Emotional intelligence research holds a popular status in current academic and business community. However, emotional intelligence as an independent construct has been debatable with regard to its theoretical and empirical significance ever since it was introduced. Furthermore, conceptual and operational definitions, measuring instruments and questionable validity and subsequent results are highly diverse and even contradictory. In an attempt to bring coherence to the diffuse body of literature on emotional intelligence, we argue how emotional intelligence is different from personality and cognitive intelligence. In light of this, the current paper has discussed previous research findings to gain more insights about emotional intelligence accounting for variance in outcomes not explained by personality and cognitive intelligence. The extant literature review has guided us to conclude that emotional intelligence is a unique construct, distinct from personality and cognitive intelligence. Scope for future research in the emotional intelligence field is also suggested.
The necessity of mastering the Chinese language, Indonesiaâ€™s second foreign language, has made it a priority subject among foreign languages in the Department of International Relations (IR) in many universities in Indonesia. The ideal textbook for the subject can boost learning and student competence and achievement in mastering the language. The selection of textbooks has not taken into consideration the background and motivation of students, learning objectives, frequency and length of study and student expectations. This paper discusses the need for a textbook to be used by IR majors in Indonesia. The data collection is populated through the distribution of questionnaires to eight universities that hold Chinese language classes for IR majors. The study concludes that the students expected a textbook to contain appropriate and applicable formal and informal language acquisition materials related to IR. The study looks at the cultural knowledge of the destination, lessons on the writing of Chinese characters and grammar exercises. Regarding the order of topics for learning Chinese by IR students, the students perceived that the right order would be: greetings, self-introduction, letters and numbers, time, names of days and months, daily activities, transportation,
public facilities, directions and instructions,
professions, international relations, politics
International relations, Chinese language, textbook, foreign language
The purpose of this study is to examine the factors related with un-Islamic behaviours of Muslim youth in risky groups of the three southern border provinces of Thailand. This study adopts the quantitative research approach. The data was collected from 1,800 participants who were selected by a multi-stage sampling technique. Data analysis using the R: a language and environment for statistical computing was employed using mean, standard deviation, Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regressions. The results showed that a lack of youth supervision by Muslim leaders, lack of participation in Islamic activities, lack of Islamic knowledge, and lack of Islamic upbringing were statistically significant related with the un-Islamic behaviours. The lack of youth supervision by Muslim leaders was clearly the most strongly related determinant in explaining the youths' un-Islamic behaviours (beta value = 0.32). Moreover, lack of Islamic upbringing, lack of Islamic knowledge, and lack of participation in Islamic activities also contributed to explain the variance in the youths' un-Islamic behaviours (beta values= 0.20, 0.11, and 0.10), respectively.
The state of a country's economy plays an important role in helping it achieve developed nation status. Hence, studies on poverty, inequality and socio-economic matters should use precise measures in order to provide accurate understanding of a country's development. Accurate measures can also provide information on progress already achieved and aid in planning for future improvement and development. This study focusses on constructing a socio-economic status (SES) index and describes a statistical procedure to derive the SES index in a multivariate context for every district in Peninsular Malaysia. Factor analysis is applied to construct the SES index. Data on 19 variables measuring multiple aspects of socioeconomic status such as household amenities, basic facilities, education level and labour force are factorised into three factors that explain 76% of the total variation. The high SES index is situated in Kuala Lumpur, Pulau Pinang, Selangor and some regions in Kedah, Perak, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan and Johor, while the low SES index is situated in areas in Kelantan, Terengganu and some rural areas in Kedah and Pahang. The findings can facilitate the relevant authorities in taking proactive steps to prioritise the development of the relevant areas in order to reduce the socio-economic gap between districts in Peninsular Malaysia.
Factor analysis, principal component extraction method, socio-economic status (SES) index
According to the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) guidelines, abstracts of research articles should be written in an objective mode. The abstracts should provide the main points of a study as briefly, concisely and objectively as possible. However, several studies found there to be disciplinary variations in rhetorical structure and in linguistic features. Hyland (2005b) also found that RA abstracts were likely an interaction between authors and their readers. Therefore, novice authors should see to it that their abstracts are crafted with the awareness of rhetorical moves, some linguistic features and the element of interactional metadiscourse to create an effective RA abstract. The present study aims to explore the rhetorical structure and the linguistic features in 100 RA abstracts in the field of food technology. Hyland's five-move model is chosen as an analytical framework to detect rhetorical structure. Hyland (2005b)'s classification of stance and Hyland (2005a)'s taxonomy of interactive metadiscourse markers are employed as the approach in the analysis of linguistic features. The study focused on the choice of tenses, evaluative that- structure, stances and transition markers appearing in each move: Introduction, Method, Purpose, Results and Conclusion. The findings suggest that particular linguistic features appear in certain rhetorical moves. The findings could be used for their pedagogical implications for novice authors in the field of food technology, especially in the EFL context.
Disciplinary variations, food technology, genre analysis, linguistic features, research article abstracts, rhetorical structure
This case study examines the livelihood of small-scale fish farmers in the state of Kedah, Malaysia, with emphasis on their asset possession, livelihood strategies performed and livelihood outcomes achieved. The relationship between these livelihood elements was also analyzed in order to identify the triggering factors contributing to their sustainable livelihood. Data were obtained through systematic socio economic survey of 216 small-scale freshwater and brackish-water pond fish farmers using stratified random sampling. The Structural Equation Modelling method was applied to analyze the relationship between the three elements of the fish farmers' livelihood. The results show that there are significant differences between freshwater and brackish-water systems, particularly in terms of profitability and contribution to the livelihood of farmers due to their involvement level in the activity. Human and financial assets are important components in the livelihood of small-scale fish farmers based on their positive influence on the level of Good Aquaculture Practices, species cultured, total household income and social impact variables. Thus, measures related to the enhancement of farmer's knowledge and their financial status should be emphasized in order to improve the livelihood of small-scale fish farmers in Malaysia.
Livelihood, Malaysia, rural aquaculture, small-scale fish farmer
Psychometric instruments assessing spectator motives for attending professional sports have mostly been validated in a Western context. The present study describes the development of the Persian Soccer Spectator Behaviour Inventory (PSSBI). The 21-item PSSBI was completed by 1385 Iranian spectators. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the 21 items loaded on four factors: Promotional Incentives, Game Attractiveness, Schedule Considerations, and Economic Considerations. These factors demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and explained 65.48% of the total variance. It is concluded that the resulting 20-item PSSBI is a viable tool for assessing football fans' motives for attending professional football matches in Iran.
Football attendance motivation, football marketing, soccer attendance, sports spectatorship
The literature has consistently demonstrated that consumers' perception of online stores' service quality is influenced by several factors such as technology use skills, knowledge, income, gender, age, and marital status. This study seeks to determine the differences of perceived service quality (PSQ) in online shopping based on consumers' six demographic factors: age, gender, monthly income (MI), occupation, educational qualification (EQ) and marital status (MS) within four dimensions: access, reliability, ease of use and attentiveness (EoU&A), and Security and Credibility (S&C) adopted from SERVIQUAL scale with modifications. Using snowball method and an online questionnaire, 400 participants comprising students, public servants and private organisations' employees drawn from three Nigerian cities: Abuja, Kano, and Lagos were surveyed. The hypotheses were tested using the scale. Factor analysis yielded the above-mentioned dimensions. Kruskal-Wallis (H test), Mann-Whitney test and Post Hoc test were used to determine the difference of PSQ in online shopping based on the six demographic factors involving each of those dimensions. The results indicate a significant difference of PSQ in age, educational qualification and occupation consistently exists within S&C dimension and variously within the rest of the dimensions. However, no significant difference of PSQ in MI was found in all the four dimensions. Furthermore, gender and MS indicate a significant difference of PSQ within access and EoU&A; only difference based on gender is significant within reliability; while both differences based on gender and MS are not significant within S&C dimension.
Consumers, e-shopping, e-tailing, e-commerce, internet, online shopping, perceived service quality
The separation wall in occupied Palestine built by the Israeli occupation to isolate the West Bank from other parts of the Palestinian territories has turned into a huge screen for Palestinian and foreign artists to display various kinds of art works, including paintings, pictures, drawings, videos as a means of resistance against the occupation. These visual arts have become a controversial issue among the Palestinians. Some still consider these arts as a form of resistance against the wall and the occupation as well; while others consider them as a means of 'beautifying' the wall as perceived by the Palestinians and the people in the rest of the world. Therefore, this paper explores and illustrates selected visual works associated with the 'separation' wall in the occupied Palestine to identify the underlying meanings and implications of such works. The descriptive and observation approach was utilized to analyze the selected visual arts. The illustration in this study showed that the visual arts depicted on the separation wall in occupied Palestine have gained ample attention from Palestinians and foreigners. It also showed that the majority of the visual arts associated with the separation wall reflect the ugly face of this wall by presenting its negative consequences on the Palestinians' life in all aspects. However, other visual arts try to indirectly beautify the wall at the local and international levels by justifying building this wall and presenting its benefits for both the Palestinians and the Israelis. To conclude, the visual arts dealing with the separation wall have multiple references, objectives and effects on the Palestinian resistance against the occupation and the wall, and also on the people outside Palestine. Such arts should be monitored and examined to serve the Palestinian issue in the desired way.
Misconceptions arise when students fail to link new knowledge to previous knowledge for which the brain has established. Students rely on existing knowledge to solve new problems. If a student holds a misconception, it will interfere with or distorts the assimilation of correct concepts. This study investigated the effect of computerized feedback on students' misconceptions in algebraic expression. A misconception test was computerized and feedbacks were designed accordingly to each response. From the results, there was no significant difference between treatment group and control group students before intervention. After intervention, treatment group students were having lower misconceptions mean score in post-test than in pre-test and the difference was statistically significant. Meanwhile, control group students were having higher misconceptions mean score in post-test than in pre-test and the difference was statistically significant. This shows that there is an effect of computerized feedback on students' misconceptions in algebraic expression. This study pinpoints the advantage of using computer-based test (CBT) in giving immediate feedback to students. This may encourage teachers and educators to use it as a tool to provide detailed and instant feedback to students in a timely manner.
The purpose of this paper is to seek a better understanding of why solely in Japan the concept of capsule living units has been perceived more than a mere utopia and seems to have "made sense" to a wide cultural audience as a possible housing alternative. For that purpose, a thorough literature review was conducted to bring about comprehensive understandings of this phenomenon through a historical review and a definition of the capsule as presented by the Metabolists in the 1960s, and through a comparison between its fundamentals and the one of its hypothetical ancestral precedent; the Japanese tea-hut.
Capsule living unit, capsule hotel, Japanese tea-hut, Kisho Kurokawa, metabolism
This article examines how informal workers are transforming their assets (social, human, financial, physical, and natural) into their livelihoods. This phenomenology study in Lao PDR is increasingly informality of household employment in the garment sector. Using a qualitative method, data were collected through in-depth interviews of 15 home-based garment worker representatives of three groups, including kinship workers, local workers, and post-industrial workers. Content analysis was performed using the ATLAS.ti program for categorization, summarization, and synthesis. The study found that social, human, and financial assets were significant of informal workers transformed into their livelihoods. It is, therefore, considered the capability workers transformed the asset process in accumulation into their meaningful livelihoods. The results suggest that employability can be further enhanced via social, human, financial, and support the physical and natural assets are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between audit characteristics and firm investment efficiency level. Audit characteristics have been characterized using audit committee (AC) independence and external auditor choice. Top 200 Malaysian listed companies based on market capitalization were selected as a sample. Binomial logistic regression analysis was employed to test the hypotheses for 3 years, that is, 2009, 2010, and 2011. The statistical results show no relationship between AC independence and investment inefficiency, while auditor choice was shown to be positively significant only in 1 year of the study, but was not significant in the other 2 years of study. The results provide further confirmation of the role of corporate governance in enhancing the investment performance of the company. This study provides an indicator to shareholders and investors that a company with strong governance structure will likely make better investment decision. Managers under strong governance are prevented from taking an aggressive investment risk approach that may result in overinvestment. In addition, the company will carefully plan to have an adequate capital so that a good opportunity investment will not being passed due to insufficient financing that will result underinvestment. This study is original, as it focuses on the direct relationship between corporate governance mechanism and firm investment efficiency level that is scarce in the literature, with a special focus on emerging markets in the process of developing their best governance practices.
Motivation of teachers has become a crucial issue in improving the quality of education. Different research studies have been performed to establish the association between teachers' motivation and their performance in academics but still some areas are left to be explored. This research was initiated to fill up this gap. The main purpose of this study was to assess the impact of intrinsic motivation on academic performance of management teachers. In the research, the respondents were drawn from different management colleges of NCR in India affiliated to Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Technical University. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM Analysis) was performed to draw the results. The results indicate that the intrinsic motivation of the teachers significantly affect their academic performance. Among the three intrinsic motivation factors that were considered for this research work, "creativity" is the strongest predictor of academic performance of the teachers. There are two major limitations of this research study; first one is the cultural dissimilarities prevailing at the different institutions from where the respondent belongs. Second is the trust on self-reported questionnaire data provided by the respondents. These limitations are discussed in more detail at the end of the paper. The results support the assessment that intrinsic factors of motivation are strong predictor of academic performance of teachers. This research study also indicates that "creativity" of a teacher is the strongest predictor of his or her performance among the other chosen factors. Therefore, Institutions may focus to enhance the "creativity" among the teachers for generating better academic performance.
Peer assessments have been widely used as a method of assessment and teaching. Earlier studies have established its benefits and validity in higher education as a learner-centered assessment and learning process. However, there is little investigation conducted from the cultural perspective, especially in a non-Western setting. The present study aims to fill this gap by using Hofstede's cultural theory to identify the perspectives of Malaysian Chinese undergraduates on peer assessment. A homogeneous sample of 43 Malaysian Chinese students from a private university in Malaysia who were pursuing a degree program in mass communication participated in focus group discussions. Using thematic analysis, six themes were generated from the data. This study found that participants displayed high power distance, high levels of uncertainty avoidance, and preference for long-term gains. The participants' perception fit into Hofstede's collectivist and feminist dimensions. Results showed that undergraduates perceived teachers to be more qualified in awarding scores compared to peers. Students considered awarding higher scores to those whom they considered as friends, and higher marks to peers who were popular. They also displayed face-saving behaviors to avoid embarrassing their peers in giving them feedback. By using peer assessments, there was increased motivation and responsibility toward the project. Students also appreciated peer feedback for long-term self-improvement.
Evaluation, marking, measurement, mass communication, Malaysia
A critical factor for English language researchers and practitioners to consider when designing and implementing mobile-based learning solutions is students' readiness to embrace the educational use of mobile technology. Despite the increasing popularity of mobile technology in Malaysia, little is known about whether students are ready if such technology is to be integrated in their lessons. This paper aims to investigate mobile learning readiness among English language learners in a Malaysian university. The quantitative survey approach was used in this study, and Parasuraman's Technology Readiness Index (TRI) was adapted for use. Questionnaires were distributed to 68 undergraduates from various study fields who were undertaking English language courses in the university. The study reveals that the respondents are moderately ready for mobile technology. Although they are highly optimistic, their perception pertaining to innovativeness towards the technology is relatively moderate. They also have moderate discomfort and feeling of insecurity in using mobile technology. There are significant positive correlations between positive constructs (optimism and innovativeness) and overall TRI. However, there are no significant correlations between negative constructs (discomfort and insecurity) and overall TRI. This study highlights the importance for English language learning providers to consider students' beliefs and predispositions in adopting a technological learning approach in their teaching. A deeper understanding of students' readiness for mobile learning may facilitate efforts to enhance the teaching and learning of English language through the use of mobile technology.
Mobile learning, English language, higher education, Malaysia, technology readiness, Technology Readiness Index, teaching and learning
Coetzee's Disgrace narrates the plights of individuals in their attempts to cope with the existential and social forces to maintain their precarious existence. Driven by the imperative to sustain their sanity and to achieve a sense of belonging, these individuals attempt to break free from their isolated existence and relate themselves to others. In fact, relating one to others and transcending one's separateness is one of human being's existential needs that has to be satisfied. This paper suggests that this existential need combines with social realities of South Africa and all the attempts to satisfy this existential need never result in a healthy attachment. This study argues that the individuals in post-apartheid world of Disgrace, in their attempts to transcend their isolation, reveal sadistic and masochistic aspects of themselves in their interpersonal relations. Their ontological insecurity, rooted in structural inadequacies of the society, compels them to establish unhealthy dependence on others. As they tie their survival to some unproductive ways of relatedness to others, they turn into what Coetzee calls deformed individuals. Therefore, sanity, which depends on productive satisfaction of existential needs, becomes absent, insanity and deformity prevails, and the prospect of a sane society recedes.
Deformed individual, existential need, masochism, ontological insecurity, sadism, sanity
This study was done to determine the effects of combining abdominal exercise and boxing movements (ABOXERCISE) on cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, and BMI level. The preâ€“post experimental design was used and participants consisted of 20 inactive males aged 34 to 39 years, who participated in this study, having a BMI level of more than 30. All participants took part in the Aktifkan Orang Muda program in Petaling Jaya 2016. They were engaged three times a week for 24 weeks of ABOXERCISE interventions. All participants completed the tests (step test, sit-ups test, and BMI) before and after the intervention. The results showed that the cardiovascular endurance and muscular endurance increased after 24 weeks of intervention. The BMI level as well as body weight of the participant also decreased. The present study recommends ABOXERCISE as another approach for exercise practitioners. In conclusion, this study finding suggests the effectiveness of ABOXERCISE on cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, and BMI level of obese male communities. Future researchers may want to investigate the effectiveness of ABOXERCISE with different types of exercise or aerobic dance. It is also to find any association with physiological and psychological states of the participants.
Abdominal exercise, boxing movements, health related fitness, obese
Studies worldwide have shown that, besides positive economic and social impacts, labour migrant parents also cause negative effects to the well-being of those they leave behind, especially children. However, this study orientation has not generated significant interest in Vietnam. This article indicates the results of a survey on 469 left-behind children of labour migrant parents in rural areas by comparing them with a control group of 650 children living with their parents in three rural areas of North Vietnam including Phu Tho, Bac Ninh, and Ha Nam provinces. The Keyes's Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) was used for this study. It is shown that children whose parents work away from home have lower subjective well-being than those living with their parents; children with migrant mothers or with both migrant parents also achieve lower scores of subjective well-being than those with migrant fathers. Factors such as a child's self-assessment of his or her academic and life success and the relationship between the child and his or her migrant parents have significant influence to the child's subjective well-being.
Labour migrant parents, "left-behind children", subjective well-being
The scientific method is a popular mechanism through which science teachers can impact students' cognitive domains and academic nature. The purpose of this study is to analyze the implementation of the scientific method of teaching social science subjects and educational character in the affective domain. To do so, we engaged in research using quasi-experimental methods. A random sample of 40 students was chosen. Data were collected using a questionnaire on students' character consisting of three aspects: reasoning, feeling, and behavior. The data have a normal distribution with a significant value of 0.966 and are homogeneous with a significant value of 0.100 > 0.05. The data were analyzed using a paired sample T-test. The character value of social studies learners, after being taught using the scientific method, was higher than ever with a significance of 0.000 < 0.05. The character of students in the affective domain was influenced by the feelings aspect resulting from the scientific method. Thus, using the scientific method in educational interventions improved the character of fifth-grade elementary school students.
Affective domain, elementary school, character education, scientific method
This essay grounds itself in the recent debate concerning the imposition of moral obligations on individuals because of their indulgence in over-consumption practices. There is a growing body of literature that argues against imposing moral obligation on individuals because the contribution of individuals' consumption to global warming is insignificant. In this context, by drawing insights from Buddhist philosophy, I posit that the normative ground to impose moral obligation on individuals, however, may not always be the environmental harms, rather, I particularly demonstrate how the individual-centered moral deliberation of Buddhist philosophy regarding consumption can be a sufficient moral ground to make an individual responsible of his or her own consumption. First, I will provide a detailed account of how over-indulgence in consumerism is seen in Buddhist tradition. This will particularly explicate why, according to Buddhist tradition, endless persuasion of the materialistic path to satisfying one's desire, is considered a moral wrong. Through this premise, I also refute the usual belief that consumption actually offers an individual happiness and make her feel contented in life. After unpacking the drivers behind consumption and highlighting the major shortcomings of those, I further borrow from Buddhist thoughts to delineate avenues that can lead us out of the prevailing consumerist lifestyle. I invoke the notion of mindfulness to enhance our power of self-reflection and to critically review our own consumption. In conclusion, I affirm that mindfulness at both individual as well as collective level could be an appropriate way to move toward a sustainable and just society.
Teacher training is one of the most important aspects of professional development for teachers in education. This paper identified 22 primary in-service teachers' beliefs, needs, and challenges they faced with regards to teacher training program in Thailand. The research methods used were a modified questionnaire and individual and focus group interviews. Findings revealed that the beliefs of the primary teachers were shaped by their previous attendance and experience on teacher's training programs in the country. Engaging workshops, simple but relevant teaching strategies were reported to be the needs of these teachers in a teacher training program. Teachers also reported the lack of teaching resources, problems on implementing new teaching strategies, and a big class size as the challenges they have encountered in their own classrooms. Findings may be useful for the Ministry of Education, education policy-makers, and teacher's training institutions in the ASEAN region context to design a much more effective training program for the local teachers to improve their teaching capacity. Implications are discussed in the study.
This study explored EFL teachers' emotional intelligence and their burnout in private language institutes in one city in Iran. This study also identified the emotional intelligence sub-categories that contribute mostly to burnout. To this end, the researchers administered the Bar On's EQ-I Self Report Scale questionnaire along with the Maslach Burnout Inventory to a sample of 63 Iranian teachers of English language in 11 private EFL institutes. Pearson correlation, multi-variable regression analysis, and two independent samples t-tests were run. The results revealed a significant relationship between teachers' emotional intelligence and the three dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment). The results also showed that categories of general mood and adaptability are the best predictors of teachers' burnout.
Emotional intelligence; burnout; EFL teachers; private language centers
A high grade-point average (GPA) is considered important because of its ramifications for young people's job and career prospects. Although various studies have examined GPA in terms of its predictors, the predominant research focus has been on US samples of university students. This study determines the independent associations of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle activities, and academic motivation with a high GPA among a sample of 3011 Filipino university students. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, with GPA as the dependent variable and socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, course, and weekly allowance); lifestyle activities (smoking, alcohol intake, number of social networking accounts, number of hours spent in social media, level of physical activity, and level of religious activities); and academic motivation as the independent variables. Of the 11 predictors examined, six had a statistically significant relationship with a high GPA: three socio-demographic characteristics (sex, course, and weekly allowance); two lifestyle activities (smoking and religious activities); and academic motivation. Although the regression model fitted the data well, it only explained 10.6 15.4% of the variance in the dependent variable. Prospective studies need to further validate this model, broaden the measures of the assessed predictors, and identify the statistical significance of other predictors.
Academic motivation, Filipino university students, grade-point average, lifestyles, socio-demographic characteristics
This study examined the prevailing differences between the collectivistic values of South Korean and Malaysian workers in a multinational company operating in Malaysia. Descriptive data from participant observations and in-depth interviews were used to scrutinize the background of the variations in the collectivistic values, their impact on the employees' behaviour and the intercultural conflicts between the two parties. This empirical work observed that South Korean and Malaysian workers shared the same elements of collectivistic values. However, their interaction revealed variations in the target group of loyalty in the process of achieving solidarity and object of commitment. In short, the dominant values perceived in this analysis manifested strong orientation towards family, teamwork, and the relationship among the Malaysian workers whilst South Korean workers prioritized organizational interests, loyalty, and uniformity for the sake of solidarity and sense of belonging. Findings of this study also suggested how the variations in the collectivistic values have led to a differing interpretation of the situation, work, and relationship, thus resulting in diverse approaches in the workplace.
Collectivistic values, intercultural collaboration, Malaysia, South Korea, working culture
This paper empirically investigates the dynamic interaction of macroeconomic activities for the ASEAN 5 (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) with consideration of the asymmetric adjustment in this interaction. Both the short and long-run interactions were modelled during 1960-2014, and there were differences for each country based on data availability. The empirical results of the analysis were based on time series data and are summarized as follows: i) Indonesia and the Philippines had no evidence for cointegration; ii) among those countries, it was found that only Malaysia has asymmetric adjustment regarding cointegration; iii) money supply responded only to positive shocks while the interest rate responded only to negative shocks; iv) only unidirectional causal relationship was found in the long-run and short-run methods. Based on the results, the wisest operating target for Indonesia and Thailand is inflation targeting. Monetary aggregate targeting would be the recommended operating policy for the Philippines and Singapore. Malaysia should implement exchange rate targeting and intervene in the money supply (when there is a negative shock) and in the interest rates (when there is a positive shock).
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental illness characterized by obsessions and/or compulsions. OCD is a chronic and debilitating mental illness that has a negative effect on the lives of those affected by this disorder. A person who has been diagnosed with OCD suffers from persistent obsessions and/or compulsions that interfere with all aspects of life such as their personal relationships, jobs, and everyday lives. It affects each person differently, with one of the most common issues being difficulty in maintaining relationships. This study used a qualitative method via semi-structured interviews followed by thematic analysis. Patients' experiences in encountering problems caused by OCD were then identified, such as turbulent interpersonal relationships with relatives and difficulty communicating. The study used purposive sampling and had a sample of twenty-four patients with OCD. The patients were recruited from the Farshchian Hospital's psychiatry department in Hamadan, Iran from May to October 2017. The sampling was continued until the authors reached data saturation in which no new information was obtainable from the patients. The analysis identified four major themes: (1) communication problems in family relationships; (2) dysfunctional spousal relationships; (3) relationship problems with friends and community; and (4) communication problems within their work environment. The participants viewed OCD as a disorder that unfavourably affected their family and personal relationships, education, and occupations. When patients experience negative responses from family and friends in their attempts to communicate, their health is threatened. The patients become at risk for failure in therapeutic treatment, with the possibility of increased severity or recurrence of OCD symptoms.
Interpersonal relations, Iran, Obsessive compulsive disorders, qualitative research
The Israeli occupation in Palestine led to a huge wall being built to separate the West Bank from other Palestinian territories, causing devastating consequences on the life of Palestinians in all aspects. As a means of resistance against the occupation and the destruction of the wall, Palestinian artists depict various images of different genre of art on the wall. Several foreign artists also participate in the demonstration to show their solidarity with the Palestinians and to display the Palestinians' sufferings to the world. These works of art are called 'direct artwork'. Many Palestinian, Arab and foreign artists have produced similar artwork, but not directly on the separation wall; such artwork is called 'indirect artwork'. This paper aims to analyse several examples of artwork that were displayed in the period from 2002 to 2015. These examples were selected because they participated in international exhibitions and competitions and were awarded prizes and high ratings. Some of them use visual and printed media. This article combines the works produced using different media in a single study to discuss their collective contribution to the Palestinian cause. The analytical approach was utilised to analyse the selected artworks. The analyses indicated that the indirect artistic works make a significant contribution to the Palestinian resistance against the occupation in general and the construction of the separation wall in particular. The artists have creatively presented their work, which mimic the separation wall by showing the wall in its real and original grey colour, shape and size. The indirect artistic works send political messages through the lens of culture and modernisation.
This study attempted to investigate the effect of teaching creative thinking techniques on the development of lexical complexity in EFL students' essays in both timed and untimed conditions. For this quasi-experimental study, 54 female undergraduates of English literature, assigned to two groups of 27 each, were selected from two intact writing classes. In addition to their regular writing class, both groups were taught for 10 extra sessions through an online tool named Padlet. The experimental group (EG) was taught creative thinking techniques and the comparison group (CG) practiced extra process writing activities. Moreover, TOEFL essay questions were administered as pre and posttests. In both timed and untimed essays, three indices of lexical complexity, namely lexical density, lexical sophistication and lexical variation were measured through an automatic analyzing software. Mixed MANOVA showed that practicing creative thinking techniques had a significant effect on improving lexical complexity of EFL students in both conditions. Thus, material developers and EFL writing teachers could benefit from incorporating activities related to these techniques in EFL writing textbooks and also EFL classes, teaching students to develop lexical complexity in their essays.
Despite the great number of interlanguage pragmatic (ILP) studies on different speech acts, only a few studies have been conducted on the correction speech act and its production strategies. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to discover Persian speakers' corrective strategies. It also aims at comparing and contrasting Persian correction strategies with those employed by native English speakers. To these ends, 50 Iranian university students were randomly selected to complete a Discourse Completion Task (DCT) questionnaire in Persian. Twenty native English speakers were also requested to complete the same DCT questionnaire in English. The findings reveal that corrective strategies in Persian and English are formulaic in pragmatic structures. Besides some similarities between the ways of correcting in the two languages, there are also some distinctions, such as criticising and using ironic expressions and threatening the correctee, strategies used by Persian participants and correcting through compliments, a strategy that is used only by native speakers. Moreover, both Persian participants and native English speakers used more direct strategies than indirect ones. This can be attributed to the differences between cultures, interlocutors' positions and gender. This study has implications for language researchers, Iranian EFL teachers, test designers and material developers.
Rapid globalisation has translated to growth , but the resulting gains have not been reflected in qualitative welfare for most developing countries and thus, have precipitated inconclusive debates on the precise directional link between globalisation dimensions and changes in human welfare. Thus, this study examines the regional impact of the transmission channels of globalisation on human welfare in 16 Sub-Saharan African countries from 1980 to 2014. Using the panel fixed effect method, the findings reveal that trade openness enhanced human welfare development and the access of people to infrastructural facilities for the regions. FDI is found to be predominantly enhancing to human welfare in the Eastern and Southern Africa regions. Also, high labour migration and emigration of experts as a dimension of globalisation is found to worsen human welfare development and hinder basic infrastructural development in the regions, and lead to bad and ineffective governance. The study finds that the high level of social globalisation via labour inflow, access of people to telephone and Internet facilities enhanced the development of human welfare changes as evidenced in Southern Africa. Appropriate policy options are recommended to enhance human welfare development in the region.
Basic needs, foreign capital, human welfare, information technology, labour, trade
Establishing therapeutic communication with patients is considered as one of the most important duties of nursing students. Although therapeutic communication is a fundamental part of nursing education, its various attributes have not been clearly determined in nursing literature. Therefore, this qualitative study was conducted to explore therapeutic communication between patients and nursing students in the Iranian context through perceptions of nursing students, nursing instructors, and patients. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of six nursing students, six nursing instructors, and six patients as per the inclusion criteria. The data collection process continued in the field until theory saturation was reached. Data analysis was conducted by using a conventional content analysis approach over 8 months in 2016. Data analysis revealed three categories: "a measure to deliver patient-centered care," "emotional companionship," and "a phenomenon affected by values." These categories were considered as therapeutic communication defining traits. Putting more emphasis on therapeutic communication instruction and facilitating the recruitment of more men into the nursing career are recommended.
Communication, Iran, nursing, qualitative research, students
Enforcement of trademark Law in Malaysia can be categorized as per Part III of Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of World Trade Organization (WTO) into (i) civil procedure, (ii) criminal procedure, (iii) administrative procedure, (iv) provisional measures, and (v) border measures. Important trademark International Treaties dealing with trademark include (i) Paris Convention (ii) TRIPS (iii) Madrid Protocol. Malaysia has ratified Paris Convention and TRIPS but has not ratified Madrid Protocol which provides procedure for International Trademark registration under International Bureau of World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Once trademark registration is made under Madrid Protocol in one-member state, it would be protected in all member states. Important Malaysian trademark laws dealing with enforcement of trademark in Malaysia include (i) Trade Marks Act 1976 (ii) Trade Marks Regulations 1997 (iii) Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia Act 2002 (iv) Trade Descriptions Act 2011. This article is qualitative method of research to analyze enforcement of trademark law in Malaysia under relevant Malaysian laws as well as analysis of relevant International Treaties of trademark solemnized under WIPO and WTO. Paris Convention contains provisions on trademark and its enforcement dealing with Border Measures and TRIPS include comprehensive provisions on trademark (15-21) and enforcement of trademark (41-61) as Madrid Protocol provides procedure for International Trademark registration. Malaysia has ratified Paris Convention and TRIPS but has not ratified Madrid Protocol. It is therefore recommended that Malaysian government should accede to Madrid Protocol for protection of trademarks registered in Malaysia to be protected in 98-member countries of Madrid Protocol.
Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia, Intellectual property, Madrid Protocol, Paris convention, trademark
The problems of the national orchid industry, include small scale business, lack of seed stock, lack of mastery of cultivation and post-harvest technology, low quality and quantity of production, inadequate market linkages, and poor coordination, need collective cooperation among actors. The development of Indonesia's orchid agribusiness should be realized by building alliance to increase the added value and competitiveness of the Indonesian orchid. The consortium of orchids is expected to find a solution to overcome those orchid problems and to design future orchid business development. The purposes of this study was to determine the actor who played the local, global and betweenness centrality and to see the relationship dynamics of the group. The method used for this research was through survey. Data were collected by interview using a questionnaire. This current research used census sampling techniques. Communication networks were analyzed using Ucinet 6 software. The results of the study show: 1) orchid clonal propagation: the stars are educational organisation and research & development organisation, the population is homogeneous, the centrality index is about 9.55%; 2) the orchid cultivation SOP: the star is governmental public services organisation, the population is homogeneous, the centrality index is about 23.09%; 3) orchid domestic market: the star is agribusiness organisation, the population is homogeneous, the centrality index is about 2.56%; 4) orchid area development: the star is governmental services organisation, the population is heterogeneous, the centrality index is about 7.27%.
Alliance, communication networks, consortium, information sources, orchid
Writing in a second language (L2) is a challenging task. It is demanded in academic context and considered a lifetime skill. In Indonesia, writing is the most neglected skill in schools, resulting in low writing proficiency among university students. The aim of this study is: 1) to identify the writing process of Indonesian EFL proficient student writers; and 2) to explore the writing strategies used by Indonesian EFL proficient student writers. Williams' writing process model was used as the basis for identifying the writing process, while Leki, Sasaki and Mu's writing categories were used to identify the writing strategies. This study used the qualitative case study research design integrating four data collection methods, that was, observation, interview, think-aloud protocol and video-stimulated recall interview. The results show that the student writers undertake a five-step writing process: prewriting, planning, drafting, pausing and reading and revising and editing, utilising 10 writing strategies: mechanics of writing; relating the topic to past experience and knowledge; talk-writing; freewriting; outlining; listing; using online materials; seeking help; taking the reader into consideration; and text organisation in each stage of the writing process. The study significantly contributes to the body of knowledge on writing, helps L2 writing teachers and L2 learners at all levels of writing using the model of the writing process and the proposed writing strategies.
English as a foreign language, proficient student writers, second language writing, writing process, writing strategies
The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of deregulation of downstream petroleum sector on Nigeria's economy between 2007 and 2015. It is a qualitative study built on secondary data which were textually analysed. Upon the pivot of public choice theory as a framework for interrogating the themes of the paper, the study posits that the effective deregulation of downstream petroleum sector offers the necessary recipe and vitality for stemming economic rent-seeking attitudes by the elites and political class, and ultimately lead to economic buoyancy. Other recommendations of the paper are capable of addressing the policy gaps/failures identified.
The present article portrays the use of Arabic in the Andalusian linguistic landscape (LL) where Arabic was used in the past as a lingua franca for eight centuries, banned since the Reconquest and is used nowadays as a minority language. Data were collected from road signs, public signs and signs in some specific places in the Andalusia region, field notes, and interviews with two informants. In the light of theories of ethnolinguistic vitality, language economy and power, and collective identity, the data analysis shows that Arabic is used in the Andalusian LL in three different circles, which are dissimilar to the three discourse frames found out in the previous study that identifies economic reasons as the main source of tension between the government's monolingualism ideology and the local people's ideology of multilingualism. In addition to commercial purposes, Arabic is apparent in Andalusia as a sign of vitality against language repression and as a way to build collective identity among the Muslims.
Arabic language, Spanish history, the Andalusian linguistic landscape
The present study was an attempt to identify the effect of using a modern teaching technique, i.e. cooperative learning, in a changing system of educational policy on students' and parents' perceptions towards learning. So, 71 male students studying at seventh grade in four high schools were randomly selected to participate in the study. The students' parents (N=71) were asked to participate in the study to get their opinion on the matter as well. Using the cultural dimensions of learning framework, first the cultural aspects of students' perception towards learning were identified within eight categories. Then, the effect of cooperative learning on these dimensions was examined. Finally, the areas of changes were closely explored using open-ended questions. The results of the study revealed that some previously reported cultural features were evolving among students. The results also showed the effectiveness of cooperative learning in making significant shifts in cultural perceptions of the students. These results can be applicable for all those who are involved in the language teaching and learning process.
Cooperative learning, cultural dimension of learning, educational policy
Small and Medium-Sized Entrepreneurs (SMEs) need to be prepared for external challenges that are mostly beyond their control. SMEs need to improve their internal strength in terms of improving work processes. This, however, can only be effective if employees are innovatively improving their work. This study aims to look at the role of the employee's intention to engage in innovative behaviour based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The research employs the predictors of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control to affect employee's intention to engage in innovative behaviour. This study also investigates the relationship between intention and engagement in innovative behaviour. A sample of 201 SME employees working in Electrical and Electronic (E & E) SMEs in Malaysia took part in the survey assessment. The results indicate that the three antecedents of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control affect employee's intention and innovative behaviour. This study provides an understanding of employee intention and innovative behavior that serves as guidance for managers of SMEs and researchers to enhance and capitalise on the capacity of innovative employees.
Entrepreneurs, innovative behaviour, intention, SMEs, Theory of Planned Behaviour
This research investigates whether personality traits influence employees' preferences for different styles of leadership and whether the congruence between the leadership style that employees prefer and the leadership style that they actually perceive can moderate the effects of a leader's leadership style on organisational commitment. Personality traits were measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), organisational commitment with a scale developed by Meyer and Allen (1997), and leadership styles using the Leadership Assessment Inventory (Burke, 1994). This cross-sectional study involved 312 employees from an automotive company in Tehran, Iran. The results indicate that individuals with extraversion and openness to experience personality traits tend to prefer the transformational leadership style, while those with conscientiousness and neuroticism personality traits prefer the transactional leadership style although no association was found for agreeableness. Moreover, it is found that the congruence between the leadership style which employees prefer and the leadership style they actually perceive moderates the effects of the leadership style on affective commitment.
The main issues of sustainability currently addressed by hoteliers are energy and water saving as well as solid waste management. However more efforts are needed to increase hoteliers' commitment towards addressing sustainable food waste management (SFWM) in their operation. This article aims to examine the level of knowledge hoteliers have regarding the implementation of SFWM, and their attitude towards the effort. The Langkawi UNESCO Global Geopark is the site for the case study. Data was gathered using structured and self-administered questionnaires, completed by 42 hoteliers on the island. In general, the main findings indicated a strong correlation (r=0.769) between knowledge and attitude towards SFWM among hoteliers who were mostly influenced by hotel policy to minimize food wastage, particularly by reusing quality leftover food. It was also found that hoteliers were better prepared during the early process of SFWM implementation as they had better control in reducing food waste. However, unsustainable food consumption patterns of customers still pose a challenge in managing food waste. In order to effectively minimize food waste, it is suggested that hoteliers apply the concept of green and sustainable practice for each of the activities related to food waste management. Concerted efforts are needed to seek innovative solutions to food waste management in the island for the sake of present and future sustainability.
Attitude, Geopark, Hotel, island, knowledge, sustainable food waste management
With the aims to shed light on the relationship between obesity and labour market outcomes in Malaysia, the ordinal regression model was applied on the collected questionnaires. The result from the three models suggests that employers do not consider workers' appearance and gender when they employ workers. After all, they are more concern about performance, education background and age when recruiting their ideal staff member. Even though this study fails to prove the existence of discrimination which has led to lower wages among Malaysians, the result of this study has proven that obese workers receive unfavorable treatment. Since the prevalence of obesity among Malaysian adults is substantial, the outcome of this study is crucial as it gives comprehensive information on the impact of obesity on the labour market outcome in Malaysia. The information from this study may help the authorities how to develop activities and programs in fighting obesity and how to encourage Malaysian to maintain healthy lifestyle.
Income, labour market outcome, Malaysia, obesity, ordinal regression
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the shopping styles and buying behaviour of male and female Indian consumers. The research used the Sproles and Kendall (1986)'s Consumer Style Inventory (CSI) on a sample of 166 men and 98 women. T-test revealed that there are significant differences in the decision making styles among male and female consumers, constituting of 5 factors namely, Perfectionism; Novelty & fashion consciousness; Store loyalty & store image consciousness; Impulsive & carelessness and the Harried shopper. The second objective of the study was to validate the 8 original CSI factors in an Indian context. Exploratory factor analysis was used to analyse and understand the differences in decision-making styles of male and female consumers. The study identified 12 common factors for male and female consumers. Out of the 12 factors, 4 new traits emerged. They slightly vary from the 8 original CSI factors. These 4 new traits are i) Quality Consciousness; ii) Brand loyalty; iii) Store loyalty and store image consciousness and iv) Variety seeking factors. On separately analysing the data pertaining to men and women, 8 and 9 factors respectively emerged, indicating certain differences. They provide new insights into their decision making styles. Our research identified a new factor called ' harried shopper', indicating that shoppers make choices in a hurry when pressed for time. Implications and directions for future research are provided based on the results.
Paper-based TOEFL scores have been used to determine the level of English proficiency for EFL learners for various purposes. However, in repeat tests some lower scores fluctuate despite no additional classroom learning, thus they cannot be used to judge the English level of those taking the test. There is limited research into the lowest score that does not fluctuate outside the Standard Error of Measurement, which the Educational Testing Service (ETS) set at 13 points. Therefore, this research was aimed at determining the lowest score which can be used for distinguishing the students' learning progress or proficiency. Scores of 1,180 test takers who took paper-based TOEFL a minimum of three times over three days to two weeks were analyzed statistically. The analysis revealed that the scores stopped fluctuating outside the Standard Error of Measurement when test takers reached the score of 417. Therefore, not until a test taker obtains the minimum paper-based TOEFL score of 417 can their English level be determined by the TOEFL score. This research has significant implications for employers, universities and high schools that currently use a TOEFL score lower than 417 as the minimum entrance or graduation requirement.
TOEFL, lowest real TOEFL score, minimum score, placement test, Standard Error of Measurement
Democracy in post-Suharto Indonesia is dynamic, especially in terms of electoral politics. Some scholars assume that Politik Aliran (political streams) is still continued, but others believe it has ended. In this article, we examine the dynamic of Politik Aliran in the 1999, 2004 and 2009 general elections. It is widely recognised that the votes of both Nationalist and Islam political parties declined from election to election. This study aims to analyse the continuity and change both of Nationalist and Islamic parties in Indonesia. The results of the study suggest that electoral politics based on Politik Aliran in post-Suharto Indonesia continues, but the number of votes for neither Islamic nor for Nationalist parties have changed. The balance of power between Islamic parties and Nationalists parties is expected to change.
Indonesia, Islam, nationalist, party, Politik Aliran, volatility
There is miscoordination in Malaysian construction project delivery resulting in many variation orders (v/o) in the industry. Hence, the Construction Industry Transformation Program 2016-2025 (CITP) is developed to facilitate the future of Malaysian construction industry. This paper presents the results of study on factors in Malaysian architecture-engineering-contractor (AEC) professionals work culture that could improve Malaysian organizational team productivity during industrialized project delivery. This is a case study involving observation and interviews of 14 participants in a Malaysian organization to identify the cultural criteria for successful AEC collaboration. The investigation covers work culture preferences, the inflows and outflows of tacit knowledge through interdependent tasks, and the collaboration processes and related technologies used. Results indicate that four operating characteristics occur in Malaysian building projects. Integration of culture knowledge with Building Information Modeling (BIM) in projects could alleviate better productivity. Finally, this study recommends potential work culture criteria that could uplift Malaysian AEC technology, skill, competencies and expertise, and provide higher incomes commensurate to the construction workforce.
AEC, cultural knowledge, integrated design management, knowledge management, sustainable design informatics, work culture
The role of the media in the democratic process was studied in the context of Nigeria's First Republic, 1960-1966, which was a society in transition from colonial dictatorship to a fledgling democracy. The article deploys the historical method of studying its subject matter in time perspective, and thus takes a longer historical view that is often absent from contemporary analyses. It posits that the role of the media in democracy need not be generalized and patterned structurally on Western oriented media theories. Rather the processional approach should be emphasized since it establishes the trends and patterns of press performance, upon which theories should be built. This is particularly the case when taken in the peculiar context and experience of African nations in transition, as illustrated with the Nigerian example.
Colonial impact, democratic politics, media and democracy, media history, Nigeria, Nigerian press
The purposes of this research were to examine the presentation ability achievement of fourth-year undergraduate engineering students at King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, Thailand after they studied how to give investigation report oral presentations using the genre-based approach (GBA), and to determine the attitudes of the students towards the GBA. Data were collected using pre- and post-tests, a questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, and student logs. The results revealed that the employment of the GBA in teaching oral presentations was effective, and the students' attitude toward the genre-based lessons was positive. Learning how to write investigation reports prior to how to present them familiarized the students with the vocabulary and other important information for the presentations. The lessons allowed the students to practice with constant feedback and support from the teacher and their peers, leading to better achievement on the post-test and a positive attitude toward the teaching method.
English for specific purposes, genre-based approach, teaching oral presentations
Despite the huge number of studies in relation to the FDI, studies on the nexus between FDI and stock market development in GCC are still limited. This paper investigates the impact of FDI on stock market development in Gulf Cooperation Council countries that have become an important economic trading bloc after inclusion of Saudi Arabia in the G-20, leading to a big increase in stock prices and FDI in recent years. This research utilised data from 2002 to 2015 for all the six GCC countries i.e. Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. Using four control variables, economic growth, economic size, openness and domestic credit to private sector and utilising the panel unit-root test, panel co-integration analysis and panel error-correction model, the research concludes that foreign direct investment has played a long-term significant role in stock market development in GCC countries. Moreover, the research results on short-term impact concludes that FDI affects stock market development positively but not significantly. From a policy perspective, the research evidence convincingly supports the increasingly growing initiative of GCC governments to attract flow of FDI towards non-oil based sectors to diversify their economies and develop stock markets.
Error correction model, foreign direct investment, Gulf Cooperation Council, Johansen Fisher panel co-integration test, stock market development
This study explores physiological and psychological effects of urban green space by using measurements and self-reported psychological responses to an urban park compared to a city environment. Participants of this study were 20 homogenous male students. Taman Botani Perdana, an urban park in Kuala Lumpur, and Jalan Bukit Bintang, a commercial district in the city centre were chosen as the study areas for this study. On the first day, the participants went to Taman Botani Perdana, and to Jalan Bukit Bintang on the second day. In both areas, the participants were instructed to walk along a given route for 20 minutes. Saliva samples were collected before and after walking in both areas along with blood pressure measurements. Self-reported physiological responses were measured before and after each walking session. Results indicated that salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased in the city, whereas no significant change was found in the urban park. Diastolic blood pressure significantly reduced after walking in the urban park. In terms of psychological responses, Total Mood Disturbance among the participants were significantly lower when they were in the urban park compared to the city. Meanwhile, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) showed that positive effect significantly increased after walking in the urban park, whereas the participants' positive effects significantly reduced after walking in the city. These results indicate that urban green space has positive benefits physiologically and psychologically compared to urban environment.
Urban green space, restorative environments, salivary cortisol, scientific evidence, stress
Concerns on academic-related stress among students in institutions of higher learning are widespread. Pursuing tertiary education is said to be stressful as students pass through the process of adapting to new educational and social environments. Past literature has highlighted that common academic stressors include family-related pressures, scholarship requirements, financial burdens, competition in class and course-related stress. These stressors trigger physical and psychological issues resulting in lack of energy, loss of appetite, headaches, sleep problems or gastrointestinal problems. Although studies have been done on common stressors in universities/colleges, perceptions of what are considered academic stressors from the Generation Y and Z perspectives using the Perceived Stress Test (PSS) have not been carried out in the Malaysian context. Thus, this quantitative study aims to identify the perceptions of Gen Y and Z (18-25 years old) students to identify factors attributing to stress and their effects. The findings show that 88% of the respondents confirmed that studies are the main cause of their stress, while 78% admitted facing a moderate stress level and out of this, 36% had BMI that fell in the overweight/ obese category. Further, the study indicates that 54% experienced sleeping disorders. It is hoped that the findings will add to the understanding of the stress levels among Generation Y and Z to enable policy-makers and university/college management teams to strategise actions to alleviate issues arising from academic stress among students.
The review aims to consider the theoretical approaches of collaboration and co-teaching, motivational factors, pedagogical implications, and barriers, thus contributes to the literature in the field. To that end, a literature search has been conducted from different libraries and scholarly platforms, which included Medline, ERIC, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The studies that have discussions on the implication of co-teaching or collaborative teaching strategies were selected. A comprehensive scrutiny process was applied to filter out relevant and quality studies. 12 articles, inclusive of original and review article, have been finalized for systematic analysis. The selected articles have shown that positive outcomes are closely associated with the collaborative teaching or co-teaching methods, and have a closer relevance to the students' and teachers' achievements. Joint work, teamwork, and co-teaching approaches also support the teachers for their professional development and enhance their learning abilities. Moreover, the results have shown that interest in co-teaching has been intensified considerably in most of the educational milieus including special education to accommodate the students' special needs. Collaborative and co-teaching approaches play an important role in improving students' strengths, beliefs, and values, especially in the field of English language teaching, therefore, teachers who are dissatisfied with the outcomes of traditional learning methods are willing to apply collaboration and co-teaching models.
Collaborative teaching, co-teaching, learning objectives, pedagogical implications, professional development
Attachment Theory is one of the most frequently used frameworks which revolutionised the understanding of human behaviour, from early childhood to adulthood. Attachment Theory's scholarly output was examined using a quantitative bibliometric approach, based on rigorous facts extracted from the WoS databases from 1970 to 2017. Overall, 1,700 documents in the category "Psychology" with the topic "Attachment Theory" were analysed to find trends of publications, networking coupling, keywords frequencies, top authors, and highly cited papers. A qualitative content analysis of the top 20 documents with the highest average citation per year was done to provide insight on document approaches. The results show that the scientific productivity in "attachment theory" is highly skewed. The authors recommend publishing attachment theory related articles in an open access journal. There is a need for further interdisciplinary research and practice collaboration to move beyond the sole psychological approach and realise the importance of multi-disciplinary approaches.