The present paper reviews the use of lexical bundles in academic writing from two different viewpoints namely linguistic and discipline, directed at how academic writers belonging to different disciplines or linguistic backgrounds construct their discourses through lexical bundles. As cohesive devices, lexical bundles are an indispensible part of the text and play a crucial role in shaping propositions, evolving the text, guiding readers through the flow of information and gaining the writer’s proffered meaning. By using lexical bundles, academic writers are able to attain naturalness in their writings and create a more reader-friendly approach to the unfolding text. Bearing the significance of lexical bundles in mind, this review paper aims to examine the effect of disciplinary variation and linguistic differences on the use of lexical bundles in academic writing. Most researchers believe that the frequency as well as the use of lexical bundles is different across disciplines and from one language to another language. Therefore, through a review of previous studies, there is a systematic investigation of evidence to support the above claims. Possible limitations of previous studies are discussed and some implications for further research are presented.
Academic writing, linguistic variations, disciplinary variations, lexical bundles
Businesses could sustain their market presence at traditional brick and mortar or through the Internet by facilitating and encouraging the public to pass along a marketing message known as viral marketing. Nonetheless, it should be conducted in ethical manner to disseminate credible and trusted message content among both parties. This study aims to analyse the influence of some pre-defined factors (namely, playfulness, critical mass, community driven, and peer pressure) in customer satisfaction in the context of the use of viral marketing in social media. For this purpose, 200 respondents were randomly drawn from among students at a public university in the Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia. A questionnaire was implemented and the results were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed that critical mass stood out as the most the important predictor of customer satisfaction with viral marketing via SNS, followed by playfulness. Meanwhile, social network website with high level of critical mass has more influence on potential users to believe and participate in viral marketing activity. Conclusion and recommendations for future study are also discussed.
Landscape maintenance plays an important role in ensuring the landscape sustainability of recreational forest. Proper landscape maintenance can enhance park’s quality as well as increase user experience in the park. As new recreational forests are developed, the need for good landscape maintenance and management geared towards sustainability is crucial. The goal of this study is to understand users’ perception towards recreational forest landscape maintenance and management. The objective of this study is to analyze users’ perception towards landscape maintenance of recreational forests in relation to their existing management programs, and to discuss implications of maintenance and management of recreational forest towards sustainability. The study is conducted at three selected recreational forests in Selangor, namely Sungai Tekala Recreational Forest, Sungai Chongkak Recreational Forest and Templer Recreational Forest. A total of 533 respondents participated in this study. Results indicate that the present landscape maintenance standards of these sites are low reflecting weaknesses in the management system. Therefore, the management team of these recreational forests must improve their landscape maintenance and management approaches for sustainability including improving users’ convenience, safety and experience.
Landscape maintenance, perception, recreational forest and sustainability
The current study attempted to examine the religious maturity of Hindu (N=1050), Christian (N=1073) and Muslim (N=1394) adolescents studying at secondary level in Pakistan. This research is based on the theory of religious orientations presented by Allpport (1950). Age universal I-E scale (revised version of ROS – Religious Orientation Scale) developed by Kirkpatrick (1988) and Maltby (1999) was adopted as research instrument. Findings contribute in establishing associations among students’ religious faiths and orientations. The study concludes that the students’ religious affiliations are significant predictors of their religious maturity.
Age universal I-E scale, religious orientations, Pakistan
This essay looks at Keris Mas’ Jungle of Hope (1984) and K.S. Maniam’s Between Lives (2003) and discusses how humanity’s alienation from nature gets different treatments by these two prominent Malaysian writers. This estrangement resonates with current environmentalism as it is seen as complicit in conditioning humanity’s thinking that they are not a part of nature, causing them to take the anthropocentric and utilitarian attitudes that contribute further to environmental woes. Alienation from nature is to a large extent, the reflection of the environmental conditions in which the writers find themselves and the different phases in the country’s environmental history, in which the texts are placed. Keris through Jungle of Hope delves into the onset of this alienation, focusing on the trauma felt by Malay peasants, caught between environmental realities and tradition. Maniam through Between Lives also delves into this rift. He, however, offers a way to heal this rupture – by going back to cultural and religious tradition. Indeed, forgotten tradition is reclaimed and revived in both texts but Maniam seems to foreground forgotten tradition as a way to heal this estrangement from nature. Both texts nevertheless, serve as valuable resources for thinking about alienation and its effects on humanity; and the immense capacity that humanity has to amend their relationship with nature.
Malaysian literature, Postcolonial ecocriticism, Alienation from nature, Forgotten tradition, K.S. Maniam, Keris Mas
In a previous study, it is well documented that adolescents are more likely than adults to engage in risky behaviour (Arnett, 1992). Most evidence suggests that risk-taking is the most important major factor underlying the high crash rates among teens. The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine the extent of risk-taking behavior of Malaysian motorcyclists, and 2) to investigate the relationship between demographic variables of motorcyclists and risk-taking behavior. A total of 540 respondents from six different areas in the Klang Valley (Jalan Kapar, Jalan Meru, Jalan Ampang, Lebuhraya Damansara Puchong, Jalan Tun Razak and Jalan Kuala Selangor-Sungai Buloh) were surveyed. The study found that there were significant gender differences in term of ‘riding over speed limit’ and ‘riding without crash helmet’. In terms of age, there are significant differences between age and ‘riding without crash helmet’. In terms of personal income, the result showed that there are significant differences between personal income and ‘riding without crash helmet’ and ‘riding without headlights and not stopping at three-way junction’. However, there are no significant difference between race and highest education level and risk-taking behavior dimensions.
The present paper provides a descriptive analysis of commuters and their families. It also explores gender differences and the impacts of commuting among young families in Malaysia. The study was conducted in the Klang Valley, and the sample consisted of commuters working outside the Klang Valley. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and a descriptive survey. The findings showed that 44.4% of commuters were working away from home because it was requested by their employers. Although there were more men than women who perceived the commuting lifestyle as a positive situation, there were not gender differences observed on how commuting impacted personal wellbeing. Nonetheless, significant differences were found between those with a positive outlook of the commuting life and those with a negative perception of the commuting lifestyle. The emerging commuter family dynamics and its impact on work-home life balance for young Malaysian families need to be further investigated.
Commuting, family, marriage and the family, wellbeing
The majority of Iranian traditional houses, especially those in the hot-arid region, are best known for their courtyards. In these inward-looking houses, all of the main spaces are shaped around a central open space, which corresponds to the local context and culture. Iranian traditional architecture adhered to certain principles, which are detectable in traditional buildings such as inward-looking, human’s scale, modular design, geometry and specific proportion systems. This paper aims to extend analysis of proportion and geometrical principles used in traditional houses, especially the Iranian golden ratio and modularization and their role in creating harmony between culture, built-form and the environment, with special focus on courtyards, main rooms and openings. Thirty courtyard houses in hot-arid region of Iran were selected as case study. The research employs qualitative method, which involves archival documents from Iran’s Cultural Heritage Organization, technical visits, on-site documentation and design analysis. This research reveals significant golden rules and modularization are adopted in the design of traditional houses, which is applicable in contemporary house design.
Geometry, modular, proportion, traditional courtyard houses
This paper proposes a morphology based Factored Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) system for translating English language sentences into Tamil language sentences. Automatic translation from English into morphologically rich languages like Tamil is a challenging task. Morphologically rich languages need extensive morphological pre-processing before the SMT training to make the source language structurally similar to target language. English and Tamil languages have disparate morphological and syntactical structure. Because of the highly rich morphological nature of the Tamil language, a simple lexical mapping alone does not help for retrieving and mapping all the morpho-syntactic information from the English language sentences. The main objective of this proposed work is to develop a machine translation system from English to Tamil using a novel pre-processing methodology. This pre-processing methodology is used to pre-process the English language sentences according to the Tamil language. These pre-processed sentences are given to the factored Statistical Machine Translation models for training. Finally, the Tamil morphological generator is used for generating a new surface word-form from the output factors of SMT. Experiments are conducted with nine different type of models, which are trained, tuned and tested with the help of general domain corpora and developed linguistic tools. These models are different combinations of developed pre-processing tools with baseline models and factored models and the accuracies are evaluated using the well known evaluation metric BLEU and METOR. In addition, accuracies are also compared with the existing online “Google- Translate” machine translation system. Results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms the other models and the existing system.
Statistical machine translation, preprocessing, English-Tamil machine translation, linguistic tools, morphologically rich language
Although existing literature demonstrates that youth positive developmental benefits are associated with support for urban youths, little is understood about the multiple roles of positive identity and commitment to learning influence on positive values. This study examines the multiple mediation effects of positive identity and commitment to learning on the relationship between support and positive values embraced by urban youths living in the inner city of Kuala Lumpur. The participants of the study were 243 urban youths, ages ranging between 15 and 24 years. The average age is 17.2 (SD=2.45). These youths are predominantly Malay (91%) while the others are Chinese and Indian. Using the Hayes and Preacher procedure, the bootstrap analysis shows that commitment to learning, jointly and partially mediates the effects of support on positive values, whilst positive identity does not contribute to the relation between support and positive values. The analyses provide support for the meditational assumptions that support influence positive values through school engagement. Suggestions for further research and implications for positive youth development are considered.
School engagement, achievement motivation, self-esteem, sense of purpose, curiosity
The first purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of consciousness-raising (C-R) activities and tasks on learning grammatical structures by Iranian guidance school EFL learners (the simple present tense in this case). The second one was to investigate the effect of gender on learning the simple present tense through C-R activities and tasks. The design of the study was experimental and the participants were one hundred and five male and female students selected from two guidance schools in Zahedan city, Iran. A proficiency test was administered to ensure the homogeneity of the two groups at the outset of the experiment. Based on the results of the proficiency test, the participants were divided into two groups, functioning as the experimental and control groups. Then, a pre-test of the simple present tense was given to the participants and its results showed that the participants didn’t know the simple present tense before applying the treatment (C-R activities and tasks for experimental group). The classes were held two times per week. During the total span of ten sessions the two groups were taught the simple present tense based on different approaches; the experimental group was taught based on C-R activities and tasks while the control group was instructed using pattern drills and practice. At the end, the same pre-test was used as the post-test. Data analysis through an independent t-test indicated that using C-R activities in grammar teaching is significantly more effective than the traditional approaches (such as Grammar Translation Method and pattern practice). The results also indicated that the male learners outperformed females in learning grammatical structures through C-R tasks. Therefore, it is recommended that other teachers consider C-R activities as useful options in teaching grammar and other language aspects in their classes.
Grammar, Consciousness-raising activities and tasks, traditional approaches, EFL learners
In the contemporary world, one of the major forces of identity transformation is cross-border movements or transnational movements. One’s identity is no longer perceived as an innate construct based on ethnicity or nationality but rather as something unstable, which changes in accordance with the diverse cultural contexts and societal operations. Accordingly, we have today the concept of culture transcending the barriers of nation, and the concept of identity escaping strictures imposed by any nationality. Such transformation in the notion of culture and identity have transpired due to an ever-present phenomenon of migrating communities or diasporic communities. Wakako Yamauchi in her play,And the Soul Shall Dance, discusses this issue of the formation of cultural identity in the immigrant community of Japanese-Americans in the early 20th century. Falling between cultural integration, cultural assimilation and a longing for one’s own homeland, the identity of Japanese-Americans is constructed at the “in-between” spaces of two cultures. The play essentially brings forth the struggles formulated by the people belonging to two cultural backgrounds, Japanese and American, and trying to resolve their lives at the borderlands of culturality.
Japanese-American, And the Soul Shall Dance, Wakako Yamauchi,Issei and Nisei,‘fourfold theory’ of acculturation, cultural in-betweenness, cultural assimilation, cultural integration
The eating experience, being vitally essential for the survival of human beings, can be extended to convey other conceptually abstract experiences. As a cognitive-semantic account of metaphor conceptualisations, this study aims to investigate the relationship between food-related metaphorical concepts and Persian cultural cognition and cultural models, as well as how they influence the targeted speakers’ beliefs and ideas. Following the orientation of experientialists’ views (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999) and most discussions of metaphorical concepts since then within the cognitive linguistics movement, this study in particular explores the commonalities and variations in ontological metaphor conceptualisations of thought/ideas as food in a cross-cultural comparative study of English and Persian. The metaphoric extensions of food and cognition in Persian, to a great extent, are mediated and motivated by embodied experiences; as well as socio-cultural orientation, Iranian traditional medicine and the spiritual tradition of Sufism as it is shown through the marginal role the Persian language plays a role in the rational-irrational dichotomy.
The present article discusses strategies in refusing/accepting an offer/invitation. It draws on two studies involving Indonesians within the physical settings of Australia and Indonesia. Whilst the subjects in the first study were 11 Indonesians consisting of three East Javanese, four West Javanese, an Acehnese, a Papuan, and two Makassarese, those in the second study were 19 East Javanese. The analysis shows that an Indonesian hearer (H) tends to delay a refusal or acceptance until the second, third, or another offer/invitation is made and when a refusal or acceptance is made, which denotes a ‘face-threatening’ act, an Indonesian H tends to use mitigating strategies. White lies, with the characteristic of indirectness, are the main strategy used by Indonesians in responding to an offer/invitation. Directions for future research conclude the article.
Face, refusal/acceptance, offer/invitation, politeness, white lie
This study examined the effects of PowerPoint presentation on sophomore university students’ performance and attitudes. The participants from intact classes were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups; the experimental group was instructed via PowerPoint presentations along with the textbook in simple prose texts whereas the control group was taught only through the textbook. The results of an independent sample t-test demonstrated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in terms of their post-test scores. Besides, these students had strong positive attitudes towards the use of PowerPoint in the course.
This research is an attempt to explore teachers’ attitudes toward Information and Communication Technology in secondary schools in the island state of Penang, Malaysia. The focus of this study is on teachers’ attitudes towards accessing and using information and communication technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning processes. The Technology Acceptance Model is used in this study as the underlying theoretical framework, with the main thrust of the research being to explore the influence of teachers’ attitude, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness and Behavioural Intentions in using ICT. The findings of the study revealed behavioural intention as the most significant factor that influences teachers’ attitude in using ICT in the course of their teaching and learning processes. The two behavioural constructs of Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness have less influence on an individual intention to use technologies. The authors conclude by making some recommendations for practitioners to help them work towards giving increased importance to ICT use in their work responsibilities.
ICT, Teaching and Learning, TAM, technology integration