The escalating costs of conventional diagnostic technology in oncology have yet to obviate futile surgery intervention and the spiralling treatment cost. The evolution in engineering technology which looks at the correlation of the anatomy and the function of tumours i.e. Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) have impacted on the improved diagnostic accuracy and treatment in oncology. Clinical data have demonstrated that the information provided by PET/CT often changes patient management. This review addresses the value of PET-CT as a surrogate molecular marker in tumours and to discuss some issues in adopting PET/CT in routine daily practice as supported by the numbers of literature reviews of its application in oncology since it was first commercialised in 2001. The description of the technology used in multimodality imaging has gained encouraging interest among physicians, policy makers and insurance companies on the importance of the PET-CT, for which roles are not limited to the staging, disease prognostication and treatment monitoring with potential impact on treatment cost and justification of radiation safety for the patient. PET/CT is a useful tool in cancer investigation as evidenced by its role as a surrogate marker in underpinning the cellular reprogramming of different pathological entities.
Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the third generation of thin film solar cell. In this work, carrot fruit dye was prepared and used in DSSC as a sensitizer. TiO2–ZrO2 fine binary oxide was mechanochemically prepared and made paste. TiO2–ZrO2 paste (colloidal) was deposited onto FTO/glass in two ways, i.e. as single and double coatings by rolling method. It was immersed in the carrot solution to get dyed cell. The dyed TiO2-ZrO2-FTO/glass cell was offset with the FTO/glass cell coated with adhesive carbon paste. Photovoltaic properties of prepared TiO2–ZrO2 DSSC cell were measured. Results showed that the efficiency of double coating cell was greater than that of the single coating cell. According to the fill factor from the experiments, both the DSSC cells were acceptable for industrial requirement. Hence, it can be concluded that the results obtained were acceptable in the use of cost-effective and eco-favourable dye-sensitized solar cell.
In this modern world, Information Technology gives impacts on society, countries, economy, and environment. This paper discusses the positive, negative, direct and indirect impacts of IT on environmental issues. A strategy for sustainable development in ICT and its future demand are also proposed. Apart from that, a research was also done to find a quantitative indicator to show the relationship between demand in IT industry and impacts to the environment. By using a mathematical formula, an estimation of the effect to the environment can be found. By using the indicator, it is hoped that society and the IT industry will become more aware of their action to the environment.
Environment, impact, information technology, sustainable development.
This study analysed mixed convection heat transfer for thermally developing flow in a side heated square duct with varying inclination angles. The test section consists of one-side heated isothermal wall and three adiabatic walls. The inclination angle varied from 00C, and heat flux ranging from 252 W/m2C to 100o30o 858 to 1788 and the wall surface emissivity was considered to be 0.05 and 0.85. Flow visualizations were carried out to obtain the flow structure of natural convection and mixed convection for three inclination angles. The variation of surface temperature along the length of the test section was studied to calculate the convective Nusselt number. The result showed that the heat transfer enhancement and convective Nusselt number was significantly affected by the variations of inclination angle, flow velocity, Reynolds number, and the surface radiation. It was also observed that the increase in the inclination angle improved convection rate and hence significantly enhanced heat transfer. to 200, with hot wall temperature ranging from to 872 W/m2
Aluminium titanate (AT) (Al2TiO5) is a promising engineering material because of its low thermal expansion coefficient, excellent thermal shock resistance, good refractoriness and non-wetting with most metals. Functionally graded material (FGM) is generally a particulate composite with continuously varying volume fractions. FGMs are alternative materials for dental implants, building materials and ballistic protection. It has been of great interest to future engines, internal combustion engines, metal cutting and other high temperature engineering application. There has been a demand for an adequate disc brake that requires less maintenance in the automotive manufacturing industry. FGM, the next evolution of layered structure, consists of graded compositions that are dispersed across the ceramic which produces a gradual improvement in the properties across the ceramic at a steady pace.
Smoking among rural adolescents in Malaysia is on the rise with a significant difference seen between urban and rural youths. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine a predictive model of smoking among the rural-school adolescents population in Malacca, Malaysia. An unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2010 involving 484 cases and 444 controls of Form Two students in Malacca, Malaysia, using cluster sampling. Smoking was the dependent factor of this study while the independent factors were individual, family, school and environment. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. The response rate of the study was 100% whereas the smoking prevalence was 20.9%. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the smoking predictive model. Strong predictors of smoking behaviour were: influenced by artistes who smoke (Adjusted OR=8.67, 95% CI 5.53-13.58); the male gender (Adjusted OR=6.7, 95% CI 4.14-10.83); Muslim (Adjusted OR=4.46, 95% CI 2.36-8.44); and the belief that smoking is not dangerous when the teacher is seen smoking as well (Adjusted OR=3.95, 95% CI 2.19-7.10). Other predictors were: being offered cigarettes by friends (Adjusted OR=2.81, 95% CI 1.79-4.42); the belief that smoking will relax the mind (Adjusted OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.33-4.51); having friends who smoke (Adjusted OR=2.32, 95% CI 1.29-4.81); forced by friends to smoke (Adjusted OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.15-4.12); have heard of the national No-Smoking Campaign (Adjusted OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.06-3.37); have problems with the school management (Adjusted OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.07-2.88); parental consent to watch sexual activities, drug use or violence on television or at the cinema (Adjusted OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.06-2.83); and have lunch in school (Adjusted OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.41). This paper ends with the recognition of the need for intervention in dismantling the predictors that can lead to the development of smoking among Malaysian adolescents in rural schools. of different pathological entities.
Psychological stress among undergraduate students is associated with poor academic results, physical ill-health and psychiatric disorders. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of psychological stress and its associated factors among undergraduate students attending a health programme in a local university. This is a cross-sectional study among undergraduate students attending a health programme in a local university. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to determine the presence of psychological stress at a cut-off point of 4 and above. Analysis was conducted to determine any association between gender, ethnicity, year of study in the university, recent health-seeking contact with a doctor, and psychological stress among the participants. The prevalence of psychological stress among undergraduate students attending a health program in a Malaysian University was 49.3%. There was no significant association with any of the socio-demographic factors studied (p>0.05). The prevalence of psychological stress in this study was significantly high, and irrespective of gender, ethnicity, year of study in the university, and recent health-seeking contact with a doctor. Hence, the findings of this study show that it may be a useful strategy to integrate such health programs regularly in activities of colleges and universities, with the aim of promoting mental health and wellness among the students.
Anxiety, depression, general health questionnaire (GHQ), mental health, psychological stress, undergraduates, university
Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing are geospatial technologies that have been used for many years in environmental studies, including gathering and analysing of information on the physical parameters of wildlife habitats and modelling of habitat assessments. The home range estimation provided in a GIS environment offers a viable method of quantifying habitat use and facilitating a better understanding of species and habitat relationships. This study used remote sensing, GIS and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) application tools as methods to assess the habitat parameters preference of Asian elephant. Satellite images and topographical maps were used for the environmental and topographical habitat parameter generation encompassing land use-land cover (LULC), Normalized Digital Vegetation Index (NDVI), water sources, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), slope and aspect. The kernel home range was determined using elephant distribution data from satellite tracking, which were then analysed using habitat parameters to investigate any possible relationship. Subsequently, the frequency of the utilization distribution of elephants was further analysed using spatial and geostatistical analyses. This was followed by the use of AHP for identifying habitat preference, selection of significant habitat parameters and classification of criterion. The habitats occupied by the elephants showed that the conservation of these animals would require good management practices within and outside of protected areas so as to ensure the level of suitability of the habitat, particularly in translocation areas.
Asian elephant, AHP, habitat preference, home range, GIS, and remote sensing
In this study, agriculture biomass was used to remove dissolved organic matter from peat swamp runoff. The functional groups and morphological properties of 6 tropical agriculture biomasses (coconut husk, rice husk, empty fruit bunch, sago hampas, saw dust and banana trunk) in their raw and citric acid–treated states were examined. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that various biomasses were typically characterised with lignocellulosic compounds. The spectra analysis further demonstrated that citric acid treatment resulted in the dissolution of lignin and hemicelluloses to various extents where carboxyl groups were also introduced. These changes hypothetically suggest improved adsorption ability. Treatment of peat swamp runoff with various untreated biomasses showed no adsorption. With the modified biomass, adsorption was evidenced, with rice husk illustrating the highest removal efficiency of 60% to 65%.The biosorbent can be used in the water treatment process especially for treating water with a high dissolved organic matter content. The spent sorbent can be subsequently applied as a soil conditioner as the dissolved organic fraction, commonly known as humic matter, possesses important agricultural value.
Glass fibre reinforced polymeric (GFRP) composites are used in various applications such as aircraft, marine and automobile industries because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, light weight, corrosion resistance and non-magnetic properties. They also replace traditional materials in many critical applications. Nonetheless, the machining behaviour of GFRP material is still a challenge to the researchers due to its complicated interaction between fibre and matrix material. On machining, this kind of material suffers by surface delamination, fibre peel up, fibre push up, fibre pull out, fibre fracture, and matrix breaking. With an objective to minimize delamination, an investigation was carried out on Chopped Strand Mat GFRP (CSMat GFRP) material by studying the effects of drill diameter and drill diameter ratio besides spindle speed and feed rate. The experiments were designed by L18 Orthogonal Array and conducted by using standard High Speed Steel tools. The obtained results were analyzed by Signal-to-Noise ratio and Analysis of variance. Based on the Signal-to-Noise ratio analysis, drill diameter of Ø8mm, drill diameter ratio of 0.8, spindle speed of 3000rpm and feed rate of 50mm/min were identified as optimal parameters for drilling CSMat GFRP material with minimum delamination. The ANOVA table results reveal that drill diameter, drill diameter ratio, spindle speed and feed rate have shown statistical significance on delamination.
The management of a chemical inventory is necessary for safety purposes as well as for fulfilling regulatory compliance. In most academic laboratories, the management of chemicals is still being done manually, which is time-consuming. As a result, data are not updated and expired chemicals are unintentionally used. This research proposes that UHF Class 1 Gen 2 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology be used in the development of a chemical inventory information system to ease chemical tracking as well as to shorten the inventory process time. An information system integrating RFID data and a web-based rule identification interface was developed. WAMP 2.2.17, PHP 5.3.5 and MySQL 5.5.8 were downloaded and a programming language was written to check the expiration date of the chemicals as well as to produce alert notification status. Wireless technology through GSM modem helped in producing alert messages using the Short Message System (SMS) of the nearly expired chemicals to the handphone of the person in charge in real time.
Chemical inventory, chemical management system, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology, information system, web-based interface
In this paper, a mathematical model is developed based on mass and momentum balance for carbon dioxide absorption into aqueous ammonia solution. The model is simplified based on the assumption that the CO2 absorption into aqueous ammonia is a pseudo-first-order reaction. Laplace transform method is applied in order to solve the partial differential model equation. Finally, the CO2 molar flux is expressed as a function of partial pressure of CO2, concentration of aqueous ammonia, temperature and gas-liquid contact area. Variation of CO2 molar flux with partial pressure of CO2 and temperature is discussed and a comparison is performed with experimental data from literature. Variation of CO2 molar flux is also shown with gas-liquid contact area. The calculated flux from the model follows the same trend as that of the experimental data reported in literature and the accuracy is within the accepted limit. The mathematical model is very helpful to predict the CO2 molar flux as a function of partial pressure of CO2, concentration of aqueous ammonia, temperature and gas-liquid contact area.
In this paper, we introduce T-DepExp system to simulate the transitive dependence based coalition formation (CF). It is a multi-agent based simulation (MABS) tool that aims to enhance cooperation between agents through transitive dependence. Previously, the transitive dependence was introduced by An and his colleagues for expressing the indirect dependence between agents in their cooperation. However, it did not receive much attention. Although it has a few problems need to be addressed, we try to propose our own mechanism to increase the efficiency of the transitive dependence based CF. To imulate MAS dependence relationship, we have included two fundamental dependence relationships in this MABS tool, which are AND-Dependence and OR-Dependence. In addition, the architecture of the T-DepExp system is presented and discussed. It allows possible integration of other features such as budget mechanism and trust model. Subsequently, hypothesis for the experiments and experimental setup are explained. The overall system will be emonstrated for its functionality and the experimental results will also be discussed.
T-DepExp system, coalition formation, multi-agent based simulation, dependence relationship