarithmic growth that lasted up to 14 h before entering the stationary phase. During freeze–drying, the maximum protection for UPMC 1166 was achieved by using 10% skimmed milk with 1% sodium glutamate, and 5% trehalose. Maximum protection of cells during -80°C cryopreservation was achieved with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A suitable selection of protectant seemed to be important to acquire maximum cells viability for long-term preservation. Resistance potential of bacterial strains toward preservation procedures is useful from a research and commercial point of view.
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are polymers of the sugar xylose bound by β(1â†’4) glycoside bonds. XOS have potency as a prebiotic and can be produced from agricultural waste such as cassava dregs. The purpose of this study was to examine prebiotic potential of XOS derived from cassava dregs from hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by endo-β-1,4-D-xylanase. The prebiotic activity of XOS derived from cassava dregs was examined by the number of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli in Balb/c mice colon, the fermentation products of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus including changes in pH in the colon and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the bacteria as well as the concentration of Ca2+ excreted through mice faeces. This study administered XOS derived from cassava dregs at 0.5 and 1.0 g (kg.BW) for 14, 21, and 28 days. The negative control group was Balb/c mice without XOS derived from cassava dregs. The results showed that feeding with XOS derived from cassava dregs at 0.5 and 1.0 g/(kg.BW) could increase the number of both Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and decrease the number of E.scherichia coli. The main fermentation products of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were SCFAs such as acetic acid and butyric acid with respective concentrations of 11.57 and 2.97 mM. The pH in the colon of treatment groups was more acidic than that of in the control groups. The Ca2+ absorption was increased by 0.27% (w/v) that is characterized by decreased concentration of Ca2+ in Balb/c mice faeces of treatment groups. This study has led to a conclusion that XOS derived from cassava dregs of xylan hydrolyzed by endo-β-1,4-D-xylanase has prebiotic effect.
The assessment in 13 rice genotypes that consisted of MR219, Mahsuri Mutant, Basmati 370, MRQ76, MRQ74, MRQ50, and Mahsuri Mutant 98 as parental lines, and six rice combinations were conducted in MARDI Seberang Perai, Penang. This assessment analyzed the variability among parental lines and F1 generations, including heterosis mechanism in rice combinations for the identification of better traits related to grain quality and yield. The parental lines, Basmati 370, MRQ50, MRQ74, MR219 and Mahsuri Mutan have long and slender grains. This characteristic is desired in breeding for grain quality traits. It was found that cross Basmati 370 Ã— MR219 showed the best performances in most of the grain quality traits with grain shape >3 mm. Besides that, it also showed significant differences as compared to other. The findings included that the cross had the highest value in plant height (120.2 cm), panicle length (30.4 cm), thousand grain weight (26 g), and flag leaves length (42.4 cm). Pearson correlation analysis showed that strong positive relationship and a significant association were found between traits panicle fertility and tiller number (0.843), and traits milled grain length and length/breadth ratio (0.768). Heterosis analysis showed that RU14387 posed positive heterosis value in most of the traits studied except for the panicle fertility and filled grain per panicle traits when compared with better parent. RU14387 also recorded positive heterosis over standard check variety in length/breadth ratio and milled grain length compared to standard check variety. The information gained from this study can be a great foundation for future rice development study of rice lines with better grain quality and high yield.
The effect of drought stress on biochemical activities included changes in the concentrations of proline and the activity of antioxidant. This study aimed to determine the effect of drought stress on proline activity and antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) on varieties of yardlong beans. The first factor was the variety of yardlong beans, including Brawijaya Ungu-1 (BU-1), Brawijaya Ungu-2 (BU-2), Brawijaya Ungu-3 (BU-3), Brawijaya Ungu-4 (BU-4), Brawijaya Ungu-5 (BU-5), Brawijaya Ungu-6 (BU-6),, Brawijaya-4 (Br-4), and Bagong-2 (Bg-2). The second factor was drought stress level consisting of 50% and 100% field capacity (FC) as a control. The results showed that the concentrations of proline and activity of antioxidant enzymes increased drought stress. BU-4 variety experienced the highest enhancement of proline, and BU-2 variety experienced the highest enhancement of catalase and superoxide dismutase while Br-4 variety experienced the highest enhancement of peroxidase. So BU-4, BU-2, and Br-4 varieties were said to be more tolerant to drought stress, based on proline and antioxidant enzymes accumulation.
The study on intraspecific variation of wild crossbanded barb, Puntioplites bulu stock in Peninsular Malaysia was investigated based on truss network analysis constructed from the fish body. A total of 90 samples were collected from three different populations, namely Kelantan River, Perak River and Pahang River (n= 30/population). The 22 truss characters were standardised by an allometric formula and analysed by multi and uni-variate analysis. The results showed significant differences (p< 0.05) between mean of the three populations. The loadings of the first and second discriminant function accounted for 81.3% and 18.7% respectively in terms of group variability, and they explained 100% of the total among group variability. The results showed significant variation of P. bulu in morphology based on truss network caught from three different populations. The morphological differences were located mainly on the head region, body depth and median region. These findings indicate the presence of morphometric variations between three populations of P. bulu in Peninsular Malaysia based on their locations.
This study looked at a settling pond at an ex-silica mine located in Sukabumi, Indonesia. The settling pond was built in order to reduce the effect of acid mine drainage. Acid mine drainage is the main pollutant at the open pit mining and it can contaminate aquatic biota. In order to utilise the settling pond, ornamental fish was cultured. The objective of this research was to analyse the possibility of aquaculture for ornamental fish in the settling pond ex-silica mining area. For this purpose, three species of ornamental fish of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), gold fish (Carassius auratus) and comet carp (Carassius auratus auratus) at the settling pond were compared with control pond outside the mining area. We measured their specific growth rate and survival rate for 10 weeks. Results showed that specific growth rate indicated by length and weight for all species was higher at the settling pond compared with the control pond. In contrast, the survival rate percentage of all the three species was higher than those of the control pond, i.e. 48.5-93 % at the settling pond vs. 94.5-96% at the control pond. Meanwhile, the specific growth rate of weight was 0.92-1.88 % day-1 at the settling pond and 0.34-0.61 % day-1 at the control pond, while the length was 0.70-1.02 % day-1 at the settling pond and 0.31-0.63 % day-1 at the control pond. These indicated that the three species of ornamental fish can be cultured at the settling pond even at low survival rate condition.
Acid mine drainage, ornamental fish, plankton, settling pond, specific growth rate, water quality
Microalgae are potential sources of bioactive compounds that have health promoting effects due to the abundant presence of flavonoids and polyphenols. The goal of this study was to investigate the chemical profiles of microalgae extracts from Nannochloropsis sp. and Spirulina sp. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity (DPPH) were measured. Nannochloropsis sp. had a significantly higher TPC value than Spirulina sp. (58.43 ± 0.85 mg GAE/g DW vs. 19.64 ± 0.52 mg GAE/g DW, p < 0.01) and a significantly higher TFC value than Spirulina sp. (79.87 ± 0.12 mg QE/g DW vs. 11.19 ± 0.07 mg QE/g DW, p < 0.01). Nannochloropsis sp. also exhibited a greater percentage of DPPH inhibition compared to Spirulina sp. (EC50 0.195 ± 0.007 mg/mL vs. 0.613 ± 0.003 mg/mL, p < 0.01). TPC and TFC were negatively correlated with the EC50 of DPPH antioxidant inhibition activity (-0.956, p = 0.003, and –0.899, p = 0.015, respectively). These negative correlations indicate that polyphenol compounds are the major contributors to the antioxidant activity observed in this study. Further analysis is needed to determine how to utilize the health benefits of both microalgae.
Antioxidant, microalgae, Nannochloropsis, Spirulina, total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC)
Banana springs are a new snack food similar to banana chips. This study focuses on the quality improvement of banana springs. The effects of stage of maturity and time of frying on the quality of banana springs prepared from two varieties namely, Musa acuminata Colla cv. Berangan and Musa paradisiaca L. cv. Nangka, were evaluated. Five stages of maturity, i.e., i) mature, ii) early ripening, iii) intermediate ripening, iv) ripe, and v) overripe, were used in the trial. The total soluble solid (TSS) of two varieties at different maturity stages was measured. Banana springs were made by using spiral potato slicer. The slices of banana spring were 2±0.1 mm in thickness. The banana springs were deep fried in refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palm olein at a temperature of 170oC for 0, 3, 4, 5, and 6 minutes respectively. The fried banana springs were tested for their texture and crispiness. The samples were assessed for colour, flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability by a 30-member taste panel. The TSS content of Nangka banana was greater than Berangan banana and the TSS content increased with maturity but it was a bit different between two varieties. Banana springs of Nangka variety had a higher value for texture (hardiness), especially at the early maturing stages in comparison to Berangan banana. Frying of banana springs for five and six minutes produced the same quality. An acceptable product with good taste, crispness, and the odour was obtained from both the varieties when fried at 170oC for 5 minutes. Nangka banana was better in respect of sweetness, odour, texture, and crispness vis-a-vis Berangan. Green matured banana (Maturity index I) of both the varieties was found suitable for the preparation of quality banana springs.
Banana springs, banana variety, banana maturity index, berangan banana, frying time, nangka banana, sensory evaluation, total soluble solids
Deforestation in the tropics is having significant ecological, economic and social impacts (global warming, biodiversity loss, respiratory problems, flooding). Previous research has indicated a close relationship between poverty and deforestation. This study was motivated by high deforestation rates in Dharmasraya, West Sumatra, Indonesia and a desire to test the assumption that poverty was driving this. Using a mixture of primary and secondary data and drawing heavily on 250 interviews with households living in and around the forest in Dharmasraya, this study describes the context, the forest clearing technique used by households, and analyses what drives deforestation in Dharmasraya. The findings showed that people had cleared as much as 80% of the forest using slash-and-burn techniques. Hotspots were observed from the NOAA satellite. It was found that deforestation in Dharmasraya was driven by middle-class households who control land with an average of 14.97 ha. This finding is significant because it suggests that a forest-related development programme should benefit society economically and socially, the latter in terms of awareness of the importance of protecting the forest because of its ecological functions.
Development programme, hotspots, slash and burn technique, society
The anticancer and antioxidant activities from sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus) flour dried vacuum oven have not been widely reported. This study aimed to determine in vitro inhibition of enzyme and water extracts from sea cucumber flour against colon cancer cells WiDr, breast cancer cells T47D, and normal cells Vero, then the apoptotic induction. Sea cucumber flour was made by vacuum oven. It was water extracted and hydrolyzed by digestive enzyme gradually. The water extract (SV-WE) and enzyme hydrolysis (SV-EE) were tested for their antioxidant activities using DPPH method. Samples of SV-WE and SV-EE were tested for their anticancer activities using MTT assays. Antioxidant activity of SV-EE at 1.67 ± 0.05 mg/mL was significantly different from SV-WE at 2.30 ± 0.30 mg/mL. SV-EE and SV-WE have anticancer activity against WiDr cells at 13.01 ± 2.75 Î¼g/mL and 69.37 ± 24.25 Âµg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of apoptotic ability of cell inductions from SV-EE was 64.9 ± 1.63%. SV-WE and SV-EE showed higher anticancer activity against WiDr cells and T47D cells. Gamma sea cucumber flour from Indonesia could be utilized as a potential ingredient in functional foods.
Anticancer, antioxidants, enzyme hydrolysis (SV-EE), stichopus variegatus, water extract (SV-WE)
Population increase, indiscriminate fishing, and others, threatening extinction of wild fish species is a major problems in Nigeria fishery. Hence, the food and feeding habits and quality of Parachanna obscura from Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta (FUNAAB) Reservoir were investigated between the months of March and August, 2015. Food materials in fish stomach were analyzed using standard methods, while length and weight were obtained using standard measures. A total of 11 food categories were observed in the stomach of fish sample during the study period 2%, 28%, 9%, 32%, and 29% were empty, one-quarter full, half full, three-quarter full and full, respectively. 8.33% and 5.71% vacuity was experienced in the months of July and August, respectively. Total lengths of P. obscura ranged from 12 27 cm with a mean of 17.62 ± 0.27 cm while the weights ranged from 43 198 g with a mean of 102.63 ± 4.32 g. The highest abundance of specimens were observed in August (35%) followed by July (24%) with the lowest observed in March (6%), April (8%), May (12%), and June (15%). Linear regression of the analyzed data resulted in length exponent 'b' of 2.45 while 'a' was âˆ’1.16 and r = 0.88. Approximately 78% of the variance in body weights can be explained by total lengths (r2 = 0.78). Condition factor ranged between 0.70 and 2.49 with a mean of 1.48 ± 0.51. The study confirms the carnivorous nature of P. obscura from this water. Also, findings will assist fisheries managers in making fisheries policy regarding appropriate time for fishing of the species.
The study evaluated the growth performance, digestibility, and nitrogen utilisation of West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep fed with Albizia lebbeck - cassava peel silage and Panicum maximum. Sixteen female WAD sheep (6–7 months old and average live weights of 11 kg) were randomly allotted into four dietary treatments in a complete randomized design. Dietary treatments of A. lebbeck - cassava peel silage are: Diet 1 (60% Cassava peel + 25% A. lebbeck + 15% P. maximum), Diet 2 (45% Cassava peel + 40% A. lebbeck +15% P. maximum), and Diet 3 (30% Cassava peel + 55 % A. lebbeck + 15% P. maximum), while Diet 4 (100% P. maximum) is the control. The pH values (4.27–5.39), NH3-N (0.089–0.125%), lactic (0.72–1.08%), and butyric (7.04–10.53%) acids, contents of silages differed (p < 0.05). Intakes of dry matter (68.6–71.3 g/kg W0.75/d) and crude protein (15.9–18.4 g/kg W0.75/d) of sheep were similar (p > 0.05) across treatments, while total feed intake (840 g/d) and weight gain (46.07 g/d) of sheep fed diet 1 were superior (p < 0.05) to other treatment groups. Although, sheep fed diet 4 had the best (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio, silage diet was efficiently utilized by the sheep fed diet 1. Nutrient digestibility varied (p < 0.05) across treatment groups. The values of apparent nitrogen digestibility (69.33%), nitrogen absorbed and retained was highest (2.08 and 1.97 g/d) in sheep fed diet 1, while nitrogen absorbed and retained was lowest (1.37 and 1.12 g/d) in sheep fed diet 3. In conclusion, WAD sheep fed diet 1 performed remarkably in terms of feed intake, weight gain, and N-utilisation. Therefore, A. lebbeck-cassava peel silage can be a viable option for sheep feeding in the dry season when grass quality is low.
The effects of SO2 and NO2 on stress-related enzymes in Amaranthus hybridus [AH] and Lycopersicon esculentum [LE] were studied. The plants were exposed to SO2 and NO2 generated by chemical reaction in a chamber for one hour every day for three weeks. After exposure, chlorophyll content, ascorbic acid, catalase, proline content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase from leaf samples were assessed. Catalase contents decreased (AH: 84.31 ± 2.56 and LE: 50.52 ± 1.74) in the plants relative to control samples, which showed appreciable retention (AH: 98.59 ± 4.70 and LE: 91.84 ± 7.12). Plants showed more reduction in peroxidase due to exposure to NO2 compared to values obtained in plants treated with SO2. Meanwhile, lower values of ascorbic acid and chlorophyll contents were obtained in plants exposed to SO2 and NO2 gases. On the other hand, proline content increased after exposure to the gases. Morphological disorders, such as leaf browning, chlorosis and shrinkage of leaves were also noticeable. So, it is apparent that plants exposed to elevated SO2 and NO2 gases did not exhibit sufficient capacity to counteract the stress imposed by these gases.
An experiment was conducted at Andalas University area to evaluate the efficacy of plant extracts on the growth and yield of maize. The first trial was testing the crude extracts of several plants on vegetative growth of maize factorial completely randomized design (CRD). The first factor crude extract sources from five species of plants, and the second factor was levels of extract concentration. The second trial was application of the purified extracts on growth and yield of maize using factorial CRD. First factor was the purified extract concentrations, and second factor was application frequencies. Results showed that application of 100 mg/L crude extract of Gleicheni linearis leaves was the most effective in increasing plant height and leaf area, compared to control. Treatment with 100 mg/L crude extract was better than the purified one. However, application of purified extract resulted in lower growth and yield of maize compared to control. The highest growth and yield attributes were recorded in 100 mg/L crude extract of G. linearis when applied at 15 days after planting (DAP). Further experimentation is needed for confirmation of the results.
The effects of crude glycerin, a by-product from palm oil biodiesel production, supplemented in broiler diet on growth performance and carcass quality were studied. Four hundred 1-day-old-male Cobb 500 were randomly allotted into a completely randomized design of five groups consisting of four replications per group. Control diet and diets containing with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% of glycerin in pellet form were fed ad libitum to the broilers from 1 day of age until the age of 42 days. At the end of the experiment, eight broilers per treatment were slaughtered for carcass quality study. From the results, no significant difference was found in live weight change and feed intake with those receiving diets with and without glycerin supplementation. However, low growth performance and carcass yield were indicated when the levels of glycerin increased, particularly at 10%. No effect of dietary treatments on physical properties of the breast meat (P > 0.05). Therefore, this study recommended for mixing crude glycerin not >5% in the broiler diets. Furthermore, the inclusion of glycerin in the diets did not show any influence on the pH, tCIE color, shear force, drip, and cooking loss percentages of the breast meat (P > 0.05).
Soil CO2 efflux, in relation with chronosequence at oil palm and rubber plantations, was measured monthly, each with both 6- and 22-year-old stands. Other environmental factors such as soil temperature and relative humidity (RH), as well as soil properties, were also measured at 0–30 cm depth. Soil CO2 efflux was found to be highly affected by forest types and chronosequence factor. The 22-year-old age stand (M = 0.91; SD = 0.17 g CO2 m-2 h-1) had significantly higher soil CO2 efflux than the 6-year-old stand (M = 0.54; SD = 0.18 g CO2 m-2 h-1). Soil RH plays a significant role controlling soil CO2 efflux compared with soil temperature, especially at younger stands of tropical oil palm and rubber plantations spatially. Lower Q10 values were found to be caused by higher temperature that had reduced enzymatic and substrates activities for soil respiration. Non-discernible trends of temporal soil CO2 efflux, soil temperature, and RH indicated that other significant factors could be the catalyst, and thus further research is required to explain the relations between soil CO2 efflux and environmental factors. Research findings indicated that older stand age of oil palm and rubber plantations in Malaysia released higher soil CO2 efflux, but with no degrading effects towards the environment.
The study was carried out during the 2013–2014, 2014–2015, and 2015–2016 seasons in an insect-proof nethouse at the Centre of Excellence for Vegetables, an Indo-Israel project, at Gharaunda (Karnal), India. The aim was to examine the effect of foliar application of potassium at 1.0 (K1), 2.5 (K2), or 5.0 g/L (K3), and gibberellic acid (GA3) at 0.005 (G1), 0.010 (G2), or 0.015 g/L (G3), used alone and in combinations on fruit quality and storability of the parthenocarpic cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) 'KUK 9' and 'Sevenstar' stored at high (27°C) and low (10°C) temperatures. Among individual treatments, foliar application of K2 alone resulted in least weight loss, electrolyte leakage, and fruit decay percent. The fruit from the treatment combination of G2 + K2 was best in total soluble solids, with reduced weight loss, electrolyte leakage, and less decay compared to fruit from other treatments or the control. Fruit of 'KUK 9' exhibited better shelf-life than did 'Sevenstar'. Storability of fruit from plants treated with K and GA3, either alone, or in combination, was found to be better, as it minimized fruit weight loss and decayed fruit, and extended the storage life of parthenocarpic cucumber.
Cucumis sativus, F1 hybrid, fruit quality, fruit storability, total soluble solids
Gunung Tahan is the highest mountain peak in Peninsular Malaysia (2187 m a.s.l.) and is a part of Taman Negara Pahang that houses many rare and endemic species of flora and fauna. This account is conducted to evaluate, compile, and update the orchids collections from Gunung Tahan after almost 126 years, since the first botanical exploration was conducted by H.N. Ridley and other foreign botanist. The compilation presented in this study resulted in 294 species obtained from the selected herbarium, published record, and current expedition. A total of 57 species were recorded for recent work, out of which 18 species were new discoveries for Merapoh Trail and thus reported as new records for Gunung Tahan. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species version 2017.3 listed two species; Claderia viridiflora Hook.f. and Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames as least concern species and Paphiopedilum bullenianum (Rchb.f.) Pfitzer as endangered species. The list of the compiled species from herbarium and published records for Gunung Tahan is also included.
Botanical collections, herbarium, H. C. Robinson, H. N. Ridley, Orchidaceae, Pahang
The water availability in tidal swamp land type C is similar to the rain-fed area. However, waterlogging may occur if the irrigation system is not good. This experiment aimed to study the effect of different planting dates in growth, yield, and phenology of different soybean lines grown under tidal swamp land. A randomized complete block design was repeated four times, each planting date differed 46 days apart. Interaction of genotype and planting date were demonstrated by days to flowering and days to maturity. Different response on days to flowering and days to maturity showed that the tested genotypes had phenological adaptation on a particular planting date. No interaction was shown by other agronomical traits, even though the genotypes were significantly different. Most of the lines had similar seed yield to the control varieties. The genotype of Menyapa (G12) had the largest number of filled pods, but the seed size was the smallest. Consequently, the seed yield of G12 was lower than the genotypes with the slightly lower number of filled pods and larger seed size. The shortest maturity genotypes of Tgm/Brg-584 (G10) also showed similar seed yield to the control varieties. Seed size is substantially responsible for the performance of seed yield. The most promising lines was Snb/1087-148-2-1 (G4), because this line had high yield and large seed size. Interaction in phenological response reflecting in days to flowering and days to maturity was not followed by agronomical traits suggesting that the effect of phenological traits to agronomical traits is weak. Therefore, the soybean promising lines can be grown at those two planting dates.
Ear leaf as a vegetative part has proven to be useful for evaluation of nutritional indices in maize and for making predictions about yield. This study was conducted to determine the stability of ear leaves nutrient under varying fertilizer applications and their relationship with grain yield. Thirty-five (35) nutrient omission trials were established in four locations using two maize varieties; IWD (OPV) and Oba Super-9 (hybrid) making a total of eight environments in 2015 wet season across the Guinea Savannas of Nigeria. Ten ear leaves were sampled in the period between tasseling and silking immediately when the position of the ear was identified and analyzed for macro and micro elements. The results showed that environment contributed to most of the variability observed in all the elements rather than the treatments. The GGEbiplot showed that Mg, Mn, and Cu are positively associated with grain yield and are the most stable elements. The confirmatory analysis also showed the importance of these elements in predicting grain yield. The environment has demonstrated to be a major determinant of ear leaves elements in maize. Therefore, accurate envirotyping of maize producing regions in Nigeria is important for better classification of maize-growing regions.
A protocol for rapid micropropagation of Artocarpus heterophyllusfrom seeds of a single fruit was established. The seeds were successfully sterilised using 40% Clorox (20 min) + 20% Clorox (15 min) and 50% Clorox (20 min) + 20% Clorox (15 min). The survivability percentage was 44.44%, while the contamination percentage was 14.81%. Experiments to assess the effect of shoot tip and different node positions on shoot induction, and to test the effect of decapitation on shoot proliferation were performed. The explants used for both experiments were derived from 8-week-old seedlings grown in half-strength MS basal media supplemented with 2.5 mg/L BAP. There was no significant difference in terms of percentage of explants regenerating shoots and mean shoot number produced per explants. However, node 2 significantly produced the highest mean shoot length (2.53 cm). In the decapitation experiment, there was no significant difference in terms of percentage of explants regenerating shoots and mean shoot length. Nevertheless, decapitated shoots significantly produced the highest mean shoot number per explant (18.33). 2.5 mg/L BAP was chosen as the best treatment for shoot induction from seed with a mean shoot number of 7.33 and mean shoot length of 2.95 cm. For shoot multiplication, 1.0 mg/L BAP significantly produced the highest mean shoot number (17.13), while 5.0 mg/L BAP significantly produced the highest shoot length (2.95 cm). For rooting, IBA at 2.5 mg/L and 5.0 mg/L produced the highest mean root number at 18.73 and 17.27 respectively. The highest mean root length (3.37 cm) was significantly obtained in the control treatment. The plantlets were successfully acclimatised in a potting mixture consisting of top soil and organic soil (1:1) with 88.89% survival rate.
Threadfin bream was hydrolyzed by enzymatic hydrolysis for 120 min (60°C) at pH 8.5, enzyme:substrate ratio 1:3 using Flavourzyme 500 L to produce the threadfin bream hydrolysate (TBH). Bouillon cubes prepared by incorporating TBH or isolated soy protein (ISP) were then analyzed for physicochemical and functional properties, sensory properties and acceptability. Results showed that bouillon cubes added with TBH contain 23.05% protein and 18.53% fat. Solubility, hardness and fracturability of bouillon cubes containing TBH were better than those incorporated with ISP. SDS–PAGE results indicated the presence of short peptides of <20 kDa especially in bouillon cubes with the addition of TBH. The bouillon cubes had bitter and umami taste with intensities of respectively, 9.88 and 11.70 compared to the reference solutions; 12.10 and 12.01. Moreover, functional group analysis showed the existence of amines and carbonyl group peaks. Based on its binding capacity, TBH can be used as partial ingredient in the development of bouillon cube.
A morphometric analysis was conducted on Rhynchophorus vulneratus and R. ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from insular and mainland populations. Twenty-three morphological characters were measured and the data were analysed using independent t-test, principal component analysis (PCA) and discrimination function analysis (DFA). Using independent t-test, all characters were found to be significant at p < 0.05, except distance between eyes (ED), mesotarsus length (F2Ta) and metatarsus length (F3Ta). In PCA, cumulative variations of 80.7% were recorded from the first two principal components, resulting from high loadings in elytra length (EL), elytra width (EW) and pronotum length (PL). For DFA, a single function explained a canonical correlation of 0.952 with 100.0% of variation and the Wilk's Lambda statistics (0.094) was strongly supported with p < 0.0001. The highest character loadings were the total length (TL), elytra width (EW) and pronotum length (PL), which were useful as diagnostic characters for separating both Rhynchophorus species. Therefore, this study suggests that R. vulneratus and R. ferrugineus are morphologically distinct species. This finding proves that the insular population of R. vulneratus fits the generality of the 'island rule' as being larger compared to the mainland counterparts of R. ferrugineus .
The ATP-Binding Cassette transporters (ABC transporters) function in various physiological activity, allowing vertebrate to thrive even in polluted environment. The objective of this study is to discover ABC genes in Rasbora sarawakensis, a species endemic to Borneo and to understand the respective genes regulation. In this research, nine gene partial transcripts were isolated via RT-PCR and cloning approaches. Our study showed that most gene transcripts identified share high identities with conserved motif distributions across family. Further phylogenetic analysis revealed a clear divergence into three major functional clades (A2, E1, F1; D2; B4, B8, C2, G2). Expression profiles in six tissues (i.e., brain, eye, gill, intestine, muscle, and skin) revealed divergence that shed light on tissue-specific gene functional specialization, with highlight on B4, B8, and E1 which are expressed in all six organs. The brain and eye were also found to express all ABC genes selected in this study. In conclusion, nucleotide profiles of these genes are comparable to the phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns across family. This study implies that an alternative vertebrate model organism can possibly complement the current zebrafish researches.
Fungal pathogens are useful in biocontrol of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) for efficient weed management. Although parthenium is a major problem in Malaysia, no initiative for developing biocontrol method has been taken yet. Therefore, a field study was conducted at Kg. Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Latitude: 2020'55"N, Longitude: 102017'33'' E), Malaysia in August 2017 to isolate disease-causing pathogens of parthenium weed. Diseased parthenium leaves with symptoms of yellowish-brown leaf blight and the parthenium stem with reddish-brown cankers on the basal part were collected and examined after they were cultured in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. Isolated fungus was identified based on morphological and microscopy analyses. Two isolates, UMKRSPL1 and UMKRSPS1, were isolated qualitatively from the infected leaves and stem respectively, that yielded dark-brown colonies of sclerotia on PDA. Under the microscopic study, the mycelia with multi-nucleolus hyphal cells were noted, which were septate and hyaline. The hyphae branched at right and acute angles to the primary hypha. There was no conidium. Pathogenicity of the fungus proved to cause similar symptoms on new, fresh parthenium leaf. Based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the pathogen was identified as Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. There is no published study on R. solani isolated from P. hysterophorus in Malaysia. This is the first research on the species found on parthenium weed in the country. The identification of pathogens from parthenium weed would help develop bioherbicide by extracting the toxins produced by the fungus in the media broth for effective control of P. hysterophorus in Malaysia.
Herbs and medicinal plants are major sources of traditional or folk medicines for many countries of the world, including Malaysia. This study evaluated the bioactive potential of the leaf ethanolic extract and solvent fractions of Cosmos Caudatus Kunth, in scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the enzyme Î±-glucosidase. In addition, their metabolite profiles were also characterized using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The bioactivity was found to be concentrated in the EtOAc and BuOH fractions which largely contained rutin, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-xyloside, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, and quercetin 3-O-galactoside, as profiled by LC-MS/MS. It was further shown that the flavonoids glycosides contributed to the free radical scavenging and glucose lowering effects of C. caudatus leaves. The results indicated that the leaves of C. caudatus are a rich source of bioactive compounds and could be prospective materials for development of new anti-diabetic agents.
Due to rubber price fluctuations in Thailand, the rubber smallholders there have been forced to adjust their farming strategies to cope with the new economic, social conditions. The objective of this study is to analyse the livelihood system and factors influencing the sensitivity of livelihood system and show the relationship between the production management, and livelihood system in order to get the highest productivity and sustainable livelihoods of farmer households. The study area is Songkhla Province in Ratthaphum (Tha Cha Moung), Na Thawi (Klongsai) and Khuan Niang (Ratthaphum) districts selected using a purposive sampling method. Using a structured questionnaire interview, in-depth interview the key performance and focus group were used to collect data from 228 rubber farmer households. Sixty representative farms from three communities were selected evaluated based on their net farm income, comparing the farm type, again using a semi-structured interview and in-depth interviews. Key performance and focus group discussions were used to collect data, then analysed using content analysis, frequency, percentage, mean and multiple regression. The study found that the total income of monocrop system had the least. The highest was fruits (durian, mangosteen, rambutan, wollongong and banana). The livelihood of rubber smallholders practicing monocrop system reflected high economic capital but moderate social capital when compared to other rubber farming systems. Comparing all four rubber farming systems, integrated fruit estate offered the best interest for rubber smallholders.
Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most well-known fishery products and has high market value. In contrast, production of vannamei shrimp is facing threats from several diseases caused by bacteria, virus, and even parasites that attack the shrimp immune system. The purpose of this study is to identify the immunomodulatory effect of Eucheuma serra extract to enhance haemocyte cells production in Litopenaeus vannamei as the non-specific internal immune substance. The research method used was a complete randomised design with 5 concentrations of injected Eucheuma serra extract treatments and one placebo as control. Eucheuma serra extract administered on shrimp abdomen and the haemocyte cell samples collected from shrimp on day 0 and day 6. Treatment using 8 ppm injected Eucheuma serra extract showed the highest haemocyte cell amount increase about 15.90 million cells/ml in 6 days after injection. Statistical calculation using ANOVA test showed a significant difference in the amount of haemocyte cell at before and after treatment.
Effort to improve the functional properties of jackfruit seed flour has been made by introducing Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation on the jackfruit chips, which are latter processed into flour. The jackfruit chips were fermented using L. plantarum for up to 32 hours, and air dried before they were grounded to pass through an 80 mesh sifter. The results of the experiment showed water holding capacity (WHC) of fermented flour was higher compared with that of the unfermented. The longer fermentation time, the higher the WHC of the flour. In contrast, the flour oil holding capacity (OHC) decreased during longer incubation time, indicating that some shorter amyloses were released during fermentation. Earlier studies on pasting characteristics of jackfruit seed showed that the peak, setback and breakdown viscosity of fermented jackfruit seed flour were higher compared with that of unfermented flour, indicating that fermented flour will have a higher thickening power and is more susceptible to heat and mechanical shear. This finding indicates L. plantarum fermentation will increase the potency of jackfruit seed flour for food industry application either as a thickener and or biodegradable film. Furthermore, HPLC analysis of the soluble saccharide of fermented flour showed the differences of oligosaccharides content such as raffinose, stachiose and verbaschose, indicating the capability of the enzymes released by L. plantarum during fermentation to hydrolyse the starch to become shorter oligosaccharide but without monosaccharide.
Oil holding capacity, pasting properties, raffinose, stachiose, water holding capacity
Bar cookies are generally consumed as snacks. This product is considered as emergency food that is easy to consume, provides sufficient calories and adequate nutrients. This study evaluates the quality of bar cookies based on their sensory and chemical characteristics. The cookies made from mung bean flour and ripe plantain var. Raja. There were four ratios of formulation i.e. 10 % mung bean flour with 90 % ripe plantain puree (P1), 20 % mung bean flour with 80 ripe plantain puree (P2), 30% mung bean flour with 70 % ripe plantain puree (P3) and 40 % mung bean flour with 60 % ripe plantain puree (P4). The cookie bars were evaluated based on their sensory attributes by using preference test. Chemical characteristics were based on the proximate analysis (water, ash, protein, lipid and carbohydrate content). The preferred formula of the bar cookies was 20 % mung bean flour with 80 ripe plantain puree (P2). Sensory characteristics of the preferred bar cookies were 3.29 colour; 2.93 aroma; 3.39 flavour; 2.89 texture; and 3.29 overall with the scale dislike (1) to like (5). Chemical characteristics of preferred bar cookies (P2) were 36.53 % water, 2.60 % db ash, 10.86 % db fat, 11.69 % db protein, 36.06 % db carbohydrate. The proximate composition for formulation of the bar cookies is significant.
Bar cookies, emergency food, mung bean flour, plantain
Dengue is an emergent disease transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitos prominent in tropical countries. Numerous methods have been used to prevent the spread of Dengue fever, such as fogging and treatment using anti-larvae chemicals, yet these methods are harmful. Bacillus thuringiensis found in Aedes aegypti larvae is capable of producing endotoxin that able to kill insects without any side effect on humans, thus it is able to control Dengue vectors without any adverse effects to the environment. Aedes aegypti larvae were crushed and mixed with saline solution to isolate the bacteria in the larvae. From all bacterial colonies extracted from the larvae, 13 colonies with appearance closest to Bacillus colonies were screened using gram staining, spore staining, and biochemical testing. From 13 colonies, 8 of them were further analysed using ARDRA and cry1A gene amplification. These analyses showed one of the colonies had cry1A gene, which indicated the colony was Bacillus thuringiensis. The isolated Bacillus thuringiensis was used for endotoxin production and efficacy assays.
In the present study, chitinolytic thermophilic bacteria were collected from Cangar hot spring, East Java, Indonesia and screened. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to identify the isolated bacterium which showed highest chitinolytic activity. The identified isolate was then characterised based on morphological and physiological analyses. The results showed the isolated bacterium belonged to Bacillus licheniformis. This isolate produced large amounts of chitinase on 0.9% (w/v) colloidal chitin (pH 7.0) at 52°C in a very short time (24 hours). Two pairs of primer were designed to detect the presence of glycosyl hydrolase (GH) 18 chitin domain sequences in the isolated bacterium. Two amplicons sized ~250 bp and ~1000 bp were obtained from PCR process. Then the amplicons were sequenced and analysed. The sequencing results showed the isolated Bacillus licheniformis was proven to have genes encoding ChiA and ChiC domain.
A newly keratin-degrading bacterium was isolated from a residential soil at Wajak district, Malang, East Java, Indonesia. Sequence homology analysis showed the 16S rRNA had only 89% sequence identity to the available bacterial 16S rRNA which led to a discovery of a new species of Bacillus. The bacterium was named Bacillus sp MD24. The isolated bacterium degraded 71% mass of whole chicken feathers within 10 days. Keratinase fermentation using 1% of chicken feathers as sole source of carbon and nitrogen exhibited highest enzyme activity at third day under optimum condition (pH of 8 and temperature of 37oC). At enzyme concentration of 0.3 U/mL, the crude extract keratinase started to exhibit dehairing activity on goat skin after an overnight incubation; the best incubation was achieved at 72 hours. Surface of enzymatically dehaired goat skin was compared to chemically dehaired skin goat. The result showed similar or improved surface of the skin which makes the crude keratinase from Bacillus sp MD24 a potential candidate for application in leather industry to avoid pollution problems due to the use of chemicals.
Carwash wastewater (CW) contains potentially harmful compounds. Due to water scarcity, its reuse is indispensable. Phytoremediation is one of methods to eliminate pollutants by using plants, such as vetiver grass. This study observed the growth characteristic of vetiver in CW and its capacity in pollutant removal. Treatment with two factors and three replicates was done: Media for vetiver growth was tap water (TW) without carwash wastewater (M0), mixture of 50% tap water + 50% carwash wastewater (M1), and 100% of carwash wastewater without tap water (M2). Media grown without and with vetiver was of V0 and V1 respectively. Individual stem of vetiver was planted hydroponically in a chamber. Plant growth was observed once a week. At the harvesting (day 70), root, stem and leaf of the vetiver were collected separately Results showed that vetiver has a capacity to adapt, survive and growing in CW media. Plant generation achieved 70.1-81.8%, 60.6-75.8%, and 71.7-78.5% for stem, leaf and root respectively. Within 70 days, the pollutant that covered of 78.5 and 57.9% N, 83.5 and 69.0% P, 76.0 and 65.3% COD, 68.6 and 64.8% BOD, 81.3 and 59.5% detergent, 98.6 and 95.8% phenol, 73.3 and 61.5% Pb, and 88.5 and 82.8% Zn could be removed by vetiver, i.e. in growth media M1 and M2, respectively.
The aims of the present study are to isolate and characterise structure TLR3 and IL1β gene and evaluate the potential and signaling mechanism following exposure of Polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Zymosan as antigens in gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy). Gouramy kidney cells were stimulated with LPS, Poly I:C and Zymosan. Following incubation at 28°C, relative expression levels of Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were examined at one hour and six hour after treatment. A Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction approach was utilised to search for the effects of Poly I:C, LPS, and Zymosan exposure to gouramy kidney cells between one hour to six hours after treatment, LPS in kidney cell increased expression of interleukin-1β and downregulated expression of TLR3. Poly (I:C) which is an antigen that responds to antiviral, induces an increase in the transcription both of Toll like receptor 3 and IL-1β. Zymosan in kidney cells increased expression of TLR3 but downregulated expression of IL1β. This study shows that TLR3 was activated not only by Poly I: C but also LPS and Zymosan. However, antigen Poly IC-induced labor IL-1β and TLR3 expressed higher than the antigen LPS and Zymosan, so, this research showed a TLR3 response to Poly I:C is more dominant than Zymosan and LPS. TLR3 in gouramy kidney cell transcript was identified in response to poly I:C, Zymosan, and LPS. These results indicate that TLR3 in gouramy also plays a role for defense against bacterial infection and virus.
Cabe Jawa (Piper retrofractum Vahl.) is categorised in Piper's genus under family piperaceae. It is commonly reported to function as antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory. The aim of this study is to obtain information on the isolation of secondary metabolites from n-hexane extract of Cabe Jawa fruits. The isolation stage began with the maceration method with n-hexane solvent, then continued with purification stage of fractination compounds which was conducted by using several chromatography techniques including thin layer chromatography (TLC), vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC), and radial chromatography. Methyl piperate compound was isolated from this extract. The structure of this compound was determined using spectroscopic 1H NMR. Based on the results of spectroscopic, analysis of 1H NMR was present at a chemical shift of 3.80 ppm singlet peak with integrity of 3H was the typical peak of a methoxy. At 6.12 ppm chemical shift indicated a signal peak for protons bound to C sp2. Chemical shift at 6.96 ppm to 7.13 ppm for proton groups was attached to benzene ring. From the results of 1H NMR spectrum assisted by biogenesis approach, it is concluded that the purified compound successfully isolated was a methyl piperate compound.
The present study is aimed at investigating the subchronic toxicity of ethanol extract of Mucuna pruriens seeds from Indonesia. A total of 120 rats Wistar strain, both sexes, were used in this study. Both were divided into one control group, three treated groups, and two satellite groups. The extract in different doses was administered orally for 90 days for the treated groups, while 120 days for the satellite groups. The subchronic toxicity was evaluated using various parameters including death, motoric activity, body weight, haematology parameters, biochemical parameters, and organ weight along with the histopathological study. There was no mortality and no significant change in motoric activity, body weight, several haematological parameters, and glucose levels. Significant differences were found in levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, AST and ALT, BUN, and creatinine. Degeneration of some tissues was seen in the kidneys and the liver. The ethanol extract of Mucuna pruriens seeds from Indonesia has a reversible subchronic toxicity to the liver and kidneys.
The aim of this study was to investigate the survival rates and the behavioural responses of Holothuria leucospilota under hypoxia stress condition. A total of 15 H. leucospilota were collected from Rambut Island, in Thousand Islands, Jakarta, Indonesia. They were exposed to three different dissolved oxygen concentrations (i.e. 2 mg O2 L-1 , 3 mg O2 L-1 , >6 mg O2 L-1 ). Mortality was measured at the 4th and 6th day by adding 2 mg O2 L-1 and 3 mg O2 L-1 of dissolved oxygen concentrations respectively. The survival rates of H. leucospilota significantly decreased by 80% at 2 mg O2 L-1 and 40% at 3 mg O2 L-1 compared to > 6 mg O2 L-1 in which total survival was 100% at the end of 22 days of exposure to hypoxia. The behavioural responses of H. leucospilota to hypoxia stress were shown by decreased metabolic activity by releasing the contents of their stomach described as cuvierian tubules. The lower dissolved oxygen concentrations at 2 mg O2 L-1 and 3 mg O2 L-1 showed a higher metabolic rate in 20% and 50 % of individual organisms during 18 days hypoxia exposure. If their metabolic rate is high, they will need more energy reserves to compensate it. The result of this study revealed that the lowest dissolved oxygen at 2 mg O2 L-1 can exert a stress on H. leucospilota which can lead to a high mortality and an impairment of behavioural responses.
Production of Nannochloropsis oculata or a marine eukaryotic unicellular phytoplankton was the focus of this study. The cultivation of outdoor red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) in the tank and indoor was compared in producing phytoplankton. Initial density of N. oculata for both culture systems was 0.5 Ã— 106 cell/ml. Findings showed the highest density of N. oculata was attained from tilapia culture system at 9.6x106 cell/ml harvested at day 7 while in pure culture system was 8.5 x106 cell/ml harvested at day 4. Contamination was dominated by protozoa (Gymnodinium sp.), range of 4.80-36.67 Ã— 103 individual cells/ml and 0.00-41.10 Ã— 103 individual cell/ml at both tilapia culture and pure culture systems respectively. Levels of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate in tilapia culture systems had significantly lower (P < 0.05) concentration. In contrast, total bacteria including vibrio yellow colonies showed higher concentration in tilapia culture system but remained insignificant (P > 0.05) for vibrio green colonies in both systems. This study concluded Tilapia culture system is as effective as pure culture system to produce N. oculata based on production and quality.
Nannochloropsis oculata, pure culture system, tilapia culture system