Organisations today are not only concerned with skills and qualifications of employees but are also looking for workforce who can integrate their body, mind and soul with the work and maintain cordial work relationships. Incorporating spirituality at the workplace has now become an important need of the day. The present study is intended to explore the relationship between demographic profiles of individuals and spirituality at the workplace. Further, this study focuses on the relationship between organisational commitment and spirituality at work. For the present study, descriptive research design was used and data was collected using questionnaire containing items on both constructs. The study findings outline that gender has a significant impact on sense of community while age bears no impact on this factor. In contrast, age has a significant impact on intention to stay whereas gender has no impact on one's intention to stay. Additionally, spirituality at work and organisational commitment are found to have considerable relationship. Spirituality at work can be compared with other aspects such as leadership styles, work-life balance, organisation citizenship behaviour and organisation culture. This research can further be extended to other industries and an industry wise analysis can be carried out.
Intention to stay, Mystical experience, Organisation commitment, Sense of community, Spirituality at work
This research paper provides a conceptual CRM framework that may be used by public universities in Mauritius for managing student relationships. Several important components have been identified for improving relationships with students based on a survey carried out with students and staff in the different public universities in Mauritius. The research findings show that people integrity and trust, communication and adaptation, facilitation and support, technological support and student engagement activities are the most important factors for improving relationship building. The rationale of the study is built upon the increasing number of student complaints and problems in the public universities. The research outcome will be highly beneficial for the different stakeholders in higher education.
Communication, CRM Framework, Higher education, Integrity, Public universities, Relationship building
With an average occupancy rate of 48% during peak season, small and medium hotels (SMHs) in Mauritius are no longer competitive as compared to large hotels (LHs). SMHs are challenged to survive in a market where competing solely on price no longer guarantees sustainability for the future. SMHs face the threat of closing down with job losses for both management and workers. In order to survive, SMHs have to relook into their strategy. The purpose of this study is to assess the business model of SMHs in order to highlight their weaknesses which are hindering them from expansion and innovation. This study used a mixed approach consisting of two phases. Phase 1 consisted of structured interviews, guided by the business model canvas (BMC), which were carried out among 30 SMHs. In phase 2, a self-assessment questionnaire based on BMC was administered to the SMHs. In order to assess the mechanisms of innovation within each building block of the BMC, responses from the questionnaire were further coded in SPSS. The result of phase 1 shows that BMC of SMHs differs mainly in value propositions for targeted customer segment. Results from data analysis in phase 2 confirmed that within each BMC building block, the three areas of innovation are customer relationship, customer segment and key resources. The knowledge obtained from this study will help SMHs to analyse their internal capability for business model innovation (BMI), hence, serve as a guide to institutions supporting SMHs to focus on priority areas.
Business Model Innovation (BMI), Competitiveness, Mauritius, Small and Medium Hotels (SMHs), Sustainability
With growing markets and increasing consumer volumes, the production, as well as consumption patterns are degrading the environment drastically. The government, consumers and producers have realised the worth of this issue. The research and development department of industries are continuously working to develop products that are environment-friendly and cause less environmental destruction. Products which are capable of being recycled, and possess healthy disposal are often termed as green products. The manufacturing, marketing, and consumption of such products are being promoted by the government as well as non-governmental organisations. The present study aims to understand the concept of green product and consumer behavior towards it. The study also investigates the relationship of green product usage and purchase intention with demographic variables (age, gender, income and educational qualification). Primary data was collected using structured questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics as well as Pearson's chi-square test for independence. The results reveal an important insight concerning the factors that are majorly responsible for motivating as well as demotivating consumer behavior towards green products. Environmental sustainability and personal consciousness of consumers are found to be motivating factors while unavailability and unawareness are deemed demotivating factors along with the cost of installation / usage. Consumers are intended to purchase green products irrespective of their demographics. However educational qualification is found to be the only demographic variable having a relationship with green product usage.
Consumer Behaviour, Environment, Green Consumerism, Green Marketing, Green Product, Sustainability, Sustainable Development
As emotional intelligence competencies are seen as the key to personal and professional success, thus it becomes significant to study the relationship of experience and age of an individual on the level of emotional intelligence. This study aims at finding out the perception and the level of emotional intelligence in a person on the basis of his/her age group and gender. The study is exploratory in nature where quota sampling was used to collect data. This study attempts to study the level of emotional intelligence among faculty members of academic institutions (who are the institution's greatest asset), like Amity University, SRM University, Delhi University, Lucknow University, and Christ University. A 2x3 factorial design was prepared to compare emotional intelligence between age and gender of academic professionals. A self-designed questionnaire, prepared on Likert type scale was distributed among 200 academicians of India, out of which 165 were responded and eventually, 160 questionnaires were selected for analysis. Tools like item to total correlation, reliability, factor analysis, and Z-test were used to analyse the data. Various factors like proficiency, holistic wisdom, candidness, insight, sensibility, understanding situations, truth loving, being relaxed; matured, balanced, having optimism, sagaciousness, calmness and development were identified. Results of the Z-test shows that respondents in different age groups differ in emotional intelligence except between age groups of 25-35 and above 55. Results further show that females have higher emotional intelligence than males.
Everyday marketers are facing challenges and getting many new opportunities within this digital age. Marketers are basically making use of electronic media to promote all the goods and services into the market. One of the major challenges the marketer has to deal with is to know how to persuade someone and how to come up with ways in order to attract and retain prospective customers. The issue could easily be solved by making or allowing customers to interact or talk about the brand through the use of digital media. Through this research the researcher would be focusing and talking about the importance of digital marketing for both customers and the marketers. This research is conducted to understand why digital marketing is more effective than traditional media and what are the major differences between digital and traditional media. The researcher made use of primary and secondary data, and a close ended questionnaires, where a sample of 105 respondents were selected. The data was collected through Google forms and analysed using the SPPS statistical tool to explore descriptive statistics like frequency, mean, standard deviation as well as cross-tabs and inferential statistics, comprising regression analysis and ANOVA. Secondary resources were used to do review of literature through journals and articles. This research will also show the major factors that affect the effectiveness of digital marketing in the era of digitisation, where every marketer is opting for digital marketing to promote his brand(s).
Customers, digital marketing, digitization, promotion, traditional marketing
The paper bargains the customers' recognition towards digital payment identified with customers' mindfulness towards digital payment with unique reference to the area of South Delhi. This research paper begins with the prospect of expanding the pattern of digital payment to the general public. The investigation found that 58% of the aggregate respondents need to utilise computerised installment choice in future too. Added to that, it turned out that 47% of the aggregate respondents said that they have a dread of spillage of certifications while utilising diverse installment modes. The research report depends on essential information. Hence, it is inferred that the vast majority of bank clients know about the benefits of saving money benefits in the zone of PulPehladpur, South Delhi.
Research on intercultural communication with respect to cultural differences in an ethnic group has rarely been undertaken. Thus, this study is proposes a communication model among elites (namely ulamaks) in Menes district, Banten province, Indonesia using Goffman's (1974) dramaturgy theory. Data was obtained from 24 informants from the district of Menes-Banten based on interviews, observation and documents. Findings show that Goffman's impression management theory cannot be fully accepted, particularly ulama's impression management model.
Intercultural communication, local elites, impression management, Indonesia
This study examines the trend of paddy production and allocation of land for between 2014 and 2030 based on polynomial function. In order to gauge the time variance effect on sustainable land allocation for paddy production, short-term and long-term scenarios were used in estimating future paddy production and average yield. This study finds that with successive increases in the intensity of the long-term paddy productivity, the land required for paddy plantation in the future will be diminished. Additionally, the average yield per hectare explains the difference between long-term and short-term projection and emphasises the crucial need for improvement in research and development (R&D) and discovering alternative measures for domestic paddy production. Therefore, due to its increasing population, Malaysia has to ensure an efficient allocation of land for development and paddy plantation to cater to both current and future needs.
Average yield per hectare, Future paddy land requirement, Food security, Paddy production, Polynomial approach, Rice demand, Sustainable paddy farming, Self-sufficiency level
The purpose of this research was to explore Islamic background of Thai Muslim youth in the three Southern border provinces of Thailand in terms of their upbringing, studying, performing religious duties, and participating in activities. Data was obtained through discussions and in-depth interviews with 54 informants: 18 youths who displayed Islamic ethical behaviour, 18 Muslim leaders, and 18 parents and guardians. The study found that the Thai youths displayed ethical behaviour as they had good Islamic background in terms of upbringing, education, performing religious duties and participating in religious-related activities.
Islamic upbringing, studying Islam, performance of religious duties, Islamic ethical nehaviour, muslim youth
The purpose of this research was to strengthen students' foundation of grammar in sentence construction. The problem statement is that students are unable to perform well in the English language classes, particularly in constructing simple sentences. Thus, this research examined whether 'Wheel Of Grammar' (WOG) is able to help students in constructing grammatically correct simple sentences. The rationale is to ensure students' confidence in the use of basic rules of Subject-Verb Agreement in sentence construction. Fifteen Form 5 students were chosen as sample based on their diagnostic test and first middle-semester examination results to avoid any biasness. The research used mixed-method design where quantitative data from pre- and post-tests were used to measure the outcome. To triangulate data findings, responses from the informal interviews and classroom observations were taken into consideration. The students' response reflects the improvement in sentence construction. They were able to apply correct basic rules of Subject-Verb Agreement, the right usage of tenses and Verbs-To-Be in the tasks. Grammar lessons became less stressful as they could easily search for answers in a fun and creative way.
Grammar, simple sentences, Wheel of Grammar, Subject-Verb Agreement, tenses
Action research is instrumental in enhancing teachers' professional development. Therefore, this study attempts to identify the challenges faced by Malaysian teachers in conducting action research in their schools and ensure its successful implementation. A total of 34 mathematics and science teachers participated in a focus group discussion. Thematic analyses indicate that the challenges can be classified as the 'S Factor' (school factor) and the 'T Factor' (teacher factor). The key challenges were found to be lack of research culture in schools, which have led to a series of other challenges, and teachers' lack of confidence due to limited scaffolding received in acquiring research-based knowledge and skills.
This article used Roland Barthe's Rhetoric of the Image to analyse newspaper political ads of two presidential aspirants of a political party that defined Nigeria's nascent democracy from 1999 to 2015. Semiotics was employed as a theory and method to engender an understanding of how persuasive messages are used to elicit party support in Nigerian and by extension, African political communication systems. It can be inferred from the evidence that the candidates' rhetoric was conveyed using denotative and connotative messages. The linguistic messages were conveyed through denotative meanings using anchorage and relay - two functions of linguistic messages in ads - to direct the reader to preferred meanings and to add extra meaning to a preferred one. The connotations from the ad visuals were conveyed using polysemic meanings. However, the visuals did not signify the party's ideology, though ideology is the common domain of the signified in ad visuals. Overall, the Daily Trust and The Guardian were instruments in conveying the aspirants' persuasive messages on salient economic, political and social issues.
Since the Ukraine crisis in 2013, citizens of Russia have improved their attitudes toward the foreign and domestic policies of their government. This process culminated in an 89% approval rating (according to Levada Center) of President Putin in 2015. In particular, Russian citizens gave unusually full support to Russian authorities in the area of foreign policy. President Vladimir Putin and his foreign policy regarding the Ukraine crisis, which became the focus of Russian mass media, took firm control of the situation to a degree unprecedented for contemporary political regimes. This study examines effects of agenda-setting in the contemporary political process of Russia. The authors claim that public opinion in Russia has changed in favour of President Vladimir Putin after the Ukraine crisis as a result of agenda-setting. The findings suggest that public support was one of the main reasons for Russian foreign policy with regards to the Ukraine crisis.
Agenda-setting theory, public opinion, Putin, Russia, Ukraine crisis
In this study, we examined the nature of teacher Corrective Feedback (TCF) in Paper-And-Pencil and Electronic modes by exploring the form and purpose of TCF and the strategies used to mark errors in the writings of undergraduate EFL students. We also investigated possible differences between the two modes. To this end, we randomly assigned the students to the control (PAP feedback) and experimental groups (E-feedback). Taking a mixed-method research design, we analysed data which included the first drafts of students' essays of the two groups in hard and soft copy forms. We used a modified version of Analytic Model for Corrective Feedback and Error Feedback Strategies profile to identify the nature of TCF. The results showed: a) higher percentage of E-feedback compared with PAP feedback; b) make a grammar/mechanics comment/question, statement, or imperative as the most frequently used feedback type in both groups; c) underline/circle/ highlight the errors and underline/circle/highlight and categorise the errors as the most frequent feedback strategies in the control and experimental group respectively; and d) significant differences in the nature of feedback between the two modes. The findings suggested the medium (mode) by which feedback was provided affected the nature of the message given to the students. The outcome of this study is useful for writing instructors.
This article outlines the findings from a contemporary study on the development of social inclusion practices in primary and secondary schools in Malaysia. Recent inclusive education policy in Malaysia has increased schools' accountability for the inclusion of students with SEN into mainstream schools. This article draws on recent empirical evidence related to social interaction development among students with special educational needs and their typically developing peers thus providing an insight into Malaysia's efforts in developing an inclusive education system. The research findings will provide contemporary information on the social interaction development among SEN and mainstream pupils, as perceived by teachers and parents in the country. The article also highlights what is required to enhance the social interaction development of students with SEN and their more abled peers.
Inclusive education, social inclusion, social interaction
The purpose of this study is to examine corporate governance (CG) disclosure, particularly audit committee and internal audit disclosure, of listed firms in Indonesia. To the best of the researcher's knowledge, no previous studies have specifically examined the compliance level of listed firms in Indonesia with prevailing CG regulations, specifically related to audit committee and internal audit disclosures. We compared annual reports of 443 listed firms between 2012 and 2013 based on the regulations that govern disclosures set by the Indonesian Capital Market Authority. It was found that the level of disclosure 2012 and 2013 on CG, particularly with regards to audit committees and internal audits, was relatively low. Specifically, the level of disclosure was only 39.5% and 43.9% in 2012 and 2013 respectively. The old regulation lacked detailed requirements, meaning that the level of disclosure varied greatly across firms. The revised regulations announced in 2012 were stricter and more detailed, meaning annual reports for 2013 were expected to have richer information on the firms' CG practices. However, the level of disclosure in 2013 increased by only 4.4%. This result shows that the revised regulations did not automatically increase the level of disclosure possibly due to the fact that enforcement was not yet in place. The findings of this paper have implications for capital market regulators in particular the need to enforce the regulations with the ultimate objective of ensuring full compliance with mandatory disclosures.
This study attempted to delineate the relationship between the knowledge and regulation of metacognition, and to show how they interact to mediate the effects of task-induced involvement load on learning vocabulary. A total of 90 tertiary-level students completed a checklist on metacognition. Subsequently, they were assigned to complete three tasks with varying degree of involvement load and to complete certain vocabulary tests. Results showed that both the knowledge and regulation of metacognition are independent constructs, but closely and significantly correlated. The learners were sub-divided into two distinct ability groups (high vs. low) based on the knowledge-of-metacognition checklist, and two distinct ability group (high vs. low) based on the regulation-of-metacognition checklist. Overall, the learners were divided into four groups: (1) low knowledge/ low regulators; (2) low knowledge/high regulators; (3) high knowledge/low regulators; and (4) high knowledge/high regulators. Learners benefited the most by engaging in a task with the highest load of involvement. However, learners with a high level of regulation of metacognition performed well in the three tasks, which suggests a mediating role of learners' regulatory ability. Relevant implications were discussed on how to effectively apply task-induced involvement load into learning new words from the perspective of metacognition.
Metacognition, knowledge, regulation, involvement, word learning
Through decentralization, via national legislation since 1999, Thai municipal schools have become responsible for all areas of education, including educational facilities and infrastructure, health and lunch programs, pedagogy and teacher training, and curriculum and educational programme development. However, little research has been conducted on this process or on the results of the devolved municipal educational system. This article describes a survey of parental attitudes towards multiple aspects of the educational offering of the department of education in in one of the largest municipalities in Northeast Thailand, Khon Kaen Municipality (KKM). A large-scale mixed-methodology survey investigated parents' reasons for placing their children in KKM schools and their perception of the transport of students to and from schools. It also investigated the perceived factors of quality of education. The survey found that proximity, no tuition fees, and a good environment were the principal reasons, with cost and safety being issues for transporting students. Principal Component Analysis revealed the pedagogy, education program structure, school lunch program, and educational facilities to be important to parents, with a comparison showing differences by school, some critical. The article suggests KKM institute a citizens' dialogue process for educational strategic management to implement the recommendations.
Education, decentralisation, local government, municipalities, Northeast Thailand
The learning of spectroscopic techniques for structural elucidation of unknown compounds is of profound importance to students. At present, there have been limited exercises associated with basic knowledge in the organic spectroscopy course. In this paper, through the implementation of Uncritical Inference Test (UIT) along with the teaching of organic spectroscopy course, this activity has enabled students to revise on their basic knowledge and understanding, as well as to enable the course instructor to check and rectify any weaknesses in the subsequent lessons. Three case studies based on lessons associated with Mass Spectroscopy (MS), Infrared (IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were designed for this study. Based on the students' reflective writing, the UIT has promoted several positive learning outcomes, which includes a deeper understanding of a concept, improved thinking skills, motivated to study, fun-filled learning, peer learning and autonomous learning, which further encouraged the use of UIT in the teaching of other subjects.
This study was conducted to investigate the use of modals in narrative writing of English for foreign advanced adult learners. This study had two objectives: first, to determine the distribution pattern of modals and, second, to see if the participants used the modals accurately in their compositions. This was a learner corpus study, based on students' writings. The participants in this research were 136 randomly selected adult advanced learners attending English learning programs in six English institutions in Shiraz, Iran. The data used in this study were obtained from the written data consisting of compositions, which volunteers need to write. The study applied the qualitative method, which was supplemented with some descriptive statistics from a concordance. The WordSmith Tools, Version 4.0, was used for the purpose of this research. It was found that there were some discrepancies in the frequency of modals used by native speakers and the ones used by our EFL advanced students. In addition, students were rather competent in producing modals syntactically but simplification features were also detected in these learners' compositions as a means to overcome their limitations in using modals in English.
EFL learners, Corpus linguistics, Discourse analysis, Narrative writing
Yvonne Vera is certainly the most successful and imaginative female novelist to emerge from Zimbabwe and conceivably one of the most significant writers of Africa. Her prose is valued for its characteristic lyricism and its lightness of touch which paradoxically highlight silenced and weighty realities of life. Being a Zimbabwean, she has directly experienced generational trauma of colonial oppression, horrors of guerrilla war and brutal killings of civilians in post-independence era. In 1990s, researchers have worked on trauma studies focusing on the sufferings of Whites like in the Holocaust and war veterans of Vietnam but less attention has been paid to the sufferings of black women. This study endeavours to locate Vera's texts within the theoretical debates of trauma studies. I intend to focus on Yvonne Vera's Under the Tongue (1996) which is about a sexual assault of a pre-adolescent girl by her own father, written against the backdrop of severe guerrilla warfare against colonialism. It aims to analyse the recovery of the protagonist in light of John Bowlby's Attachment Theory. This research will strive to study the role of secure base and safe haven which function as a mean of re-constructing the broken-self of the protagonist. In certain cases, nature or religion helps the healing process of the individual but the paper will establish how affectionate attachment figures have comforting, healing and therapeutic effects on the suffering individual. This will in turn help to reconstruct the broken-self and enable the survivor to face the society with confidence.
Secure base, safe haven, trauma, attachment, pain, women, words
Over the years, pedestrians are seen as one of the most susceptible road user groups in Malaysia, although their involvement in road accidents has decreased. Using the national accident data from 2009 to 2013, this study applies logistic regression model to explore the factors associated with pedestrian fatalities at road junctions. Among the four factors identified to be behind pedestrian deaths include age, injuries sustained to their head or neck, involvement of heavy vehicles, and location of accidents. Results of this study show that the likelihood of a pedestrian being killed in an accident may increase by 5.6 times when struck by a heavy vehicle. In addition, the probability of death increases to 8.7 times in the event a pedestrian sustains injuries to the head or neck following an accident.
Owning a home is the dream of many Malaysians. The establishment of Perbadanan PR1MA Malaysia which is dedicated to designing and building affordable quality homes is aimed at making this dream come true. This study seeks to examine the relationship between product and service quality among house buyers' for PR1MA Home. A survey was conducted among private developers in residential areas implementing PR1MA Home concept and results showed that service quality has a major influence on house buyer's satisfaction.
PR1MA home, product quality, service quality, satisfaction, structural equation modelling
Ethical oversight is a critical requirement to conduct clinical research involving human participants and Institutional Review Board (IRB) and it is responsible to evaluate the ethical elements of a clinical research. However, there is no consensus on criteria for evaluating risks and benefits to human participants. Therefore, this article reviews the evaluation of risks and the potential benefits of a clinical trial using Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and suggests the incorporation of 5 levels of likelihood that risk event will occur for the standardisation of risk and benefit utility values.
Language is a powerful identity of an ethnic group. It is with difficulty that a minority group maintains its mother tongue in a multilingual society, particularly so when other languages such as Malay, English and Chinese have economic advantages over Tamil. Even though in Malaysia Tamil language is taught in primary schools for children aged 7 to 12 and in secondary schools for the students aged 13 to 18, only a few continue to study this language in their higher education. It is a challenge for the educators in higher education institutes to encourage and attract students to study Tamil and is equally challenging to encourage them to maintain Tamil language in their daily conversations. The main aim of this study is to identify the language used in Facebook communication among the Malaysian Tamil students in the university. Reasons for their language choice and some strategies to maintain the usage of Tamil language in social networking platform are also discussed in this paper. Students aged 22 to 24 from a university in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia which offers Tamil studies, are chosen as the participants of this study. The participants were interviewed for their language choice. The finding shows that the participants with excellent Tamil language competency, used code mixing, Romanised Tamil more than Tamil or Tamil script in Facebook communication. This study found a way to make the participants converse solely in Tamil. An altered language behaviour in cyberspace emerging out of unknown consideration, was thwarted and normal language use was restored.
Facebook Communication, Language choice, Language maintenance, Malaysian Tamils, Tamil Language