The search for a high temperature lead-free solder replacement for high temperature leaded solder eutectic alloy has been an evolving process as the threat of a regional lead ban became a reality in July 2006. The advantages and disadvantages of lead-free solder in terms of manufacturing, performance and reliability have been increasingly revealed through companies’ Research and Development (R&D), industrial consortia and university researchers. Materials and component design are the primary criteria to focus on the development for the current generation of high temperature lead-free solder alloys. According to the current status of high temperature lead free soldering, there are many unsolved technical problems such as explanation on the lift-off phenomenon, establishment of high temperature lead-free plating technology, construction of a database of physical properties (solder, parts, PCBs), standardization of high temperature solder materials evaluation technology, and most importantly, the best candidate material for high temperature solder. Clearly, high temperature soldering is one of the unsolved problems of the century in lead-free soldering. Moreover, most of the questions still remain unanswered by researchers. This paper reviews research conducted on the Bi-Ag solder alloy, which is one of the candidate alloys that has been proposed as an alternative for high temperature lead-free solder.
The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a multi-carrier modulation (MCM) technique which is adopted by many wireless communication standards for transmitting data at very high rates over time dispersive radio channels. In an OFDM system, the timing estimation is extremely important for maintaining orthogonality among the subcarriers. In this paper, a method of timing estimation is proposed for an OFDM system. The proposed method used chirp signal as a training sequence and employed the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) as a tool to localize the training sequence (chirp) at the receiver. The comparative study showed the superiority of the proposed estimator in terms of mean and MSE of timing offset. The MSE of timing offset with proposed method was found to be 76% (5 dB SNR) and 63% (8 dB SNR) lower than Awoseyila et al.’s method in HIPERLAN/2 indoor channel-A and in Wi-Max system (strong fading channel), respectively. However, the improvement in MSE is obtained in the proposed method at the cost of increased computational complexity, in terms of more complex multiplication than the Awoseyila et al.’s method.
Linear array of permutations is hard to be factorised. However, by using a starter set, the process of listing the permutations becomes easy. Once the starter sets are obtained, the circular and reverse of circular operations are easily employed to produce distinct permutations from each starter set. However, a problem arises when the equivalence starter sets generate similar permutations and, therefore, willneed to be discarded. In this paper, a new recursive strategy is proposed to generate starter sets that will not incur equivalence by circular operation. Computational advantages are presented that compare the results obtained by the new algorithm with those obtained using two other existing methods. The result indicates that the new algorithm is faster than the other two in time execution.
In this work, 10 mol% yttrium-doped ceria powders, Ce0.9Y0.1O1.95, were synthesised using a new mechanical technique, mechanochemical reaction, in which both impact action and shearing forces were applied for efficient fine grinding, subsequently leading to higher homogeneity of the resultant powders. , Ce0.9Y0.1O1.95 prepared using this new technique was systematically compared with a sample of the same prepared using conventional solid-state methodology. X-ray diffraction analysis showed all prepared samples were single phase with a cubic fluorite structure. Generally, Y2O3-doped CeO2 electrolytes prepared by mechanochemical reactions were stable at a lower temperature (1100 °C) compared with a sample of the same synthesised using the conventional solid-state method. Characterisations using differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed no thermal changes and phase transitions, indicating all materials were thermally stable. The electrical properties of the samples investigated by AC impedance spectroscopy in the temperature range 200–800 °C are presented and discussed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphology of the materials. Fine-grained powders with uniform grain-size distribution were obtained from the mechanochemical reaction.
This paper describes a study on the design, fabrication and testing of a prototype digging device for sweet potato tubers in bris soil. The soil texture was sandy soil (fine sand 94.53%), with mean moisture content of 9.16% and mean bulk density of 1.44 g-cm-3. The soil was prepared in a soil bin. Three types of soil digging tools were designed and fabricated to determine the optimum draft force. These were Flat or plane, V-shaped and Hoe type blades. Plane and V-shaped blades were 30 cm long, and 13 cm wide, while the Hoe type had three rods, 25 mm in diameter, 30 cm long and 6.5 cm wide with sharp cutting edge. The digging tools were tested in a soil bin filled with bris soil to determine the optimum draft force and area of soil disturbance. The results were analysed using statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Comparison between all blade types and blade depths to measured draft force and the area of soil disturbed showed that the highest draft of 0.54 kN-m-2 was caused by a flat or plane blade at the optimum depth of 20 cm when the area of soil disturbed was 0.180 m2. The V-shaped blade had the mean draft of 0.51 kN-m-2, with area of soil disturbance of 0.185 m2. The best choice was V-shaped blade with a rake angle of 30o at 20 cm. depth. The selected blade was fixed onto the sweet potato harvester and tested on bris soil planted with sweet potato of Telong and VitAto varieties. The harvesting efficiency of the machine in bris soil was 93.64% and 90.49% for Telong (Plot A) and VitAto (Plot B) varieties, respectively. The average ground speed and turning time during operation for plots A and B was 0.56 km-hr-1 and 102.7 s and 0.99 km-hr-1 and 81.22 s, respectively. The harvesting efficiencies for both plots showed no significant difference. The total productive time (harvesting time) and unproductive time (turning time) in plot A, at a tractor speed of 0.56 km.hr-1, was 14.8 hours for harvesting a hectare of sweet potato ( 0.068 ha.hr-1). In plot B, the total time for harvesting a hectare of sweet potato was 8.35 hours (0.12 ha.hr-1) at a tractor speed of 0.99 km.hr-1. The average harvesting time for both plots was 11.47 hr.ha-1. The average field work rate was 0.087 ha.hr-1 or 34 man-hr.ha-1 compared to manual harvesting of 150 man-hrs.ha-1.
Land development, especially construction works, increase storm water volumes and pollution loads into rivers and lakes. The temporary drainage system at construction sites, particularly during the construction stage discharges a large amount of pollutants that can damage the aquatic system of the receiving water bodies. The potential of vegetative swale to alleviate this problem was evaluated. The size of the constructed vegetative swale was 7cm deep, 400cm long and 15cm wide at the bottom, and 17cm wide at the top. The experiment was conducted batch wise by filling the storage tank with the run-off water from the construction site. The water was allowed to flow through a pipe into the retention basin to maintain uniform flow before it entered the swale. The study showed that the run-off infiltrated through the soil at a rate of 489.6 mm/hr. Samples of surface run-off and infiltration water were collected at the end and the bottom of the swale. The results indicate that chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS), turbidity, iron and zinc were reduced by 85.4%, 80.8%, 36.4%, 52.8% and 96.0%, respectively, by surface flow and 91.1%, 98.8%, 58.2% 55.5% and 98.1%, respectively, by infiltration. Removal of nitrate and phosphorus by the planted vegetation was 69.4% and 21.1%, respectively, by infiltration. However, nutrient removal by surface flow was negligible. In conclusion, the vegetative swale was able to improve the water quality of the storm water run-off from the construction site from Class V to Class III, according to the Interim National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia.
Construction site, Storm water run-off, Vegetative swale, Water quality
Liberica coffee is the most important coffee species grown in Malaysia. However, there is little or no research at all conducted on coffee berries and green coffee beans since the plant itself is a low income crop in Malaysia. Therefore, research on Malaysian Liberica coffee can help to increase the knowledge of coffee farmers and coffee manufacturers in the processing and handling of the coffee. Physical properties of Liberica coffee berries and beans were investigated the current study. The properties investigated include the size, mass, density, coefficient of friction, angle of repose, fracture force and colour. In comparison to Arabica and Robusta coffee, Liberica coffee has the biggest size, mass, true density and fracture force values but were lower in bulk density in both berries and beans. The Liberica berries and beans were found to be orange-ish and yellowish colour respectively. Angle of repose was low and approximately similar in berries and beans while jute fibre gave the highest friction to both Liberica berries and beans.
Autocorrelation problem causes unduly effects on the variance of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimates. Hence, it is very essential to detect the autocorrelation problem so that appropriate remedial measures can be taken. The Breusch-Godfrey (BG) test is the most popular and commonly used test for the detection of autocorrelation. Since this test is based on the OLS estimates, which are not robust, it is easily affected by outliers. In this paper, we propose a robust Breusch-Godfrey (MBG) test which is not easily affected by outliers. The results of the study indicate that the MBG test is more powerful than the BG test in the detection of autocorrelation problem.
Autocorrelation, outliers, robust Breusch-Godfrey test
An audit of Diabetes Control and Management-Diabetes Registry Malaysia (ADCM-DRM) was started to monitor the provision of diabetes care in the country. A total of 20,646 patients were registered in the registry until 31st December 2008. This report set out to determine the Type 2 diabetes controls and treatment profiles of these cohorts of patients. This was a registry-based observational study conducted from May to December, 2008. An online standard case record form was available for site data providers to register their diabetic patients aged 18 years old and above annually. Demographic data, diabetes duration, treatment modalities, as well as various risk factors and diabetes complications were reported. Data were analyzed using Data Analysis and Statistical Software (Stata) version 9. A total of 81 centres, 6 of which were hospitals, participated in this registry until 31st December 2008, contributing a total of 20646 patients. A majority of them (99.2%) had Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean HbA1c was 8.0% (SD 2.10), with 30.1% and 17.9% of the patients who attained HbA1c < 7% and HbA1c < 6.5%, respectively. Metformin was prescribed more than sulfonylurea while only 11% had insulin. A review of the diabetic care policy and strategies in the primary health care clinics is needed to implement a more effective treatment of diabetes in this country.
Primary care, Registries, Glycaemic control, Hypoglycaemic agents
The computer, together with Lab View software, can be used as an automatic data acquisition system. This project deals with the development of a computer interfacing technique for the study of Hall Effect and converting the existing automation system into a Web-based automation system. The drive board RS 217-3611 with PCI 6025E card and stepper motor RS191-8340 with a resolution of 0.1mm, was used to move a pair of permanent magnets backward and forward against the sample. The General Interface Bus (GPIB) card interfaces, together with digital nano voltmeter and Tesla meter using serial port RS232 interface, are used for measuring the potential difference and magnetic field strength respectively. Hall Effect measurement on copper (Cu) and tantalum (Ta) showed negative and positive sign Hall coefficient. Therefore, the system has electron and hole charge carriers respectively at room temperature. The parameters such as drift velocity, conductivity, mobility, Hall Coefficient and charge carrier concentration were also automatically displayed on the front panel of Lab View programming and compared with standard value. The Web-based automation system can be remotely controlled and monitored by users in remote locations using only their web browsers. In addition, video conferencing through Net Meeting has been used to provide audio and video feedback to the client.
Interface, Hall Effect, Web-based automation system
This study was performed to evaluate the antifungal activities of methanolic fractions from the stem bark of Entada spiralis Ridl. against human dermatophytes and yeast-like fungus in vitro. Three types of human dermatophyte, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 9533, Microsporum gypseum ATCC 24102 and Trichophyton tonsurans ATCC 28942, and one yeast-like fungus, Candida glabrata ATCC 66032, were tested against the methanolic fractions labelled FA1, FA4 and FA5. T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsuran and M. gypseum were susceptible to all tested fractions in a concentration-dependent manner whereas C. glabrata was resistant. Fraction FA1 at a concentration of 400 mg/mL was found to exhibit the highest antifungal activity with the inhibition zone diameter of 22 mm (T. mentagrophytes). This fraction showed a minimum inhibitory concentration MIC of 0.097 mg/mL while the MIC value for the fraction FA4 and fraction FA5 was 3.12 mg/ml and 1.56 mg/ml respectively. Agar overlay bioautography assay results showed that most of the bioactive compounds were found in the fraction FA1. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the stem bark extracts of E. spiralis can be a future source of potent natural antimicrobial drugs for superficial skin diseases.
In recent years image acquisition in close range photogrammetry relies on digital sensors such as digital cameras, video cameras, CCD cameras etc that are not specifically designed for photogrammetry. This study is performed to evaluate the compatibility of the digital metric camera and non-metric camera for the purpose of mapping meandering flume, using close range photogrammetric technique and further, to determine the accuracy that could be achieved using such a technique. The meandering flume provides an opportunity to conduct an experimental study in a controlled environment. In this study, the digital images of the whole meandering flume were acquired using a compact digital camera - Nikon Coolpix S560, a Single Lens Reflex (SLR) Nikon D60 and also a metric digital camera Rollei D30. A series of digital images were acquired to cover the whole meandering flume. Secondary data of ground control points (GCP) and check points (CP), established using the Total Station technique, was used. The digital camera was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the processing of digital images. In processing the digital images, digital photogrammetric software was used for processes such as aerial triangulation, stereo compilation, generation of digital elevation model (DEM) and generation of orthophoto. The whole process was successfully performed and the output produced in the form of orthophoto. The research output is then evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the analysis, sub-meter accuracy is obtained. It can be concluded that the differences between the different types of digital camera are small . As a conclusion, this study proves that close range photogrammetry technique can be used for mapping meandering flume using both the metric digital camera and non-metric digital camera.
Close range photogrammetry, digital camera, mapping, meandering flume, accuracy
The long term objective of this research is to look into the possibility of replacing soil strength parameters such as cohesion and angle of friction with electrical resistivity value for the purpose of computing among others, factor of safety in slopes or bearing capacity of soil. This paper however is limited to the investigation of correlation between electrical resistivity with some selected soil parameters. Electrical resistivity tests, using a basic multi meter, steel moulds and other related equipment, were conducted in the laboratory on soil samples with variations in soil type, compaction energy and moisture content. The samples consisted of predominantly clay, silt and sandy size particles and were compacted in a 100 x 100 mm square mould, while the corresponding electrical resistivity tests were carried out using the disc electrode method in accordance to BS 1377. The values of the electrical parameters such as voltage, current and resistance, with the corresponding value of soil parameters such as cohesion, angle of friction and moisture content, were measured and recorded. The results of the tests produced some initial crude relationships between electrical resistivity and the selected soil parameters. The strongest correlation between electrical resistivity and angle of internal friction, f, was obtained from the clay size samples with R2 of 0.824, while the maximum correlation between electrical resistivity and moisture content again was obtained through the clay samples with R2 of 0.818. From the other results and graphs analyzed, some consistencies and specific trends of behaviour observed gave some early indications that a more detail and precise correlation between electrical resistivity and soil strength parameters could be very well possible in future
Oil pollution remains a serious concern especially in Malaysia. Many strategies have been employed to overcome oil pollution. In this research, sago waste material abundantly found in Sarawak was used and chemically modified into an oil adsorbent . Sago waste cellulosic residues were modified using fatty acid derivatives. The capability of the chemically modified sago waste to absorb oil from aqueous solution was studied and compared with the untreated sago waste. The modified sago waste showed higher hydrophobicity than the untreated sago waste, implying that it is less affinity for water and also an excellent affinity for oil. This chemically modified sago waste would be the most suitable for applications where engine oil (i.e., Shell Helix HX5) is to be removed from an aqueous environment. The modified sago waste selectively absorbs the oil and remains on the surface and is to be removed when the application is complete.
Our continuing research on the Aglaia genus (family Meliaceace) has led us to this first study on the chemical constituents of Aglaia lanuginose (bark). The dichloromethane extract from the bark of Aglaia lanuginose showed cytotoxicity against HL-60 leukaemia cell line (45% inhibition) at 20 µg/ml and was prioritised for further investigation. Repeated chromatography of the dichloromethane extract yielded the known dammarane triterpenes which were identified as cabralealactone (1), methyl eichlerianate (2), cabraleone (3), ocotillone (4), eichleriatone (5), eichlerianic acid (6) and shoreic acid (7) together with the known sterols, sitosterol (9) and stigmasterol (10). Another isolated compound was the aromatic 4-hydroxycinnamyl-acetate (8), which has not been reported to be present in a plant from the Meliaceae family. The structures of all the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (IR, MS and NMR). Cytotoxicity testing of 1-10 showed activity only for mixtures of (3, 4), and (5, 6).
Subspace quasi-Newton (SQN) method has been widely used in large scale unconstrained optimization problem. Its popularity is due to the fact that the method can construct subproblems in low dimensions so that storage requirement as well as the computation cost can be minimized. However, the main drawback of the SQN method is that it can be very slow on certain types of non-linear problem such as ill-conditioned problems. Hence, we proposed a preconditioned SQN method, which is generally more effective than the SQN method. In order to achieve this, we proposed that a diagonal updating matrix that was derived based on the weak secant relation be used instead of the identity matrix to approximate the initial inverse Hessian. Our numerical results show that the proposed preconditioned SQN method performs better than the SQN method which is without preconditioning.
In this paper, optimum routing was developed based on the travel salesman method and integrated in ArcInfo GIS using linear programming. The results of the optimized travel distances and times for residential waste collection and routing to disposal site were used to calculate the number and type of required track collection, labour requirement, costing of waste collection and to determine the overall solid waste management efficiency through waste management operation research methods. The objective of the study was to optimize residential collection and hauling to disposal site through operation cost minimization for Petaling Jaya Municipality in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The study determined that with optimized routes and recycling possibilities, the total cost of waste collections could be reduced from RM90,372 to RM20,967, with a reduction of 76.8%. It was also revealed that optimum routes might not necessarily be the shortest distance from point A to point B as travel time maybe high on short distances due to traffic congestion and the presence of many traffic lights. Techniques and methods developed using general GIS have proven effective in route optimization and allowed management of data to suit local conditions and limitations of waste management for the studied area. Thus, scenarios of travel distances, time and waste quantity value generated from the GIS enabled appropriate determination of the number of waste trucks and labour requirements for the operation and the overall calculation of costs of waste management based on the operation research methods used in the study.
Route optimization, GIS, Waste collection, Operational cost, Malaysia
The nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) methods have widely been used in solving unconstrained optimization problems. They are well-suited for large-scale optimization problems due to their low memory requirements and least computational costs. In this paper, a new diagonal preconditioned conjugate gradient (PRECG) algorithm is designed, and this is motivated by the fact that a pre-conditioner can greatly enhance the performance of the CG method. Under mild conditions, it is shown that the algorithm is globally convergent for strongly convex functions. Numerical results are presented to show that the new diagonal PRECG method works better than the standard CG method.
Unconstrained optimization, conjugate gradient method, preconditioning, diagonal approximation for Hessian
Alluvial aquifers can be found in most of the coastal areas of Peninsular Malaysia. Seven tube wells located in such aquifers in the west coast of Selangor state had their performance evaluated by carrying-out step drawdown tests. The performance of these wells was evaluated in terms of aquifer loss, well loss, specific capacity and well efficiency. The aquifer loss coefficient and well loss coefficient were found to be in the range of 0.0198 hrm-2 to 0.4014 hrm-2 and from 0.0001 hr2m-5 to 0.0410 hr2m-5, respectively. The drawdown in tube wells TW1 and TW7 is mainly influenced by well loss component as compared to the aquifer loss component, while in tube wells TW2, TW3, TW4, and TW5, the drawdown is mainly influenced by aquifer loss component. The drawdown in tube well TW6 is influenced by aquifer loss component at a low discharge rate, but at high discharge rate, it is influenced by well loss component. The specific capacity and efficiency of the tested tube wells varied from 1.329 m2hr-1 to 40.166 m2hr-1, and from 11% to 96%, respectively. Tube wells TW2 and TW4 are categorized as high productive wells, while tube wells TW1, TW3, TW5 and TW7 are categorized as moderate productive wells and tube well TW6 as low productive well.
Step drawdown test, well loss, aquifer loss, specific capacity, well efficiency
The study examined modified Fenton (FeGAC/H2O2) pretreatment of the antibiotics amoxicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution for biological treatment. The treatment was optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum operating conditions at pH3 were H2O2/COD molar ratio 2.0, FeGAC dose 3.5 g/L and reaction time 90 min for 87.53% removal of COD, 78.01% removal of TOC, and 98.24% removal of NH3-N. Biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio) improved from zero to 0.36, indicating the effluent was amenable to biological treatment. Meanwhile, FTIR spectra indicated degradation of the antibiotics. Compared with Fenton or photo-Fenton, modified Fenton (FeGAC/H2O2) was more effective in the pre-treatment of the antibiotics amoxicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution for biological treatment.
Tropical greenhouses require active evaporative cooling system such as pad-and-fan to ensure a suitable microclimate for crop production. Excess heat causes indoor temperature to become hotter than desired resulting in detrimental effects to crop growth and production. Solar radiation intensity and outside temperature affect temperature and relative humidity level inside a greenhouse, while wide gradients in temperature and relative humidity can cause problems related to crop growth and production uniformity. A 300 m2 greenhouse, equipped with evaporative pad and four exhaust fans at each end walls, was used in the study. Horizontal and vertical profiles of the temperature and relative humidity inside the greenhouse were investigated. Results showed that temperature increased from evaporative pad area to exhaust fans area in a horizontal plane, while relative humidity showed an inverse pattern from temperature. In the vertical plane, temperature increased, while relative humidity decreased from lower level to the upper level. ANOVA results showed that in overall, temperature and relative humidity inside the greenhouse were uniform as there was no significant difference at 95% confidence interval. Thus, it was concluded that greenhouse cooling system by evaporative pad and exhaust fans are suitable for application in a tropical country such as Malaysia.
Stack ventilation in the hot and humid climate is inherently inefficient due to minimal air temperature differences between indoor and outdoor environment of a naturally ventilated building. Solar induced ventilation is a viable alternative in enhancing this stack ventilation. This paper aims to demonstrate investigations on the effective solar collector orientation and stack height for a solar induced ventilation prototype that utilizes roof solar collector and vertical stack. The orientation of the solar collector is significant as it determines the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the solar collector. Meanwhile, the height of the vertical stack influences the creation of the stack pressure in inducing air movement. Investigations were executed using a simulation modelling software called FloVENT. The validation of the simulation modelling against physical experiment indicated a good agreement between these two results. Analyses were executed on the air temperature increments inside the solar collector. A high increment of the air temperature resulted in the effective orientation. Meanwhile, the air temperature and mass flow rate of the various heights of the vertical stack were also analyzed. The findings concluded that the recommended orientation for the prototype’s solar collector is the west-facing orientation. It was also found that the higher the vertical stack, the lower the air temperature inside the stack would be, but with greater induced mass flow rate.
Height, hot and humid climate, orientation, roof solar collector, solar induced ventilation, vertical stack
This paper presents the numerical modelling techniques for the simulation of the energy conversion chain from wave to electricity in an Oscillating Water Column (OWC) equipped with a full-scaled self rectifying turbine. The performance of the OWC device has been assessed for the stand-alone power system of a typical Irish climatic wave condition. The results showed that the overall performance of the complete device depends on the level of turbine damping, which in turn depends on the wave climate, especially the significant wave height. Furthermore, turbine efficiency predicted using quasi-steady showed qualitatively favourable agreement with the experimental results.
Simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO from simulated flue gas by cerium oxide supported over palm shell activated carbon (Ce/PSAC) was studied in a fixed bed adsorber. In this study, the adsorption breakthrough of SO2 and NO on Ce/PSAC at different reaction temperatures was manipulated to test their applicability to a model developed by Yoon and Nelson (1984) for breakthrough curves. Yoon and Nelson (1984) developed a relatively simple model addressing the adsorption and breakthrough of adsorbate vapour with respect to activated charcoal. This model was based on the assumption that the rate of decrease in the probability of adsorption for each adsorbate molecule is proportional to the probability of adsorbate adsorption and the probability of adsorbate breakthrough on the adsorbent. A regression analysis (least square method) has been used to give the model parameters of k and t1/2. The results showed that the agreement between the model and the experimental results is satisfactory. From the observation, it is concluded that the simple two-parameter model of Yoon and Nelson’s model can be applied for modelling the breakthrough curves of SO2 and NO gas adsorption over Ce/PSAC.
Palm shell, sulfur doxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NO), breakthrough model
The composite nature of Ennore Creek, receiving polluted waters from Buckingham canal, River Kortalaiyar, and the presence of numerous industries rapidly degrade the coastal environment. In this study, multivariate statistical technique was used to assess the nature of pollution and to identify the factors responsible for the enrichment of trace metals in the creek sediments. Forty samples were collected during pre- and post-monsoon periods to evaluate the seasonal variations on the concentration of trace metals in the sediments. The results indicate that not much seasonal variation exists in the concentration of trace metals in the sediments of Ennore creek. Results of the cluster analysis illustrate that the enrichment of trace metals was mainly from anthropogenic sources. Meanwhile, correlation coefficient among the metals reveals that some of the metals (Fe and Al) derived were of natural origin. The complex data matrix of the sediment were interpreted after reduction to three factors and the results illustrate the extent of the influence of anthropogenic activities. The spatial distribution diagrams demonstrate and demarcate the region of enrichment of metals in the sediments of Ennore creek.
Cluster analysis, Factor scores, Ennore creek, heavy metal pollution
Surface water samples were collected from 16 Lakes in and around Miri City to assess the electrochemical parameters includes pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solid (TDS), redox potential (Eh), resistivity and salinity. Sampling locations for monitoring were selected in the vicinity of major roads, industries, settlements and agricultural region. Interpretation of data shows that the surface water in the central region of the study area is polluted by various anthropogenic activities, while in the southern part is within the limits of guideline values. This kind of investigation is essential in the study area to save the resources for future perspective. Further detailed studies are also needed to get a clear picture of the surface water quality in Miri city and for future sustainable management of this resource.
Lake water, electrochemical parameters, pollution, Miri City