Phrasal verbs are one of the most notoriously puzzling aspects of English language instruction. Despite their potential complexities, they are of high relevance for ESL/ EFL learners because knowledge of them is often equated with language proficiency and fluency. With the emergence of corpus linguistics, phrasal verbs have been extensively studied in General, Learner and Pedagogic corpora. Literature, however, is lacking in how learners use of phrasal verbs reflects the corresponding pedagogic corpora to which they are exposed. To fill this research gap, this study adopted a corpus-based content analysis as its methodological approach to investigate the treatment of phrasal verbs in an ESL learner corpus and its corresponding pedagogic corpus. Findings are also compared against the presentation of these combinations in the British National Corpus (BNC). The study reveals that the selection of teaching materials is more intuitively than empirically based. It also suggests that teachers can use available corpora as supplementary teaching sources to work out the areas of L2 that tend to cause problems for the learners.
Corpus linguistics, ESL context, learner corpus, pedagogic corpus, phrasal verbs
The present contribution is an attempt to make a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) comparison between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trumps presidential campaign discourses, based on Norman Faircloughs three-dimensional framework. The educational aim of the present study is to introduce an applicable approach through a new analytical framework for reading journalistic texts among EFL learners in order to equip them with the critical ability and analytical skills to achieve a depth-understanding of the texts. So this is a corpus-based qualitative-quantitative study focusing on how societal power relations are established and reinforced through language use. Through close analysis of texts we can find out where and why implicit messages and explicit meanings are foregrounded or backgrounded. The findings of the current study can be utilized for English foreign language learners to promote their critical ability to analyze the journalistic texts and this, in turn, can enhance the EFL learners motivation in reading comprehension.
Backgrounding, critical discourse analysis, foregrounding, language use, presidential campaign
This study aims to investigate the patterns of English verbal node collocations and to explore the patterns of their translation in Indonesian. In addition, this study also examines the translation techniques employed in translating English verbal node collocations into Indonesian. The study used the novel Pride and Prejudice and three translated versions of the novel. A total of 117 verbal node collocations were analysed. The data were collected using Ant.Conc. 3.4.4.w Software. The findings show that most of the verbal node collocation patterns are in the form of clausal extension and clausal enhancement. Others are in the form of verbal extension and verbal enhancement. This study also finds that English verbal node collocations are transferred into the same patterns as they are in English and also into different ones. In addition, English verbal node collocations are sometimes translated into nonverbal node collocations. With regard to translation techniques, the two most frequently used translation techniques found are established equivalence and discursive creation. Other techniques, from the highest to the lowest usage, are modulation, explicitness, reduction, pure borrowing, generalization, literal translation, addition, particularization, deletion, transposition, variation, adaptation and compensation.
Puntóng-Buná, spoken exclusively in Buná Cérca and Buná Léjos, in Indang, Cavite, Philippines, is used by people who seem to be perpetually asking questions. Following The United Nations proclamation of 2019 as International Year of Indigenous Languages, the research has pioneered the documentation of the Puntóng-Buná, and has identified possible factors that have been contributory to its perceived threat of abandonment. Anchored on uptalk, community of practice, and stereotypes of language use, the study aimed to answer these questions: (1) How is the phonological variation characterized? (2) Why does phonological variation occur in this speech community as opposed to others? (3) What are the reasons for the perceived disappearance of this phonological variation? The research techniques used were: (1) interviews; (2) observations (unstructured); and (3) program software. The research instruments were (1) an interview guide; (2) field notes; and (3) data sheet graphs. The investigation has yielded the following reasons for the perceived disappearance of the PB: (1) social stigma; (2) old generation; (3) impurity; (4) influx of new residents; and (5) occupations and mobility. Puntóng-Buná now being documented as a unique element to the worlds language heritage may finally give it a fighting chance for survival.
intonation, language preservation, language promotion, phonological variation, variable, variant, voice pitch analyzer
This study seeks to investigate how Bandung city, one of the foremost tourist destinations in Indonesia, and its elements (the citizens, the Mayor, and specific things or places) are evaluated by the author of a blog post entitled Bandung, The City of Pigs to ascertain the authors attitude polarity (negative or positive). The Appraisal theory was utilized in this study to analyze an array of appraisal resources contained in the text. It is found that in general the authors evaluation of Bandung and its elements is negative, which is linguistically realized in the three subsystems of ATTITUDE system namely APPRECIATION, JUDGEMENT, and AFFECT. In addition, it is presumed this negativity also contributes to the virality of the text as it evokes the high-arousal negative emotion of the readers i.e., anger. In our analysis, the blog post entitled Bandung, The City of Pigs went viral as it has evoked the readers negative emotions−namely angerâ€“because of a high number of negative appraisal items employed in the evaluation. Implicationally, these findings are expected to raise peoples awareness of the significance of making careful judgments in evaluating to avoid potential conflicts and other disadvantages.
Appropriate use of cohesive devices is vital in determining the quality of a writing product. The present study is aimed to find possible differences between male and female students in employing cohesive devices in writing as a tool to maintain coherence in the composition they made and the students familiarity to the cohesive devices mentioned in Halliday and Hasans Conjunction Device Taxonomy. Data were collected from 145 essays produced by the freshmen of Indonesian university students and students responses to Likert scale questionnaires. The findings show the varieties of cohesive devices and the students familiarity to them. It was identified that there were only limited numbers of cohesive devices that were used by the students and they were familiar with. In addition, the statistical analysis figured out that gender did not show significant difference in the use of the cohesive devices and the students familiarity to them. Based on the limitations of the present study, recommendations are offered at the end of the paper.
Academic essay, cohesive devices, corpus based analysis, gender
On January 31, 1942, a combined Japanese force launched a two-pronged attack on the island of Ambon. Within four days, the Japanese controlled the island, city and airfield. Nellie Jansen, the Dutch residents daughter, provided us an eye-witness account of the early days of the occupation. As a volunteer and trained nurses assistant, her observations center on medical resources and organization, including the presence of Japanese doctors and pharmacists from the first week of the occupation. She also observed the use of Malay dictionaries by Japanese authorities; for example, she wrote of her chat with a wounded officer: Dat feit scheen hem erg te vermaken, want hij greep schuddend van het lachen zijn maleise woordenboekje en zei, na er in te hebben gebladerd: Doeloe besar, sekarang ketjil..... This article explored what bilingual Malay-Japanese dictionaries were available to Japanese military and civilians who occupied Indonesia. The focus was on the 1942 edition of Masamichi Miyatakes Kamoes Baroe Bahasa Indonesia-Nippon, first published in 1938. The semantic field studied in this article was medical terminology. Some of these medical terms were selected for comparison with Malay-English dictionaries available at the time, in particular Wilkinson, Winstedt and Wilkinson. This paper is part of a project to examine and evaluate lexicographic resources developed by early twentieth century Japanese scholars and to situate that seldom-studied Japanese scholarship in the global tradition of Malay lexicography.
When university students in UK have difficulties with writing, their lecturers encourage them to have someone proofread it. Research on proofreading has focused mostly on how proof-readers should proofread and edit the students writing. Much less research has been done to ascertain the extent to which lecturers and academic supervisors should encourage their students to proofread their writing professionally or otherwise. This study seeks to explore lecturers beliefs with regards proofreading and the extent to which they encourage their students to consult professional or non-professional proof-readers for help. Data were gathered from three sources: surveys administered to 42 lecturers, interviews with 8 of the lecturers, and content analysis on lecturers feedback on students writing; all of which were analysed in order to find out the extent to which they ask their students to get their work proofread. The analysis of the data indicates that most academic staff did not ask their postgraduate students to get services from professional proof-readers before they submited their work because it was unnecessary and costly. They also argued that students should proofread their work to develop proofreading skills. In contrast, academic staff who usually asked their students to refer to professional proof-readers agreed that the reason behind this was that students written work often include grammatical and structural errors which made their ideas and arguments unclear, and consequently the students intended meaning was lost.
As middle and affluent class consumers continue to demonstrate an affinity for luxury brands, luxury brand owners need to understand common factors that drive these consumers to a purchase decision. This paper examines the relationship between consumer values (such as functional, symbolic, and experiential value) and affective attitudes, purchase intention and willingness to pay a premium price, especially in Indonesia. Using a survey, data was collected from 401 respondents online and analyzed using AMOS. The findings revealed that functional value had a significant positive relationship with affective attitude and purchase intention, but not with willingness to pay. Symbolic value was found to drive affective attitude, purchase intention, and willingness pay. Experiential value was confirmed only to have positive relationship with affective attitude; whereas affective attitude was revealed to be a driver to purchase intention, but not to willingness to pay.
This research helps to understand how local entrepreneurship drives economic recovery in a post-disaster community. The Kampung Sablon Association is an entrepreneurial association working to empower small traditional clothes printing entrepreneurs which was formed in Pandes Wedi Village (the Klaten Regency) in Indonesia after an earthquake disaster. This study aimed to examine the associations effort in recovering their business and re-establishing economic conditions and analyze the enabling factors. We used a qualitative approach with data collection, namely, literature and document studies, observations, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Government or NGO entrepreneurship programs were often ineffective in recovering communities economic conditions, whereas entrepreneurial efforts made by local community often succeeded quickly due to its strong social capital which generated bonding and bridging within the community. Local entrepreneurial efforts were supported not only by strong social capital but also by the implementation of community organizing and people-centered development. This study presented that the role of community members in local entrepreneurial associations, along with the power of social capital, community organizing, and people-centered development, was effective in recovering socio-economic conditions of the community after catastrophic damage from a natural disaster.
Community organizing, disaster, entrepreneurship, local institution
The present study has investigated consumers intention towards the selection of healthy food with nutritional information menu. Traffic lights symbols and health claims were used to inform consumer regarding nutritional information. With these two variables consumer attitude was taken as mediator to develop relation with consumer intention for healthy food selection. Big five personality traits were involved because likes and dislikes of food most often reflect individuals personality characteristics. The sample size was 948. For analysis structural equation modeling was used. Result revealed that health claims better impact on the respondent to consult nutritional menu at the time of placing an order in restaurants. Whereas traffic lights symbols though have a positive and significant effect but less than the influence of health claims. There were only two personality traits which were moderated, conscientiousness and agreeableness. The outcome of the study indicated that full-service restaurants should focus on designing precise, effective and informative nutritional menu for nutritional awareness of consumers.
Attitude towards nutritional menu, health claims, personality traits and intention, traffic lights label
This article aims to examine the role of microcredit programme on measuring income inequality between two groups of rural women in Bangladesh namely with credit and without credit. With credit rural women were members of Grameen Banks microcredit programme while without credit rural women who were not members of any microcredit programme. This empirical study was based on primary data collected through face to face interview from rural women in Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. By applying Lorenz Curve approach and Gini Coefficient analysis, the study findings revealed that with credit households had less income inequality compared to without credit households with the values of Gini coefficient at 0.354 and 0.429 respectively. It is evidenced that Grameen Banks microcredit programme provides an opportunity to reduce income inequality which ultimately contributes to improve rural family income and their livelihood. Study findings revealed that microcredit programme played a key role to alleviate poverty, reduced income inequality and helped the rural women to be economically independent and financially solvent in their society. The policy implication is that more provision of credits or loans by the microfinance institutions like Grameen Bank for the very poor or ultra-poor women in Bangladesh or any other least developed countries would help to get them involved in income generation activities and come out of poverty. Further research can be conducted on measuring income inequality perception i.e. how rural people perceive their income gaps and what are their thoughts for improving rural income inequality.
Bangladesh, Grameen Bank, income inequality, microcredit, rural women
The primary aim of this research was to measure the influence of religiosity on the intention of Indian Muslim to purchase halal food products. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour was used as a framework. Apart from Religiosity, the influence of subjective knowledge of halal was also tested. Data was collected from the Muslim consumers of six districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The result of structural equation modelling (SEM) showed that religiosity had an indirect influence on purchase intention and subjective knowledge had neither direct nor indirect influence on the purchase intention of Indian Muslims. Except for self-efficacy, all other antecedents of TPB (Theory of Planned Behaviour) had a positive influence on the purchase intention. This is the first study conducted so far on Muslim consumers of India related to halal certified packaged food products. Policy implications have been discussed.
Halal certified packaged food products, halal knowledge, Indian Muslim purchase intention, religiosity
The study examined the relationship between English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instructors preferred coping styles and their levels of satisfaction with classroom management techniques. One hundred and sixteen (116) participants teaching in Omani public schools were administered a three-part questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential analysis, including Pearson correlation coefficients and independent samples t-tests, were used to determine preferred coping styles and relationships between styles and satisfaction with classroom management. Results indicate participants were more likely to use the active coping styles of Relaxation and Social Problem Solving than Passive-Avoidance. This preference was not impacted upon by gender or grade taught (Cycle 1 or Cycle 2). Only a weak relationship was found between the use of Relaxation and satisfaction with classroom management, although no other statistically significant correlations existed. These findings can inform teacher training about the use of strategies associated with more positive coping styles, and for classroom management approaches in both Omani public schools and similar education contexts worldwide.
Basic education, classroom management, coping styles, EFL, Oman
Today, postgraduate students ability to graduate on time (GOT) has become a much-debated issue. In most cases, failure to GOT involves an array of factors. Nevertheless, identifying and having a good understanding of these factors that affect students motivation towards GOT is of critical importance so that the necessary measures can be taken to address GOT. Hence, this study aimed to investigate factors affecting students motivation towards GOT. This study employed a case study research design which involved 191 postgraduate students and 13 supervisors. Data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative research instruments. The findings revealed that first-year students level of motivation towards GOT level is comparatively higher than their seniors. Secondly, both the first-year students intrinsic and extrinsic motivation towards GOT level was significantly higher than students in subsequent semesters. Thirdly, the student and institutional factors predicted the motivation towards GOT level. Lastly, both the supervisors and students perceived that it was important for supervisors to be competent in conducting research besides monitoring students progress, so that students were motivated to GOT. This study has also proposed a tracking online system called Hybrid Supervision to assist supervisors in monitoring and providing motivation to their postgraduate students to GOT.
Motivation towards GOT, postgraduate students, supervision
Academic burnout has many consequences and can have adverse effects on the educational system of the country. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the students academic stress, stress response and academic burnout with the mediating role of self-efficacy. To this end, a total of 361 students (177 females and 184 males) was selected through multi-stage cluster sampling method and responded to Maslach Academic Burnout Questionnaire, Sherer General Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and Gadzella Student- Life Stress Inventory. The proposed model was evaluated through the structural model algorithm, using Imus Software. Mediating relationships were tested in the proposed model using the bootstrap method. Findings showed that the proposed model was well fitted with the data. Academic stress and stress response had a positive and significant effect on the academic burnout. The findings also showed that self-efficacy had a negative and significant effect on academic burnout. The results of indirect relationships showed that academic stress and stress response had a significant indirect effect on the academic burnout via self-efficacy. Overall, the results indicated that self-efficacy had a mediating role in the relationship between the academic stress, stress response and academic burnout.
This study aims to determine the mediating effect of nationalism on the relationship of religion, value, and culture with unity among pre-service teachers in the higher learning institutions of Malaysia. A total of 230 teachers with different racial backgrounds were recruited, among whom 133 were Malays and 97 were non-Malays. The data were analyzed using SPSS 23 and AMOS 18. Nationalism has a significant yet partial mediating effect on the relationship of religion, value, and culture with unity among pre-service teachers. The MANOVA analysis revealed a significant difference in such relationship between Malay and non-Malay students. The AMOS analysis showed that culture and religion had the highest and lowest effects on nationalism and unity, respectively. These findings imply that the Ministry of Higher Learning, universities, and lecturers in Malaysia must focus on the aspects of culture, religion, values, and nationalism to enhance the unity among pre-service teachers in the country.
Culture, national identity, nationalism, religion, unity, values
Though there are currently many perspectives on environmental education, they generally fail to address large gaps in linking education between natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities. As a result, recently developed environmental education management practices are inconsistent in sociocultural contexts, especially in Thailand where there are many environmental agencies and indigenous groups with their own unique worldviews. To address this issue, this mixed methodology study developed an integrative framework of environmental education based on the integral theory and worldviews of various stakeholders in Thailand. Results showed that the proposed integrative framework thoroughly addressed three holistic measures as well as five components of environmental literacy. The holistic measures consisted of behavioral change, social change, and personal change, whereas, the five components of environmental literacy included competencies (knowledge and skills in scientific and sociocultural aspects), spiritual growth (knowledge and skills in humanities), participation (norms of action), attitudes (proper character traits), and awareness (value awareness). This study not only fills gaps between various perspectives of environmental education, but also provides a shift from the reductionistic approach to a more holistic one when addressing the worlds complex environmental crises, especially on personalized and localized contexts.
The present research looks into Paul Austers intriguing novel Oracle Night and initiates a metaphorical journey deep inside the architectural world of the postmodern self of his protagonist, Sidney Orr. Employing the Virtual Fictional/ Factual Positioning (VFP) theoretical framework, this article relates the experience of uncertainty as a central mode in the postmodern self and aims to establish whether Orr develops a dialogical self which, according to Hubert Hermans Dialogical Self Theory (DST), functions as a more developed self in the present era of globalization and cross-cultural movements. The findings indicate that Orrs dialogical attempt is having positive affects which, in the end, are beneficial for the psychological health of his whole self-system.
This study aims at shedding light on the Mother figure as a symbol in Yeats Cathleen ni Houlihan. While most of the writers favour to present the female figure as a young and beautiful, Yeats contradicts this attitude by identifying Ireland with an old and dignified lady. The study aims at justifying Yeats choice of the old female figure as opposed to the young. The study proved that Yeats aimed to create double cultural function: the first was for a national purpose; where the young men decide to help the old lady only for her own sake without having any personal benefit. The second function had a cultural depth that aimed at reviving Irish culture by reintroducing Celtic figures adopted from the Irish culture as major characters in his plays. Therefore; the study proved that Yeats choice of the old female figure was a very influential way to foster national awareness and to revive the Celtic heritage as well.
Colonial and post-colonial literature, female figure as a symbol, Irish culture, Irish drama, W. B. Yeats
English romantic poetry has been traditionally conceived as a principal part of the idealism orthodoxy, an imitation of unrealistic ideal realms. This research aims to deconstruct this prevalent convention through isolating particular realistic aspects in English romantic poetry for examination. It argues that the real world has never been absent from the works of the English romantics. It tackles for this sake selected poems by William Blake, William Wordsworth, Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats, aiming to highlight their passionate concern with realistic aspects of man and the city and to examine their poetic interaction with significant real incidents and situations. The study investigates their presentation of England by comparing it with several non-poetic records produced by certain contemporary historians. It also tackles their treatment of human suffering which their writings give a voice to be objectively expressed. The concept of the romantic escape is treated as well where the romantics imagination often carries them to ideal realms; the study argues however that they never eternally reside there or enjoy escaping reality due to their existential needs that tie them to reality. The research concludes with the postulate that reality exerts a significant impact on the composition of English romantic poetry.
Studies of emotions within the framework of the seminal work History of Emotion are rapidly developing, and this realm involves interdisciplinary studies from different sciences, including literature studies, since literature often contains emotion as its most important aspect. This research was inspired by a Max Planck Institute Berlins (n.d.) project that investigated the socialization of emotion in works of European childrens literature published from 1870 to 1970. This research focused on narrative strategies and interpretations of emotions used by the child writers in the Kecil Kecil Punya Karya (KKPK) [Childrens Literature] series, published by Dar!Mizan. Using narrative studies and the sociology of literature while considering the child writers as members of the Post-Islamic generation, this research aimed to examine narrative strategies and interpretations of emotions within three KKPK series. The result of this research finds narrative strategies similar to fairy tales, and this can be interpreted as a sort of sharing session. Using Asef Bayats concept of Post-Islamism, which is elaborated by Ariel Heryanto, this analysis shows a unique gender perspective and religious motivation within the narrative interpretations of Muslim middle-class child writers emotions.
Childrens literature, emotion, gender, Kecil-Kecil Punya Karya (KKPK), post-islamism
The quantitative research examined how academic professionals in the Abu Dhabi-UAE internalized the phenomenon of burnout in their teaching profession. At present, the episodes of teachers burnout is high due to the insecure job environment in line with the ongoing industry challenges. Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) was used to measure the levels of burnout among academicians. The data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as, Chi-square analysis. Results provide an understanding about how burnout impacts academicians in their work performance, and therefore, help to develop and devise techniques to control and alleviate burnout. It is essential to identify, develop and retain educators who are healthy, energized, self-motivated, mentally-stable and can creatively contribute to building the future citizens of any country.
Burnout, client burnout, personal burnout, productivity, stress, work burnout, work performance
This research discussed the effects of maternal employment on child cognitive development using the IFLSs data on children aged between 7-10 years old. The results indicated the negative effects of maternal employment when children were between 0-3 years old. Yet, maternal employment on children aged between 7-10 years old was positively associated with childrens cognition. The accumulated additional hours of the working mother when children were older than 3 years also affected the childrens cognition positively. Furthermore, this development was also affected by other factors, such as the childs inputs, the mothers inputs, and the familys inputs.
Purpose of this study was to examine the impact of person-job fit on job-based psychological ownership. Furthermore, this study also observed the mediation effects of routes to psychological ownership i.e. control, investment of self, and intimate knowing between person-job fit and job-based psychological ownership. To achieve this purpose data was collected from 300 respondents belonging to private and public banking sector of Pakistan. PLS-SEM statistical analysis was conducted to test hypotheses. Statistical analysis proved our hypothesized relationships. It was found that person-job fit, and job-based psychological ownership were positively related and routes to psychological ownership mediates the relationship between person-job fit and job-based psychological ownership. Present study contributes in human resource management by discussing employees behavior related issues i.e. person-job fit, emotions of psychological attachment toward job and how these feelings develop. It is need of the time to explore reasons how employees can perform well in their jobs and at the same time they are loyal and committed to their jobs.
Control, intimate knowing, investment of self, job based psychological ownership, person-job fit
The purpose of this study was to determine the causes of un-Islamic behaviors among at-risk Muslim youth in the three Southern border provinces of Thailand. The key informants of the study consisted of 30 Muslim youth who demonstrated at-risk behaviors, 15 Muslim leaders, and 15 Muslim academicians. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, and a content analysis was performed using logical comparison with related concepts, theories, and research reports. The results of the study revealed that the at-risk, un-Islamic behaviors of the youth in the three Southern border provinces could be attributed to (1) the absence of breastfeeding as an infant; (2) a lack of a close Islamic upbringing (3) little interest in Islamic activities; (4) Muslim leaders negligence in looking after youth and (5) apathetic and insufficient study of Islam.
At-risk Muslim youth, causes of misbehavior, Islamic behavior, socialization
Amidst the research and public discourse on the problems of female migrant workers (especially domestic workers), the phenomenon of unwanted children born as a result of rape or unplanned pregnancies has received little attention. In Indonesia, many such babies have been found abandoned at the Soekarno Hatta International Airport. In response to this need in January 2009, two charitable organizations Yayasan Putri Cikeas and Gerakan Nasional Kepedulian Sosial (GNKS) and a government agency The National Agency for the Placement and Protection of Indonesian Migrant Workers (Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia, or BNP2TKI) cooperatively established a temporary shelter named Rumah Peduli Anak TKI (RPA TKI) for these newborns. Indonesian television stations have devoted considerable news coverage to this shelter, and some videos on its activities can be found on YouTube, resulting in donations and offers to adopt the abandoned babies. However, its representation of the mothers is problematic This study aims to understand how RPA TKI is represented in the media to suggest that the representation fails to provide a comprehensive understanding of unwanted children and their migrant mothers. Applying feminist critical discourse analysis, I found that some aspects of the coverage reinforce undesirable stereotypes and even re-victimize the female migrant workers who became the unwilling mothers of these children. Findings indicate that Indonesian media often lacks gender perspective when covering female migration and its uninvited outcomes. This research will serve as a base for future studies on the representation of female migrant workers in Indonesian media.
Feminist critical discourse analysis (CDA), female migrant workers, media coverage, RPA TKI, unwanted children
Violence against the Chinese in Indonesia is increasing, and much trauma has arisen among the ethnic Chinese because of this fact. In this paper, the authors present the result of interviews with three Chinese women from the current generation who have experienced trauma. The goal of this study is to comprehend how their families trauma can be told and how that traumatic experience forms their Chinese ethnicity. Chinese ethnicity is often thought to be formed by the narration of the fathers. Fathers play a central role in the formation of generations and the ethnic ideologies in Chinese families, especially with regard to their own children, while the mothers role is often marginalised solely responsible for the childrens biological identity. This is a qualitative research study with a feminist approach intended to understand and identify the maturation process of young Chinese women according to their fathers narratives. This study used Anthias and Daviss theory along with Spivaks work to find the thread between the fathers role in ethnic identity formation and self-agency as represented by interviews with three ethnic Chinese women. The end of this paper presents the self-agency and the representation of how these ethnic Chinese were affected by their society and their education. These three subjects each received different types of education and are from different societies; thus, they represent some ethnic Chinese who have had similar experiences. The results show that the trauma continues for these women and that it is passed down by the father; furthermore, the womens educational backgrounds influence the subjects perspectives.
Chinese women, ethnic, identity, representation, subaltern women
The region of Papua is relatively isolated due to the limitation of transportation infrastructure and the high cost of transportation there, either going to or from the area even for within the area of Papua itself and the number of cities there. Besides that, farmers originally from Papua generally are still living in subsistent life culture. This study aims to describe the conditions of agropolitan area development in the city of Jayapura, the one of agropolitan areas in Papua, and its surrounding area after the program has been running since 2002. The result of study showed that there had not been a regulation on agropolitan area development in provincial level while the agropolitan area in the area of study covered various districts in the city and regency. In general, agropolitan area in the city of Jayapura and the surrounding area had not developed significantly, as seen, among others, from the agribusiness link there, which was still short, the downstream agribusiness subsystem infrastructure was still quite limited, farmers capacity was still low with a level of dependency on the government which was still high.
Past literature has indicated a lack of visual privacy in the design of terrace housing in Malaysia, especially for Malay Muslim families, owing to specific Islamic regulations and principles governing the modesty of self, family, and house. The main objectives of this paper are to analyse the definition of visual privacy from Islamic perspective or Muslim visual privacy (MVP), and to determine the factors that influence its perception among Malay Muslim communities who are living in terrace housing development in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The study involved a survey interview of 441 respondents and 10 case studies. Findings indicate that in adapting to the contemporary urban environment of todays terraced housing, Malay Muslim families are shifting away from the traditional Malay as well as previous Islamic concept of visual privacy. Analysis indicated that the Malay Muslim families required a balance between visual exposure and visual access in order to achieve an optimum level of visual privacy to enhance daily comforts, while still being informed by Malay culture and Islam. It is the balance between visual exposure and visual access which influences the four identified factors influencing Muslim visual privacy which are protection of aurat, security, community interaction and hospitality to guest.
Malay Muslim family, Klang Valley, terrace housing, visual privacy, visual exposure, visual access
Representation in the media is a constant source of controversy. It shows in the fact that even though the number of superheroes appearing on network and cable television is growing, leading roles of non-white, particularly black superheroes in mainstream movies remain scanty. Though movies and culture have been postulated to have a powerful influence on how non-white viewers are perceived and how they perceive themselves, non-white characters have been severely under-represented. In the Academy Awards, nominees are often dominated by white actors and cinematographers. The article is to show how black superheroes are depicted in movies. In particular, the significance of this article is that it sheds light on the ways in which Black Panther, an African superhero, and Afrofuturism are represented in the film. It examines issues of underrepresentation and symbolic annihilation and their impacts to viewers. The article eventually argues that the increasingly diverse world is thirsty for non-white superheroes like Black Panther. Viewers deserve a superhero they can relate to from stories from their own past so that they can celebrate their historical progress and achievements and have a feeling of self-respect and dignity.
Afrofuturism, black panther, representation, superheroes, symbolic annihilation
Cross-border policy on Traditional Cultural Expressions (TCEs) particularly traditional songs is a complex issue to implement. The spirit to cooperate between states of cultural similarity is raised by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) but in fact, the utilization of such song denies the economic rights of its custodian. Until now, less attention has been paid to questions concerning normative issues of protection of Baul song. This paper addresses two important questions on the normative level: a) How to protect Baul song as Traditional Cultural Expressions (TCEs) using existing suitable Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) tool? b) How to draw any alternate protection mechanisms in cross-border Baul song? From a methodological standpoint, this paper used both a legal approach and snowball sampling strategy in data collection. To conclude, firstly, it is potential to protect Baul song as Traditional Cultural Expressions (TCEs) using existing suitable Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) tool, particularly using Copyrights as long as sui generis system has not been established. Secondly, as an alternative protection mechanism in cross-border Baul song, in the establishment of legal instruments must include political, historical, and economic issues. Those are some recommendations on how to deal with these normative aspects in well laid policy making processes: it is proposed that there is a need to give a boost to cross-border collaboration program such as inscription and documentation; creating more specific incentives for cross-border cooperation; strengthening a protection policy framework for copyright and related right landscape.
Baul song, cross-border, cultural preservation, intellectual property rights (IPR), traditional cultural expressions (TCEs)
The move to abolish child marriages in Indonesia has met with obstacles from religious leaders. This is probably due to the limited research involving religious heads perspectives towards the abolition of child marriages. This article will explore the perspectives of Religious Affairs (KUA) Heads in Malang City. These officials are in charge of overseeing issues with regards marriage within the Muslim community. The design of this study was a qualitative case study and data sources were obtained from KUA Heads in Malang City. Semi-structured interview instruments were used, and data analysis was done through thematic analysis. The results of the study revealed that all the respondents agreed to the abolishment of child marriages, as well as in agreeing to propose the revision of the marriage law (No.1 of 1974), which would be by raising the age limit of marriage of girls from 16 years to 18 years. However, dispensation for marriage would be provided for those aged less than 18 years in some special conditions. It was also found that for this revision to take place, abolition of child marriage must be entirely supported by parents, teachers, religious and community leaders.
Abolition of child marriage, early marriage, Head of KUA, marriage dispensation, revision of marriage law No.1 of 1974
Womens rights issues have marked its spot as one of the most debated issues throughout centuries. Marriage is regularly portrayed as an oppressive sphere for women, with their rights being oppressed the moment they enter a marriage contract, especially in Islam. However, further reflection on the issue has shown that Islamic matrimony liberates women, preserves their honour and place in society, and abolishes injustice, when guided in principle from the Quran and Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Regrettably, Muslims misunderstanding due to cultural interpretation and malpractice of original Islamic teachings has tainted the true Islamic ideal. In dealing with the data, the study utilised an inductive method and content analysis, and aimed to draw attention to the misunderstandings of marriage in Islam with regards to womens rights. Further discussion would serve to explore the outcome of womens rights in marriage as bestowed by Islam, and understand the importance of the marriage institution, whilst examining the compelling misunderstandings by detractors.
Islam, gender, malpractice, womens rights in marriage
Escalating pressures along with organisational change in universities has led to the increased importance of research on work-life balance, well-being and organisational climate amongst university staff. Grounded in Work/Family Border Theory and Social Exchange Theory, this study investigated the causal relationships between work-life balance and well-being within the context of Open Distance Learning (ODL) University in Malaysia. This study also introduced organisational climate as potential moderator to investigate the indirect relationship on work-life balance and well-being. Through the Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis on 94 respondents, findings suggested that work-life balance for staff only impact on their psychological well-being. In addition, contrary to our expectations, the results revealed that organisational climate did not moderate the relationship between work-life balance and individual well-being. Several recommendations that will be significant to improve career satisfaction, and to have more positives work environment are discussed.
Career satisfaction, Open Distance Learning (ODL) university, organisational climate, well-being, work-life balance
This study represents an empirical inquiry that examines the management control systems in the two selected Japanese overseas R&D organizations in Malaysia and Singapore. Our analysis focused on the comprehensive management control packages including action, results and people controls as well as the performance evaluation of R&D projects. The study found that management control systems of the Japanese R&D organizations were largely effective. The management control packages in these R&D organizations were also balanced and prioritized based on the management practices of the parent company, but these packages were not optimized by the local human resources.
Japanese management, management control systems, R&D
Mobile technologies have gradually changed peoples interpersonal communication habits, how to encourage elderly members to adopt mobile messaging apps (MMA) has merged as a critical issue in modern society. This study aims to empirically examine factors motivating the elders continuous use of MMA as a social support tool. According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the hypothesis of a factorial model of elders continuous use of MMA was developed. This study had collected a total of 519 valid samples from a field survey in northern Taiwan. A structural equation modeling approach was used to test the instruments and hypotheses. Results showed that all scales had acceptable validity and reliability, the model had a high fitness, and all hypotheses were supported. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control significantly affect the elders continuous use of MMA. The external factors, interpersonal communication satisfaction, and enjoyment influencing attitudes respectively, social support influencing subjective norms, and adjustment to aging influencing perceived behavioral control, were all significantly effectual to TPB constructs. Based on the results, this study recommends that adult learning institutes and family members assist the elderly with positive adjustments to aging as well as increasing social involvements and interpersonal interactions through MMA. Furthermore, developing MMA with a simple interface and enjoyable experiences would be a plus for older adults.
Adjustment to aging, enjoyment, interpersonal communication satisfaction, MMA, social support
Communication between medical practitioners and patients are in many cases ineffective, with consequences ranging from inadequate health facilities to malpractice cases. The problems may also be related to the intercultural differences in interpreting medical practitioner-patient relations based on different expectations and interpretations, attributed to the verbal and nonverbal symbols exchanged between the two parties. Based on a phenomenological perspective, this study aimed to explore those communication barriers as perceived by medical practitioners. This study employed a qualitative research method, interviewing 28 medical practitioners. The results of the study showed that there were four main barriers encountered by medical practitioners when dealing with patients in their therapeutic communication. These barriers were related to: (1) cultural differences; (2) educational differences; (2) time barrier; and (4) psychological differences.
Communication barriers, medical practitioners, patients, therapeutic communication
Governments are obliged to allocate sufficient budget to protect environmental and human development qualities. This study, conducted on Indonesian local governments, investigated the impact of the environmental budget on environmental and human development qualities. Using Geospatial Information System (GIS) in acquiring the number of degradation land degradation as a proxy for environmental quality, we documented positive relationships between the environmental budget and the quality of the environment. Local government that allocated more budget on the environment protection and management program tended to have better quality of the environment compared to other areas. Furthermore, there was a positive relationship between the environmental quality and human development quality. A healthy and good quality of environment could have an impact on the communitys ability to access education, health, and better economic prosperity. Finally, we found that the environmental quality affected indirectly the relationship between the environmental budget and the quality of human development. The results of this study indicate the important roles of the environmental budget to improve environmental quality and the quality of human development in Indonesia.
Environmental budget, environmental quality, human development quality, local government
This research aimed to explore how discourses and social practices influenced the sexual self and sexual life of disabled women in Thailand. Narrative interviews and participation observation methods were used to collect data from twelve women with physical disabilities and seven women with visual impairment. Findings revealed the discourses influencing disabled womens sexual self were medical discourses as impairment and abnormal, religious discourses as sin from wrongdoing in a past life, and social welfare discourse as disadvantage and burden. While, gender and sexuality discourses regulated disabled womens thoughts and actions in term of their sexuality. They were portrayed as asexual, inappropriate into sexual relationship, and undesirable girlfriend, wife or mother. The disabled women suppressed their sexual feeling, accepted their fate, and felt worthless. Regarding sexual life, they were overprotected by parents, lack an opportunity in intimate relationship, and proper sexual education. Some implications are encouraging family and people should be open-minded to learn from real life experiences of disabled women. Moreover, people in community should give opportunities to disabled women to express their needs, their voices, their potential, and accept them as humans with dignity and one of the citizens with equal rights.
Disability, discourse, gender, sexual right, social practices
The purpose of this paper is to study the impacts of carbon trading project towards stakeholders involving in the project. Carbon trading is a part of the United Nation (UN) initiatives to mitigate climate change issue due to the higher concentration of Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. The data used in this research was fully dependant on secondary sources which were obtained from recognized organizations, reports and previous researches. The General Equilibrium (GE) model was used as a framework to elaborate on the interconnection of the actors affected by the project. This model is suitable to describe the complex relationship between the government, firms, households and developed country which been affected through the implementation of the project. Palm oil mill functioned as a firm in this research as the highest contributor in the project since 2006. Trade policy agreement, between developed country and mills, will deliver advantages through technology transfer and financial flow into developing countries. Households who are staying close to the mills are considered as a source of employees will benefit when the company can offer more vacancies for local communities. The government will also be able to encourage more industrial sectors practicing eco-friendly project. The implementation of the project expecting will affect all the actors through the circulation of the income investment by developed country through carbon trading project.
Competitive advantages, economic actors, General Equilibrium (GE), impact of climate mitigation, palm oil industry
Even though many researchers have found the problem of event-induced variance in event studies, they are tended to neglect these hazards by using conventional event-study methods, such as the Patell test. This test tends to reject the null hypothesis of zero average abnormal returns too often when it is true (higher type I error). In this study, we had implemented a more advanced event-study method, Boehmer, Mucumeci, and Poulsen (BMP) test, to remedy the issue of event-induced variance. Using stock dividend, the empirical findings demonstrated that the BMP test produced six significant abnormal returns from day 10 before the event to day 30 after the event while the Patell test generated 11 significant abnormal returns. In other words, the over-rejection rate in Patell test was 83.33%. At the same time, the level of significance in test values increased from 1%-5% in the Patell test to 5%-10% in the BMP test. A possible explanation for the two main findings might be due to the presence of event-induced variance. We found that the BMP test generated equally powerful tests as the null was false as well as suitable rejection rates as it was true. In addition, there has the impact of the stock dividend event on the Malaysia stock market returns. This paper provides an empirical comparison between conventional event-study methods and the BMP test to resolve event-induced variance in event studies.
Alarming grand corruption incidences and ethical misconducts in the public sector have brought to the fore the importance of administrative ethics management in Malaysia. This exploratory study uses summative content analysis of official national data sets and relevant textual materials to describe the strategies that have been implemented in managing administrative ethics to address ethical misconducts. Findings show that despite Barisan National (BN) administrations consistent efforts at strengthening administrative ethics management, corruption and ethical misconducts have prevailed in the public sector. Hence the current Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration has revised existing anti-corruption laws, and instituted political and institutional reforms. Issues and concerns identified that affect administrative ethics management include political influence, public sectors size, different layers of government, various codes of ethics, fusion of secular and religious values, and stringency of enforcement. Based on the aforementioned findings, the following recommendations are advanced. First, stakeholders have to actively scrutinize and participate in enforcement efforts. Second, workable and effective ethics management strategies must also be formulated based on a future comprehensive study addressing the lack of fit between existing public sectors ethics codes with religious values, organizational and social cultures and practices in Malaysia.
Administrative ethics, integrity, Malaysia, management, morals, values