As early as the 1980s, the narrative has been redefined by sociologists and communication theorists as a way to constitute social identity; however, to date, it has not been specified how far narrative analysis has reached into translation studies because of the different understandings of the term. Therefore, it is essential for researchers to carry out a literature review of narrative analysis in this field in a more complete way. This study reviews the body of literature that uses narrative analysis in recent translation studies. The method used in this study is a systematic literature review, which involves pre-set criteria in selecting academic articles to be surveyed within a five-year period (1 January 2014 to 31 December 2018) and a qualitative synthesis of the findings. Through description and analysis of the titles, abstracts, keywords, and full papers (when necessary) of the selected 92 academic articles, based on a revised PRISMA flow, this study arrives at a holistic and systematic assessment of this approach over the past five years to guide future research in translation studies. The main findings reveal that narrative analysis has not yet become a mainstream approach in translation studies. The focus of studies in this field should be shifted from empirical research in how narrative analysis is used as a tool towards theoretical reflection on what narratives are. What is more, new fields still await examination concerning research methods and subjects.
Narrative analysis, PRISMA, systematic literature review, translation studies
Twitter, a social media application and a popular microblogging platform, has become a compelling subject in linguistics. The nature of the communication on Twitter is informal, colloquial, and non-standard; and it is likely to contain slangs which is the interest of the modest research embodied in this paper. This study explored the variations of slangs employed by Malay language users through tweets that contained the Malay language keyword makan (eat). Primary Qualitative Content Analysis was the research tool employed in this study. Slangs were categorized using an adapted scheme. The analysis found that Malay language users on Twitter implemented a variety of slangs in their online communication, such as shortenings, onomatopoeic spellings, phonetics replacements, inanities, leetspeak, cacography, and emoji. The findings of this study can be useful for developing a lexical database for Malay language slangs.
Internet language, language variations, slangs, social media, Twitter
Interactional metadisocurse (MD) features in academic writing have gained much currency in todays research. These features are manifested through various linguistic devices which express epistemic stance and sensitivity to audience. Although a large body of research on interactional MD has been produced, little attention was given to the study of these features in L2 writing in the Arabic context. This paper examines the extent to which Arab L2 writers deploy interactional MD strategies in academic writing. In this context, a corpus of 20 applied linguistics research articles (RAs) were compiled. Following Hylands MD taxonomy, interactional MD features were identified and analyzed. Based on Hylands MD model, the analysis was conducted using ANTCONC, a corpus analytical software. Compared to existing research on MD, the findings indicate that Arab L2 writers tend to use limited MD resources in their writing. The findings also reveal that there is a lack of balance in the use of interactional MD types in the corpus. Some interactional MD types are heavily used while some others are scarce. The discussion section of RAs received the highest frequency of interactional MD whereas the methods sections received the lowest. Based on these findings, some pedagogical implications for developing interactional competence of Arab L2 writers are discussed.
Academic writing, Arab L2 writers, genre analysis, interactional metadiscourse
In positioning the stance of the editorials that play a pivotal role in articulating the official position of the newspaper, the editor needs to have the craft of writing in a credible manner. It is important then that persuasive linguistic elements such as hedges and boosters are utilized in the editorials. Hence, this study aims to adopt a content analysis to investigate the use of hedges and boosters in 240 randomized editorials of The New York Times (NYT: n=120) and New Straits Times (NST: n=120). The results reveal that generally editors use more hedges than boosters. Moreover, interestingly, it was found that NYT editorials tend to use more boosters while the NST editorials exhibit a tendency to hedge more. One possible reason could be the political climate of the time. America being the epitome of democracy provides freedom of speech and this is reflected in the ownerships of newspapers. Unlike Malaysia, owners of NYT newspapers are public individuals and not the government. Therefore, writers of NYT are bold enough to articulate their views without fear or favor. NST editors, in contrast, have to be mindful of what they write as the newspapers are owned by the government of the day.
This study investigated whether the cross-language relations of childrens phonological awareness skills influenced their first- (L1: Chinese), second- (L2: English) and third- language (L3: Malay) early reading ability. A battery of tests was designed to measure childrens phonological awareness and reading ability. Three tasks of phonological awareness and two tasks of reading were administered in Chinese, English and Malay languages. The tasks that assessed phonological awareness skills included deletion, blending and segmentation of sound, and two early reading tasks included word and sentence reading. One-hundred and fifty (150) Chinese-speaking children participated in this study. These participants were Year 1 students from six national Chinese primary schools in Malaysia. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) was used to analyse the data. Results revealed that there was no skill transfer from L1 to L2 and L3 due to orthography differences. Cross-language transfer was found in L3 phonological awareness which strongly predicted L1, L2 and L3 early reading ability.
Cross-language transfer, multilingual, phonological, reading, SEM
Bride-kidnapping is considered a violation of human rights in many cultures worldwide, but among the Sasak people of Lombok, it has deep customary implications. While the act itself is consensual between the couple, it is an occasion for the families to confront each other and discuss settlements or dispute the offers between each other. The negotiation is a show of tradition or customary norms where politeness strategies is observed during the discussions between the two disputing parties affected by the bride-kidnapping. During the discussions, rituals such as Sejati, Selabar, and Sorong Serah are conducted to neutralise anxiety, address face attacks and reduce disputes that may have arisen due to the bride- kidnapping. In these three rituals, the language resources of the representatives of both families, also known as Pembayun (adat leaders), is to negotiate and come to a settlement through polite discourse. This study is an ethnographic enquiry and data were analysed based on Brown and Levinsons model of politeness. The study revealed that the most preferred strategy was negative politeness used by both the Pembayun in the bride- kidnapping rituals. The notion of politeness and the strategies in which it is achieved in communication is culture-bound and culture-specific.
Bride-kidnapping, marriage rituals, politeness strategies, Sasak culture
There have been irrefragable arguments over the use of first language (L1) in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes. The debates have been oscillating and vacillating between those who advocate the use of L1 and those who take an oppositional stance against the use of L1. There has been abundant research excavating this phenomenon, especially on L1 use in second language skills. However, there has been a dearth of research on whether L1 can have a significant role in reading. This study focused on the use of L1 in second language reading, specifically on learnersâ€˜ attitudes towards L1 and second language (L2) use while they were engaged in second language collaborative reading tasks (CRT). To this end, 60 intermediate EFL learners were selected and assigned in two homogeneous groups. After administering a questionnaire to the L1 class, the researchers found that the majority of the participants did not feature disagreement with the use of L1 while interacting with their peers. It was also found that, based on the descriptive comparisons of scores obtained by L1 and L2 class in the post-test reading, the performance of L1 class was not significantly better than that of their peers who did not use L1 in their collaboration.
L1 use, collaborative reading task, second language acquisition
This study investigated the acquisition of English Relative Clauses (RCs) by Malaysian L1 Tamil speakers of L2 English based on the Failed Functional Features Hypothesis (FFFH). The aim was to find out if the Tamil speakers were capable of resetting the parameter of Tamil RCs into the English RC settings. The formation of RCs in both English and Tamil involves wh-movement. However, Tamil also allows the non-movement option which is considered ungrammatical in English. Specifically, the study investigated the development of English RC acquisition among three different proficiency groups of L1 Tamil learners who were selected based on the Oxford Placement Test 2. Data was gathered from 145 students via a Grammaticality Judgement Test. The results showed that the ability of the participants to accept grammatical items was better than their ability to reject ungrammatical items. The results also showed that if two options of a parameter were available in the L1, then one would be the default, and this tended to be carried over to the L2 acquisition process. Thus, the findings showed that the participants L2 grammar seemed to lack the functional features involved in English RC formation, which were not accessible after the critical period, supporting the FFFH.
English relative clauses, Failed Functional Features Hypothesis (FFFH), Malaysian L1 Tamil speakers, second language acquisition, Tamil relative clauses
In the mass media of Indonesia, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues and news are often marked topics. Indonesian media report LGBT news in three main ways: (1) with a proportional, measured response; (2) with a distorted focus on sexuality and sensation; and (3) out of proportion in response to religious views. Only the first of these variants are able to maintain neutrally on LGBT issues. This paper examines how the LGBT community was represented in the 2016 corpus of the daily newspaper Republika. Fowlers Language in the news (1991) discussion of representation in news media and Stubbss Text and corpus analysis (1996) corpus-based theory were used to investigate representations of LGBT issues in Republika. A collocation analysis of the LGBT node in concordance analyses indicates that there were eight types of LGBT representation in the 2016 Republika corpus, six of which were negative which are as a phenomenon, as sexual deviation, as an uninherited sexual orientation, as against religion, as actors and victims of crime, and as contrary to Islam; the remaining two representations were neutral.
Collocates, concordance, corpus, LGBT, representation, semantic meaning
Merah (1937) is a work of Chinese Malay literature that explores issues of communism through the story of a labour strike in Kudus. There have been different opinions regarding communism, and such diversity is embodied in different works. Among Peranakan Chinese themselves at the time, interest in communism was rather lukewarm. Amidst this condition, Liem Khing Hoo wrote a communism-related novel, and this signifies the writingâ€˜s uniqueness. This research examined how Liem Khing Hoos particular worldview of communism was applied and emerged within the literary work. Using the sociology of literature approach espoused in Lucien Goldmanns Genetic Structuralism, it was discovered that this literary work rejected communism. In addition, there were also no signs of efforts to eradicate class domination as the text strongly advocated for the humane treatment of labourers. Through this research, it is proven that Liem positions himself on the side of labour without aligning with communism and its mission of class eradication. Liems rejection of communist ideology is homologous to the worldview of his ethnic group, Peranakan Chinese, implying that the labour movement does not perpetually contradict capitalism.
Communism, genetic structuralism, labour, Liem Khing Hoo, Merah
Since the early 21st century, world-building has become more visible as imaginary worlds move into mainstream entertainment, leading to an exciting and emerging field of world- building studies. The purpose of this study is to explore the imaginary world of The Little Prince novella, a significant literary work by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, through its non- narrative structures and its narrative. The entire text was extracted for data collection and analysis. The types of secondary world infrastructures identified were space, time, characters, nature, culture, language and philosophy. These infrastructures were found to form the imaginary world by constituting its locations, temporality, populations, materiality, customs, mode of communication and truths. The physical events and the mental events of the dynamic component of the storyworld were found to form the world through the progression of the narrative in the wide frames of past and present, as well as through the narrow frame. This study has implications for the type of works examined and the method employed in world-building studies, as well as for creative writing, content creation and literature education.
Literature, secondary world infrastructures, storyworld, The Little Prince, world-building
This study compares shadow projection in two postcolonial novels: Adigas The white tiger (2008) and Ishiguros The remains of the day (1989). It takes these autobiographies as narratives of shadow and investigates how each protagonist projects his shadow in his narrative of servitude. The study draws on Carl Jungs view of shadow and shadow projection and holds an analytic and comparative methodology. The analysis focuses on the influential forces that shape each protagonists shadow, while the comparison reveals psychosocial differences between them. The study tracks a line of psychological continuation between the two novels and concludes with psychological similarities that link the protagonists cross-culturally. Finally, it is concluded the detection of shadow projection is beneficial to character analysis, but it falls short at addressing the rhetoric- linguistic aspects of each novel.
In this paper, I explored what Sartre referred to as Camus most beautiful and least understood novel, The Fall. As a methodology, I applied textual hermeneutics to immerse in the text and got out of it what I deemed as the crux of its existentialism as founded in the two-in-one leitmotif of narration and hypocrisy. In Clamence, there was a profound need − a specter that lingered and haunted − to narrate his life, especially the fall that triggered it and the judgment that allowed him to do it. I argued then that the nature of the text reflected a deep sense of narration that stemmed from hypocrisy, in which Clamence branded himself as judge-penitent − what such a life entails, how it freed him, and how it mirrored life-callings or vocations in all walks of life.
Camus, existentialism, hypocrisy, laughter, narration, The Fall
Rooted in the ostensible noninterventionist South Korean society, Han Kangs novel The Vegetarian brings forth the atypical narrative of the protagonist Yeong-hyes resistance and redefinition of identity through embracing vegetarianism. As food functions as an instrumental tool in the outlandish account of Yeong-hye, this paper tries to inspect its impact on shaping her perceptions towards desire, pleasure, sexuality and identity. Through the lens of Vegetarian Ecofeminism, this study attempts to analyze various aspects of violence like ecological, sexual and physical. Hence, by identifying the metaphor of vegetarianism used as a means for self- reclamation and journeying through the protagonists uncanny transformation, the paper arrives at a profound comprehension of the protagonists complex psyche and an intense exploration of her existential dilemma.
Jacqueline Wilson is a former Childrens Laureate whose contemporary realistic childrens novels have been translated into over 30 languages for her predominantly pre-adolescent and teen-girl readers. However, many adults feel that her works are unsuitable for children due to the contemporary realistic issues discussed. This has resulted in a gap within the scholarship devoted to serious analyses of her books. The paper discusses her novel, Lola Rose (2003), with attention given to Lola Rose, the pre-adolescent girl protagonist. It looks at how Lola Rose suffered from her mothers repeated acts of body shaming, causing her to carry a negative body image and sense of insecurity. Using the concept of self-efficacy expounded by Albert Bandura in his work, Self-efficacy: The exercise of control (1997), the research examines how sources of efficacy information such as enactive mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and improved physiological and affective states, enhance Lola Roses sense of agency. This empowers her to resist the destructive forms of body shaming experienced. The paper argues that contemporary realistic childrens novels such as Wilsons are useful tools to empower children in overcoming the threats of body shaming.
Albert Bandura, body shaming, Jacqueline Wilson, Lola Rose, self-efficacy
Social Networking Sites (SNS) are a relatively new strand of the Internet, and are rapidly emerging as a popular and meaningful platform for teachers to engage in online professional development activities (OPD). However, literature indicates that very little studies have been done on how teachers actually use SNS, specifically Facebook, for professional development. Hence, their practices and experiences of Facebook for professional development are not well understood. Therefore, this study, which involved 113 English language teachers, was undertaken with the aim of understanding English language teachers practices of online professional development using the Facebook platform. Findings do indicate how Facebook may have contributed to teachers OPD. This has meaningful implications for planners and organizers of teacher development programmes to better integrate Facebook in enhancing teachers meaningful learning and experiences, particularly during their professional development.
Facebook, online professional development, social media, social networking sites
The Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) is considered as one of the most successful measure of general intelligence, particularly the problem-solving and reasoning abilities. However, despite of this, there is no attempt to assess its psychometric properties in Malaysia. To bridge this shortage, the present study assessed the psychometric properties of the 23-item RAPM using a sample of 1,793 Malaysian youth. The assessment involved Rasch Model analysis measurement framework using the following criteria: model assumptions, reliability, construct validity evidence, differential item functioning (DIF), and test targeting. The results showed satisfactory findings from the data for most of the criteria, especially the reliability and validity evidence. Nevertheless, the items in the RAPM was found to lack the ability to target the respondents general intelligence in the measured scale.
Malaysia, problem-solving, Rasch model, Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices, reasoning ability
The emergence of teungku, another term of ulamâ (Islamic scholars) in Aceh, from different worlds (e.g., lecturers of natural sciences) has been a growing phenomenon in recent years, which affects their academic identity. However, research on this issue has been scant. This study attempted to fill in the gap by examining the trajectory of the academics hybrid identity reconstruction. Drawing upon social learning theory, this study purposively selected two academic-teungku for in-depth interviews. Narrative inquiry was employed as it best captures their detailed life stories or experiences. The results show that the factors behind their identity reconstruction are more or less similar, including their awareness of the individual Muslim obligation to do dakwah, their good ability and experiences of reading the Quran publicly, their past religious activities during their study in Western countries, and their commitment to improving their ability to be able to participate in the community of practice of teungku world. In conclusion, their identities have been revised, refined, and renegotiated to align with the academic needs and their religious obligation.
Academics, Aceh, different worlds, identity reconstruction, Islam, teungku
The need to make connections in doing problem-solving has been the focus of many researchers. The purpose of this study was to describe the formation of productive connective thinking schemes when students do complete the phases of mathematical problem-solving. Schemes are formed through the phases of cognition, inference, formulation, and reconstruction. This qualitative study adopted several modes of data collection to triangulate data to ensure the validity of the findings. Twenty four research participants were selected among high performing Grade 12 students of three Indonesian Secondary Schools using the purposive sampling method. Productive thinking schemes were identified based on the analysis of the participants written assignment, think-aloud recordings and interview transcriptions. Description of the schemes was concluded from the understanding of the causes of the problems and the way the participants make associations between ideas. Students thinking structure is aligned with the structure of the given problem. In solving the problem, participants formed constructive thinking schemes which were generalization schemes that require high spatial and abstraction abilities. This allows reconstruction of the connective thinking network scheme that forms a new connective scheme that can be used for more complex problem-solving.
Connective thinking schemes, mathematical problem solving, schemes, thinking
This study examined the factor structure of the Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) with a sample of Malaysian in-service (n=191) and pre-service (n=122) teachers. The long- form (24 items) of the TSES was tested using two plausible rival models, the one-factor model, and the theoretically-driven three-factor model. Results from confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the baseline three-factor model had a better fit. Standardized factor loadings, standard errors, inter-correlations between factors and reliability coefficients for each factor are reported together with the goodness of fit indices. Minor revisions to improve the fit of the scale for Malaysian teachers are recommended. The TSES scale and the conceptualisation of teacher efficacy are discussed in terms of the cultural and educational context of Malaysia. This study advances the use of the TSES for measuring teachers sense of efficacy by demonstrating its factor stability within the Malaysian context.
Confirmatory factor analysis, in-service teachers, Malaysia, pre-service teachers, Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale
Early Career Faculties (ECFs) are an important demographic of university faculty population shaping the future of the institution and higher education, despite the challenges they face as new academics. Analysis of scholarly output on ECFs offers useful data to inform and aid both national policy formulations and institutional planning decisions especially in ECFs support and development. Peer-reviewed high impact journals and academic databases provide highly valid and reliable sources of data and information on ECFs. This study examines the trend of ECFs research over two decades comparing scholarly output and research impact across global regions, in Web of Science and Scopus Elsevier. The bibliometric analysis highlights key topics of research and publications related to ECFs and identify the regions and countries most actively research on the topic. The trend of research on ECFs has been found to increase exponentially beginning the 1990s worldwide, mostly from western institutions (76%). Publications after the year 2012 focused more on issues related to ECFs preparation towards life in academia, their motivation, and challenges, the support structure for ECFs and strategies to adapt to life as faculty members. Such bibliometric analysis findings can be a useful reference for policy formulation within national or regional systems of higher education, and institutional strategic planning.
Academics, bibliometric analysis, early- career faculty, higher education, trends
The specific goal of this research is to reveal the weaknesses in the model of full incorporation for the recognition of the customary court and to discover a model of recognition for the customary court which is more responsive. The type of research is socio-legal research which uses field data as well as both primary and secondary legal material. The instrument for data collection was a literature review that involved content identification and text analysis. The data analysis used a qualitative method with a hermeneutic interpretation which focused on the synchronization of the legal texts and contexts of the related legislation. The results of the research showed that customary courts had in fact already developed and existed in customary law communities long before the Indonesian nation was born. Ironically, the legal policy contained in Law No. 48 Year 2009 about Judicial Power does not recognize the existence of the customary court, while Law No. 21 Year 2001 about the Special Autonomy of Papua gives only pseudo recognition because it uses a model of full incorporation, which positions it below the state justice system. In order to strengthen the customary court, this model of recognition should be replaced with a model of co-existence so that institutionally, the authority and decisions of the customary court can exist alongside the state justice system.
Customary court, co-existence, full incorporation, Model of recognition, state justice system
Statelessness has a devastating impact on stateless children globally. Despite having international laws to protect human rights, the rights of stateless children are still at stake. Although the right to education is a fundamental universal right of all children as per Article 28 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the ASEAN countries are signatory members of CRC, many stateless children within the region are still denied access to education. They suffer negative impacts due to denial of the right to education with no opportunities for further studies and employment, which eventually lead them to poverty. Thus, in this article, the stateless childrens right to education of selected ASEAN countries is analysed from a legal perspective based on a qualitative doctrinal research method involving the United Nations statistical reports, legislations and relevant laws/ policies of the said countries. The findings of this article establish that the inadequacy in national laws and the absence of birth registration denies stateless children to have the right to education in accordance with Article 28 of CRC. Hence, this research provides feasible proposals from a legal perspective to ASEAN countries to uphold the right to education for stateless children.
ASEAN countries, CRC, stateless children, right to education
Discrimination deprives people of equal rights. It creates barriers to employment and resulted in peoples right to full participation in the workplace jeopardised. Consequently, people are denied jobs, confined to certain occupations, offered with lower pay, refused promotion and increment, and so on. The grounds for discrimination are commonly owing to their â€˜physical appearance such as sex, race, the colour of skin, faith or religion regardless of the capabilities and abilities to performing the job. Therefore, promoting equality by eliminating various forms of discrimination is essential. This paper is looking at employment discrimination from the legal perspective. Generally, the meaning and elaboration of employment discrimination together with its types and grounds are presented by considering other jurisdictions, particularly the United Kingdom, that has her anti- discrimination law namely Equality Act 2010. Owing to the absence of anti-discrimination law in Malaysia, the authors founded the discussion on this Act of the UK while the analysis of employment discrimination in Malaysia is presented by analysing the related court cases. The paper showed that employment discrimination did occur in Malaysia. This paper is expected to give some limelight and reflection on the issues concerned principally in defining employment discrimination within the Malaysian legal context.
Discrimination, employment, equality, legal, legislation, Malaysia
This study aims to analyze the implementation of Progressive Legal Theory (PLT) indicators on the Constitutional Court judges decision in Indonesia in decision No.30-74/PUU- XII/2014 concerning restrictions on marriageable age and reconstruction of PLT in the study of the operational legal system in Indonesia. This study is empirical with primary data in the form of free-guided interviews and secondary data by analyzing judges decisions in content analysis. The results of this study showed that eight judges had implemented indicators of PLT, namely indicator 3, 5, 8, and 10. While indicators 1, 2, 4, 6, and 7 had not been implemented. One judge had a dissenting opinion with the reasons: The decision has progressivism values; The Courts decision implements â€˜the law as a tool of social engineering; and the different regulations regarding the marriage age limit extend legal uncertainty. The implementation of PLT indicators on judges who had dissenting opinions in their entirety matched the PLT indicators. The findings showed that decision No. 30- 74/PUU-XII/2014 had not fully used ten indicators of PLT. The reconstruction of the Progressive Legal Theory in the study of the operation of the legal system in Indonesia was formulated with 3 main indicators namely living law, legal system, and legal harmonization.
Constitutional judge, marriageable age limit, progressive legal theory (PLT), verdict
The world population is ageing as a consequence of demographic changes: the number of older persons will double from its current number of about one billion people to two billion by 2050. Iran is no exception in this respect as its population of older persons would reach approximately 29 million by 2050. This speed of ageing categorizes Iran as a fast ageing society, emphasizing the need for adopting comprehensive policies and interventions to address issues related to older ages. To this end, constructing monitoring instruments will facilitate evidence-informed policymaking. One such recently developed instrument is the Global AgeWatch Index (GAWI) which consists of four domains and 13 indicators, namely Income Security, Health Status, Capability and Enabling Environment. This paper constructed GAWI to measure well-being for older people in Iran and determine the countrys relative position in comparison to 96 other countries included in the latest estimates of the GAWI. The results show that Iran shares the 75th rank with the neighbouring Turkey out of the total of 97 countries covered by the Index. For Iran, domains of Health Status hold a relatively higher rank and the Capability and Enabling Environment being at the lowest rank.
Global AgeWatch Index, Iran, population ageing, social policies for older people, well-being of older people
Environmental problems are among the most critical issues in the modern age. Alarms for the destruction of the earth have sparked widespread responses from political and social systems; extensive environmental activities have revealed that environmental protection is not achievable through purely economic, technical, political, or social solutions, but ethical and metaphysical approaches must supplement the movement. In effect, the attempt to protect the environment needs a metaphysical reconstruction, as technical, economical, and political methods are not sufficient for provisioning a constructive environmental approach. The comparative study of religions provides the framework for this research in examining the relationship between humans and her/his natural environment from a religious viewpoint. Through the comparative analysis of conceptual, ethical, behavioural, and paradigmatic principles and statements of religions, the formative role of religions on the relationship between humans and the environment is argued and analysed. According to the results, in seismic religions, human has the right to manipulate nature, since he is the superior creature. In East Asian religions and religious beliefs of Ancient Iran, human beings are among other creatures and not allowed to interfere in their ecosystem. In East Asian religions, the right of nature is superior to the right of humans.
Ecologism, religious environmentalism, spiritual ecology, seismic religions, Zoroastrianism
Considering the important impact of education on socializing students and preparing the new generation for roles in local, national, and international societies, the educational system is expected to pay special attention to environmental education (EE) in textbooks. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of EE in social sciences textbooks (SST) in Iranian senior high schools. The research method used was a quantitative content analysis of all SST in senior high schools (3 volumes) during the 2017-2018 academic year. Sentences were used as the analysis unit, and textbook content was divided into four sections based on the cutting operation: text, picture, question, and activity. Shannon entropy method was used for analysing the data. The most significant results indicate that there is no balanced and comprehensive attention given to EE in senior high school SST. The most consideration for EE was found in 11th grade SST and the highest weight was related to noise pollutants and environmental protection in the Constitution.
Environmental education, quantitative content analysis, senior high school, social sciences textbooks
The present article investigates the impact of physical health on social health. The purpose of the study was to show how physical health as a biological matter affected the feeling of social health and whether physical disease was an obstacle to the sense of social health. The presumption was that social health was a structural matter that exceeded physical and bodily health in importance and its fulfillment was not dependent on the latter. The authors used Keyes theory of social health to examine the hypothesis. The sample comprised two convenience groups, one healthy and the other ill. The findings of the study showed that the social health of the sample was moderately low. The results on five social health components demonstrated that social actualisation and social acceptance were moderately high, while the descriptive statistics of other three (social coherence, social integration, social contribution) indicated that the three were low in the sample. The comparison of five indicators between the two groups demonstrated that healthy individuals maintained better a feeling of actualisation and social acceptance while the ill enjoyed higher degrees of â€œsocial coherence, social integration, and social contributionâ€.
This paper investigates how womens pre-farming careers affect the development of their individual activities and their empowerment. Japanese rural women used to work in agriculture under patriarchy and therefore did not have any decision-making authority. Nowadays, rural women have a variety of non-agricultural knowledge, which they acquired well before entering agriculture. It is assumed that their pre-farming careers boosted womens empowerment such as startup womens activity with own free will. To verify this assumption, we conducted semi-structured interviews with seven rural women entrepreneurs who had non-agricultural experiences before entering agriculture. From our results, we conclude that womens pre-farming careers have the following two positive effects: (1) Rural women acquire decision-making right by using their savings from their pre-farming careers for the initial investment of their individual activities; (2) Any kinds of the womens pre-farming careers − even if they are non-agricultural experiences and skills − are easy to be used in public relation, negotiation, and selling of their individual activities.
Individual activity, Japan, pre-farming career, rural women entrepreneurial activity, womens empowerment, web-based group
In China, the demand for halal products is sizable. However, halal product adulteration is common, and product authenticity is doubtful due to the unknown origin of the products. To date, literature addressing Chinas Muslims demand for halal products and the role of country of origin (COO) on Chinas Muslims halal personal care product consumption have been limited. The purpose of this study was to explore if the COO influences Chinas Muslims purchase decision on halal personal care products in China. The research used the Revealed Preference Theory to determine the effects of COO on Chinas Muslims purchasing decisions for halal products. Using the cross-sectional survey method, data was collected from Muslims living in northwest China and processed-analysed using a logit model application. The results of the study revealed that the COO of halal products is an important concern for Chinas Muslims, with other selection criteria that also influence the purchase decision. It is clear that COO is an important indication of the authenticity of halal products for Chinas Muslims. As well, this paper provides the notion that COO is one of the important selection criteria for (consumers trust in the products) of halal consumption in a non-Muslim country.
China, consumption, country of origin, halal, purchase decision
This paper aims to examine the factors determining adult overweight or obesity in rapidly developing urban China. Quantitative analysis was performed using individual questionnaire data from the Survey for the Purpose of an Estimation of Preference Parameters conducted by Osaka University in six urban cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Wuhan, and Shenyang. The estimation results of relative-risk ratios by the multinomial logistic regression model showed that 1) women and those whose subjective satisfaction with health were poor tended to be lean; 2) men, middle-aged or elderly people, those eating meals at irregular times, and those with a lower relative standard of living compared to others living around them tended to be overweight; and 3) men, middle-aged or elderly people, those with a strong sense of stress and depression, those with a lower level of subjective satisfaction with daily life, and those with lower or higher annual household incomes tended to be obese. However, the frequency of physical exercise and education level, which were pointed out by previous studies to be determinant factors of overweight and obesity, are not significant. It is recommended that various preventive measures targeting high-risk groups be introduced and promoted.
Body mass index, China, lifestyle diseases, non-communicable diseases, obesity, overweight
In 2010, Indonesian banks implemented International Financial Accounting Standards (IFRS) for reporting information about financial instruments. The adoption is hypothesized to make risks more transparent. Its effect on the relevance of accounting information reported by publically traded Indonesian banks from 2007-2013 was investigated. Contrary to our expectations, value-relevance and risk-relevance of accounting information declined after the adoption of IFRS. Findings suggest that IFRS exerts a lesser influence on the relevance of accounting information in developing countries with smaller, less liquid, and weakly enforced capital markets.
Accounting information quality, financial instruments, IAS 32, IAS 39, IFRS 7, risk relevance, value relevance
This study examines the relationship between tax avoidance actions and the cost of debt capital through the moderating effects of corporate governance (family ownership, the ultimate owner, the second-largest shareholder, and the effectiveness of the board, and audit committee) for companies on the Indonesian Stock Exchange between 2008-2012. Using the methodology of panel data, the results show that tax avoidance has a positive relationship with the cost of debt capital. Furthermore, it is found that concentrated ownership strengthens the relationship between tax avoidance and the cost of debt, while the existence of second-largest owners weakens the relationship. Even though this study cannot prove that family ownership and the effectiveness of the companys board commissioners and audit committee have any impact on the tax avoidance and cost of debt relationship, it provides future research with a better insight into the role of a companys shareholders on its tax compliance. This study is one of the first that questions the role of a firms ultimate shareholder and its second-largest shareholder based on the relationship between tax avoidance and the cost of debt.
Corporate governance, cost of debt, family ownership, second-largest shareholder, tax avoidance, the ultimate owner
There is a widely held view that breast cancer etiologies vary among women of diverse social-cultural backgrounds. As such, this qualitative study aimed at identifying the various factors associated with the onset of breast cancer symptoms among young Malay women. Thirteen young Malay breast cancer patients in Kuala Lumpur and several selected areas of Selangor were selected through purposive snowballing technique. In relation to this, ethnographic fieldwork employing a qualitative approach was conducted for approximately 10 months. A series of in-depth interviews, phone and online interviews guided by a semi- structured interview schedule and participant observation were carried out among the informants of this study. From the thematic analysis of the field notes, it is evident from the present study that young Malay informants had attributed their breast cancer illness to supernatural causes and non-supernatural causes. They strongly believed that saka, spirit attacks, lifestyles, unhealthy food consumption, and hazardous working environments could have contributed to the onset of their breast cancer symptoms. The findings of the present study are imperative particularly for health care providers to understand the health- seeking behaviours of breast cancer patients in the provision of cancer control, particularly in diverse populations like Malaysia.
Breast cancer, etiologies, Malay, non-supernatural, supernatural
Due to social, cultural, and economic reasons, however, eating habits are not easy to change. Food taste formation begins at birth with breastfeeding and evolves throughout the life course under varying social and cultural circumstances. Since the formation of food taste occurs within social and cultural contexts, changing the related habits is subject to the same influences. In this research, we demonstrated how our samples preferred to use traditional white breads like Sangak, Barbari, and Lavash, instead of bulky baguettes and French breads that were presumed to be more nutrient-richer. This research was done by deep interviews with 20 people from Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Our study had been conducted in the qualitative research framework through in-depth interviews. The major reasons people gave for their food choices in favour of traditional breads included availability, family routines, ceremony, lower prices of traditional breads, and, most importantly, the habit of consuming traditional breads developed from childhood. On the other hand, and despite the constant media promotions in favour of bulky breads, its consumption was not equally distributed among social classes. This research shows that economic condition, education, and exposure to media are influential factors in determining consuming behaviours regarding bulky and traditional breads.
Bulky bread, eating habits, social taste, traditional bread
Amateur vlogs on YouTube provide a glimpse of everyday life and reveal things one might not normally show in public. This paper explored two case studies, female-run YouTube accounts Jamerrill Stewart, Large Family Table and Parsnips and Parsimony, and focused on how both accounts blurred the boundaries between private and public lives as they invited the audience to know about their domestic lives. It aimed at exploring how these female vloggers constructed a particular self-presentation while using YouTube as a personal online diary to archive their everyday lives. The study, however, avoided depicting vlogs as reality because vlogs, just like any other audio-visual medium, could be edited. The research findings revealed that in constructing their self-presentation, both women offered an unstructured portrayal of large-family lives in comparison to the representation of American family lives in other mainstream media, such as television (TV) reality shows. By showing the audience incidental and chaotic everyday occurrences for instance, children arguing, messy living rooms, or what they called real life, these vlogs were redefining what was understood as reality in audio-visual material.
Everyday lives, female vloggers, large family, representation, YouTube
Duality has been a reoccurring theme that has enticed readers and moviegoers to be enraptured by the complexities of the story and characters alike, from the pages of novels written during the Victorian Era to the silver screen. Christopher Nolan is no stranger to the idea of implementing duality into his films, adding dimensions to the characters and making the story more engaging. Even elements in the mise en scene leave much to be admired and analyzed by both audiences and scholars. This article takes a closer look at selected works from Nolan and the elements in his films that exhibit duality.
Christopher Nolan, duality, human behavior, morality, symbolism in film
Depression and anxiety are among the most prevalent psychological difficulties in adults. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between neurological threshold in sensory profile, depression, and anxiety. Three hundred fifty-four healthy adults in the age group of 20 to 45 years old completed PROMIS® Depression and PROMIS® Anxiety questionnaire and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile®. Data were analyzed through Pearson Correlation. The findings showed that there was a significant positive relationship between low neurological threshold and anxiety (r=.381) and depression (r=.295). Furthermore, there was a significant positive relationship between high neurological threshold and anxiety (r=.115). However, the relationship between high neurological threshold and depression was not statistically significant. We can conclude that individuals neurological threshold based on sensory profile might be considered as one of the factors relating to anxiety and depression. This study has implications for mental health professionals and it is recommended to study this component more deeply in future studies.
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) has become an increasingly important aspect in improving organizational performance, employees work attitude and behavior. However, research that focuses on work values, work attitude and OCB is still limited specifically in higher education institution (HEI) setting. Higher education workers particularly academicians at present portray a high individualistic culture with lesser OCB due to a great pressure and demand existed in the setting. This paper aims to investigate how certain work values promote academicians organizational citizenship behavior and highlights the role of job satisfaction as a mediator between the aforementioned relationships. Work values in this study were looked at two aspects of terminal and instrumental. Meanwhile, OCB was looked at into two aspects namely OCB towards individual (OCBI) and organization (OCBO). This study population involved 460 academics retrieved from both private and public HEIs which were used a structural modelling approach in testing the hypotheses. The findings revealed that work values significantly predicted OCB. Both terminal and instrumental work values have a significant influence on academics degree of OCB. Job satisfaction on the other hand mediates the relationship between terminal work values and OCB. The implication of this paper related to theoretical, empirical and policy advancement in relation to OCB at work was included.
Job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, work values
In the past three decades, obesity rates affecting children in Malaysia have been rising rapidly, thereby presenting a major public health concern. However, physical activity and diet patterns in green space have been seen as effective environmental components that improve the quality of life. Hence, this study would determine the obesity levels at baseline (phase 1), after 90 days (phase 2) and after 180 days (phase 3). It further aimed to investigate the association of physical activity and diet pattern with the body mass index (BMI) of the respondents. The sample consisted of 12 respondents and this experimental study utilized a questionnaire and a checklist to record the measurements of height and weight by calculating the respondents physical activity, daily diet, and BMI. The scores were calculated to determine the level of obesity of the respondents by using paired sample t-test and linear regression model to analyze the influence of physical activity and diet patterns on the respondents BMI. The findings of this study show that there was a significant decrease in the levels of BMI before and after the study as participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities and more intake of fruits and water influence the respondents BMI. Therefore, this study reveals that physical activity and diet patterns in urban green space can have significant impacts on BMI and also play important roles in reducing childhood obesity.
Body Mass Index (BMI), children diet pattern, green space, outdoor physical activity
Thai popular singing originated in 1925 during a period of radical change in the country and later became an important element of entertainment businesses including musical theatres, Thai films, bands, radio plays and television shows. Thai popular singing methodology, particularly the pronunciation, was continually developed and modified by the traditional singers. They resolved problems of incorrect pronunciation through neumatic singing which was considered the pitch of tone marks and its pattern matches the acciaccatura as an ornamentation in a piece of music. This technique resulted in linguistic verification and this helped reflect and enhance the connection between Thai language and music. If the pitch of the words tone mark changes, the musical pitch will accordingly change. Therefore, the identity of Thai popular singing comes from the sound characteristics of the Thai language which create the melody and singing accent. This technique continues to be used in Thai popular singing by the new generation singers.
Identity of popular singing, language and music, neumatic singing, Thai popular music, Thai popular singing
This paper examines the effect of world oil price and the US factors volatility on the volatility of returns for three precious metals (gold, silver, and copper) using daily data for the period of January 2010 to April 2017. The volatility of all variables was constructed using a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) approach. Next, an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model was used in examining the relationship between the volatility of returns for these three metals on the volatility of world oil prices and US factors. The main results revealed that there was a cointegration relationship (long-run co-movement) between the volatility of returns (gold, silver, and copper) and the volatility of world oil price and US factors. In the long run, the volatility of the US factors was statistically significant in influencing the volatility of all metals, however the volatility of world oil price only significant to influence the volatility of silver and copper, but not the volatility of gold. In the short run, the volatility of world oil price and US factors were statistically significant in influencing the volatility of gold, whereas, for silver, all variables were significant except for the US Dollar Index. For copper, all variables were statistically significant except for world oil prices and the US Dollar Index. Therefore, these results have provided more essential information for investors, fund managers, businesses and central bankers in managing their portfolio diversification, hedging purposes, and international reserve.
As an interest-free banking system shows tremendous growth in many countries nowadays, the question of how Islamic banks contribute to monetary policy transmission is increasingly important for policymakers. This study aims to investigate and compare the role of Islamic banks in transmitting monetary policy to the real economy in Indonesia and Malaysia, two countries with established dual banking systems and a growing number of Islamic banks. To achieve its objective, the study relied on Impulse Response Functions and Variance Decomposition Analysis, based on Vector Autoregressive (VAR) methodology. The model consisted of four variables (Islamic banks deposits, Islamic banks financing, overnight interest rates, and economic output), while the monthly data used cover the period between January 2007 and December 2016. The principal conclusion is that deposits and financing of Islamic banks play an important although a modest role in transmitting monetary policy to the economies of Indonesia and Malaysia. A plausible explanation of this result is the relatively low market share of Islamic banks in both countries. Additionally, the lower significance of Islamic financing in Malaysia, compared to Indonesia, is due to Malaysias smaller proportion of profit-loss sharing (PLS) financing. As a result, PLS financing has a smaller impact on Malaysian economic growth. The results suggest that to enhance their economic impact, Islamic banks need to increase their PLS-based financing. This study overall findings contribute to policy information about how Islamic banks can contribute to achieving both economic and monetary policy goals in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Economy, Indonesia, Islamic banks, Malaysia, monetary policy transmissions
The Election Commission of India proclaimed the results of Indias 2019 electoral decision of public on May 23, 2019 for the lower house of the Indian parliament. Bhartiya Janata Party led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has won a whopping majority−303 seats, out of 543. Looking into 2014 general election the party won only 282 seats. This indicates that Indian citizens have given a clear mandate to rule once again to Modi by centralized consolidation by a national party, the first since 1984. Past studies have focused on electoral voting behaviour of citizens with a political quotient. However, limited studies are conducted among citizens, especially on Y generation. Following theory of reasoned action, a study was conducted, incorporating variables of attitude and ethnicity on intention to vote, with the moderating effect of social media and gender. The study followed quantitative research method with cross sectional study design to collect data from five locations of Gujarat. A sample size of 1680 voters were considered by applying purposive sampling. PLS-SEM analysis results revealed that attitude and ethnicity relate to voters behaviour assimilating social media and gender. Implications of the study extends better insight to the politicians, political parties and leaders in understanding the political behaviour of citizens during elections.
Citizen attitude, ethnicity, gender, political behaviour, social media, Theory of reasoned action (TRA), voting intention
The notion of religious experience has been debated by scholars, especially with regard to whether the religious experience is a product of human volition and whether it is universally applied to all humans regardless of their religious affiliations. John Dewey offered an interesting thought stating that religious experience was a product of human deliberation and everybody could have it, even atheists. This notion of the universality of religious experience is relatively new and worth further discussion. Therefore, this article discusses and examines Deweys notion of religious experience by using the theory of knowledge by presence discussed by Muslim philosophers, ranging from Shihabuddin Suhrawardi, Mulla Sadra, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, and Mehdi Hairi Yazdi. In this article, Muslim philosophers epistemological explanation of knowledge is applied to understand what universality of religious experience means and how ones religious experience differs one another. This approach offers a new perspective arguing that religious experience is essentially an immediate experience of experiencing subject without any intermediation, including human volition, and it is existentially universal in the realm of feeling, not on the realm of imagination as Dewey maintained.
Degrees of perfection, experience, feeling, imagination, knowledge by presence
Novice and experienced runners consistently seek appropriate strategies that can maximise their performance which include wearing compression socks. The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of compression socks (CS) and smooth socks (SS) on blood lactate (BLa) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in runners with different experience level. The result of this study may benefit the fitness industries and would promote new running strategy. A randomized cross-over design was used in this study. Accordingly, eight experienced and eight novice runners (23.56±1.41 years) were selected for the study. In particular, the participants were required to run on a Bruce treadmill for both conditions with random arrangement separated by seven days of the washout period. A mixed model ANOVA showed a significant difference (p<0.05) for VO2max in novice runners instead of experienced runners. Moreover, it was revealed that the VO2max (44.5 ml/ min/kg ± 1.1 ml/min/kg) in novice runners was higher while wearing CS. However, no significant differences were found for BLa between the conditions (CS/SS) for both groups (Novice/Experienced). Therefore, the overall finding suggests that the use of CS during running only increases the VO2max among novice runners.
Degrees of perfection, experience, feeling, imagination, knowledge by presence