This paper attempts to analyze the idea of social business - a brainchild of Dr. Muhammad Yunus and a very recent addition to the economic thoughts. It tries to show the welfare implications of social business with the help of graphical illustrations. It also provides an overview of the idea. Drawing upon the simple frameworks of monopoly and competitive markets, the graphical analyses show that conversion of traditional business companies into social business companies results in increased social welfare
Consumer surplus, Firm, Market, Producer surplus, Social business, Social welfare.
Models of the criminal justice system have developed from focusing on the traditional role of the system to acknowledging the position of the victims. The latter recognises that victims' insights are important in determining if a system functions effectively. The objective of this study is to explore what entails satisfaction of citizens towards the criminal justice system. The current study employed a survey method to ask 166 Malaysian respondents to list down what services should be offered and demeanours shown by criminal justice personnel (i.e. police, court personnel) in order for them to be satisfied with the system. The responses were analysed according tothemes that were both specific to the sample of the study and parallel to the variables discussed in the literature to check for universality. The findings compiled 12 satisfaction components that were consistent with the ones presented in the literature and 11 components that were specific to the sample used in this study. Implications of this study include highlighting that satisfaction is not one-dimensional, but based on patterns.
Being a specific communicative genre of disseminating knowledge in today's academic arena, the research article abstract has its own specific conventional structure. Through such a seminal genre, research article writers are able to ratify and contribute their own new findings to the research community they belong to. Taking a cross-disciplinary quantitative approach, this study explores the status of interactional metadiscourse markers as prevalent interpersonal-driven features in research article abstracts. The central objective is to investigate how research article writers in particular discipline tackle and deploy interactional metadiscourse markers in the abstract section of their papers in the effort to propagate their ideas. Hyland's (2005) taxonomy of metadiscourse was adopted to analyse sixty research article abstracts written in two disciplines (Applied Linguistics and Economics) sourced from discipline-specific journals. As found, variations across the two fields of knowledge studied were enormously marked. Results of the present research may be of help for research article writers, particularly novice writers, to learn more about the socio-rhetorical conventions and prevalent discursive strategies established in their own specific disciplinary community.
Interactional metadiscourse markers, research article abstracts, disciplinary community, genre
Although migrant workers represent a substantial proportion of Malaysia's workforce and are acknowledged as a major contributor to Malaysia's rapid economic growth strategy, the risk of increasing musculoskeletal disorders among migrant workers in Malaysia has been largely ignored. The present study reports findings from a study of 317 migrant workers from the manufacturing industry. The aims of the study were to: a) assess overall levels of musculoskeletal pain, b) examine whether physical environment conditions were associated with musculoskeletal pain, and c) identify whether workload and particular work patterns were associated with the reporting of musculoskeletal pain. Data were obtained through self-report questionnaires administered by means of a series of structured interviews and analysed using logistic regression and odds ratios. Results suggest that the overall levels of musculoskeletal pain were high, with over two thirds of the respondents reporting symptoms of musculoskeletal pain. In terms of physical environment conditions, the lack of reliability of machinery/equipment and exposure to dust posed an increased risk for musculoskeletal pain. Workload and various work patterns such as working long hours, night shift working and pressure to meet quotas all contributed to an increased risk of musculoskeletal pain. Prevention efforts should include a transition to more healthful and reasonable working hours, scheduling practices as well as general improvement in the physical environment of factory premises.
Physical environment, workload, working patterns, musculoskeletal pain, migrant workers
An application of public goods-based theory that describes the process of alliance based, inter- organizational communication and information public goods. Bureaucratic organisations which develop Indonesia floriculture promote alliance by the activation of networking as a forum for coordination. One of them is anorchid consortium. This is a new cooperation system which is developed to synergize various drive components in the orchid floriculture development. The research objective is to identify factors influencing the effectiveness of alliance communication in the orchid consortium. The research framework was organised around Monge's: the goods, the participants and the action processes. This study used census and sample design as a source of information drawn from the entire population. Primary data were collected from individual consortium participants using a questionnaire to identify relationships and communication networks. The Spearman Rank correlation statistics was used to analyse the relationship between the variables, while Ucinet 6 software was used to assess the activity of the communication network in the consortium. Increasing of individual resources through non-formal education and kinds of knowledge; increased use of connective and communal goods including communication media types and frequency of communication media use; and improvement of the collective action process, the importance of density and centrality in improving the effectiveness of organizational communication within the consortium orchid as a coordination among stakeholders in the national orchid floriculture development which are competitive and sustainable. All the hypotheses were accepted.
Alliance, information and communication systems, inter-organisational, public goods
Understanding psychosocial determinants of healthy eating is believed to be crucial because they are influences that are potentially modifiable through health intervention. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of work-family conflict and socio-cognitive variables on healthy eating (i.e., low fat consumption, and fruit and vegetable consumption) among Malaysian employees. Participants (N = 325) completed questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) constructs and the work-family conflict scale. Results based on multiple regressions highlighted the efficacy of TPB in explaining 42% and 44% of the variances for eating low fat and eating fruit and vegetables, respectively. In addition to intention, descriptive norm and anticipated regret were found to be statistically significant predictors of both the healthful eating behaviours. Self-efficacy was a significant predictor of low fat consumption, while affective attitude was a significant determinant of fruit and vegetable intake. Family interference with work (FIW) was found to moderate the effect of intention on low fat consumption, suggesting that intention was predictive of low fat consumption only among people who experienced less FIW and not among those with greater conflict. Intervention could usefully target the socio-cognitive variables and work-family challenges in promoting healthful eating in Malaysia.
Healthy eating, socio-cognitive variables, Theory of Planned Behaviour, work-family conflict.
This study was designed to investigate the level of computer anxiety and the overall attitudes of Iranian postgraduate student teachers toward using the Internet in English language classes. Using a stratified random sampling, 160 participants (64 males and 96 females) were selected to take part in the study. These respondents were English language teachers who were pursuing their studies in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), English Literature, and Linguistics in public universities of Malaysia. A three-part questionnaire consisting of demographic information, Computer Anxiety Rating Scale (CARS) and Internet Attitude Scale (IAS) was administered in the data collection process. A pilot test was also conducted to achieve the reliability of the instruments. In order to strengthen the results, a semi- structured interview was conducted as well. The results indicated that the level of computer anxiety and the attitudes of the respondents toward using the Internet were of a moderate level. The findings of the independent-sample t-test showed significant mean differences between males and females and their level of computer anxiety and also their attitudes toward using the Internet. In addition, findings of the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significant negative relationship between computer anxiety and the participants' attitude toward using the Internet in their English language classes. Meanwhile, responses gauged through interview also supported the above findings. In conclusion, to eliminate the computer anxiety of teachers and encourage them to use the Internet technology in their classes, they should be equipped with sufficient technology skills through training programmes which can convince them about the usefulness of technologies in their instruction and create positive attitudes when using technology in the teaching and learning process..
computer anxiety, attitudes toward internet use, gender differences, English Language Classes, Iranian postgraduate student teachers.
Learning Biology involves mastering declarative knowledge and mastering procedural knowledge. The 'Light-dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis' is a topic requiring procedural knowledge. Students have to remember the facts of the light-dependent reactions. They must also remember the order in which the steps of the reaction occur. Students of Malaysian Matriculation Colleges learn Biology in English, which is not their first language. As such, students have difficulty in remembering the light-dependent reactions of Photosynthesis. The purpose of this project is to help these students remember the facts correctly, and in the right order. The results of an independent samples t-test showed that this approach enabled students to consolidate their memory processes; t(146) = 21.08, p = 0.0005. The effect size was 0.8661. Based on the findings, the researcher proposed that musical mnemonics be used to facilitate remembering of other biological processes. As a learning tool, musical mnemonics must meet several criteria in order to be effective and the researcher has suggested the criteria. The results of this study imply that procedural knowledge in Biology can be successfully taught in English when teachers are innovative.
The entire working environment is growing with a high pressure especially after the globalisation and with the development of new technologies, differentiated services, revolution of innovation, creativity explosion and varied choices. The educational sector is not an exception to this scenario. Each educational institution, with the great expectations of the students and their parents, competes with one another for excellent efficiency, prodigious performance and unbeatable uniqueness. Increating uniqueness among competitors, the demand of the management from the faculty members' performance is too high in the educational sector. The educational sectors' competitiveness poses a great challenge for emotional intelligence and work life balance among the employees. The employees' expectations and the reality contradict on each other that andhave effects on performance. Based on this, the study focused on the impacts of Emotional Intelligence and its subscales, namely, self-awareness, self-management and relationship control on work life balance of Employees performance in the educational institutions in Tamil Nadu. Based upon this, an empirical study was done to find the impacts of emotional intelligence on work life balance for better performance of Faculty members in the educational institutions, Tamil Nadu, India. This study found that most of the faculty members' performance is affected by conflict/ misunderstanding with the superiors, while a few of them have major conflicts/misunderstanding with the family members. This study is limited to the faculty members in the educational institutions in India; and it can be extended to other professional groups in India and abroad to get a significant insight in understanding the contribution of EI on WLB that leads to effects better performance. Persons involved in educational policy making and professional preparation consider the importance of the influence EI on WLB and provide them with excellent pay, performance based incentives, promotions, flexible working hours and other welfare measures towards improving faculty's performance in the educational institution.
Emotional Intelligence, Work Life Balance and Faculty Performance
The expected utility theory of war initiation is used to examine Thailand's bellicosity against Cambodia between 1953 and 1962 in order to evaluate whether Thai political decisions to start a war-threatening conflict were rational. An expected utility model analysis using EUGene, the data management utility software, suggests that Thailand's decisions to initiate war with Cambodia were rational in accordance with the expected utility decision rules. Hence, despite being counter-intuitive, Thailand's aggression against Cambodia as well as Thai foreign policy in general during the specified period is not unreasonable
Thailand, Cambodia, Preah Vihear temple, expected utility theory of war initiation, EUGene
Throughout history, mankind's ideal to pursue what he reveres as freedom has proved unattainable since insurmountable obstacles have always impeded the path to freedom. Individual freedom has constantly been restricted by external forces, in most cases an authority that forces humans into submission and bondage in a way they find themselves not only physically but also spiritually constrained by these shackles. In some instances, the magnitude of the authoritative force is so considerable that the individual surrenders his freedom and abandons any hopes of liberation. One of the theorists who highly values individual freedom is the German social psychologist Erich Seligman Fromm(1900-1980). He asserts in his book Escape from Freedom (1941) that achieving freedom has been a prime goal for mankind throughout time. He maintains that as an individual unshackles himself from the restrictions of an authority, he tries to compensate for the lack of security which stems from his rejection of that authority and thus submits himself to another source of authority or becomes an authoritative figure himself. This paper aims to analyse Fromm's concept of freedom in Anthony Burgess's A Clockwork Orange (1962). Through the application of Fromm's theories, this article attempts to show that freedom is not merely a release from external forces but a release from internal constraints as well, stressing the fact that spiritual freedom is the real path to happiness and internal satisfaction and that positive freedom is from within and not without.
Freedom, Authority, Submission, Erich Fromm, A Clockwork Orange
This paper examines the influence and role of political talk shows in generating political awareness amongst Pakistani educated youth. The researcher aims at measuring the youth's level of political awareness and involvement, and the extent to which these educated youth are persuaded by political talk shows about political affairs. The respondents involved in this study consist of the students of Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. The researcher selected 200 respondents from all departments of Government College University Faisalabad. The researcher applied non-probability sampling technique for data collection. Questionnaires were used as a tool for data collection. Findings showed that political talk shows influenced the youth and played a key role in providing political awareness. These findings also revealed that political talk shows have great deal of impacts on youngsters in helping them to get the knowledge about their basic social and political rights.
Political Communication; Talk Shows; Pakistani Youth; General Elections 2013
This study aimed to show the efficacy of morphological analysis as a vocabulary-developing strategy that enables students to decode or determine the meanings of vocabulary, to enlarge vocabulary and to retain vocabulary in long-term memory. The study was a one-group pre-test-post-test experiment and investigated the effect of morphological analysis on the vocabulary-developing ability of 40 Bangkok University students and explored their attitudes towards the use of morphological analysis. The instruments were a vocabulary test and a questionnaire exploring their attitudes toward morphological analysis. The pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group were calculated by descriptive statistics and compared using a dependent t-test measure. It was found that the students obtained higher scores on the post-test than on the pre-test at 0.05 level of significance. In addition, their attitudes towards using morphological analysis were enthusiastic. Moreover, the results of this study suggested that using morphological analysis assisted the students in decoding the meanings of vocabulary and enlarging vocabulary, helped them to retain vocabulary in long-term memory, motivated them to learn the English language and gave them pleasure in learning vocabulary. Pedagogical implications for vocabulary learning are suggested in the conclusion.
vocabulary building strategies, vocabulary retention techniques
This paper argues that proper construction of condolence messages can help to mitigate misunderstandings and prevent good intentions from being misinterpreted. It also aims to illustrate how Malaysian SMS condolences are composed, i.e. what semantic functions do they fall under. Data comprised 36 authentic condolences written in English via SMS by local friends to a local Chinese female recipient. These were then analysed for the core messages and the semantic functions they fall under. The theory of framing was used as the construct to enable the recipient to reframe her mind as she recalled her feelings when she received those condolence messages. The intention was to distinguish the least and most preferred functions. Analysis suggests that Malaysian SMS condolences are composed of eight semantic functions. Those which expressed concerns via directives and wishful thinking were least preferred whilst those which eulogised the deceased and expressed uncertainty were most preferred. This finding implies that the art of writing a condolence may be an essential skill that needs to be honed as even good intentions may be misunderstood.
Condolence, directives, Malaysian, preferred, communication
Malaysia wants to be apart of the bandwagon in the industry of higher education, thus, the number of private higher education institutions has grown drastically in the recent years. Moreover, the assimilation of cultures and values among the races in Malaysia has contributed distinctive organisational cultures that affect leadership values and organisational behaviour specifically in the private institutions of higher education sector. The purpose of this study is to identify spiritual leadership values embraced by the leaders in private institutions of higher education, as well as the relationship between spiritual leadership values and organisational behaviour (job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to quit). In total, 302 academics and administrative staff from 7 private institutions of higher education in Malaysia participated in the study. Questionnaire and non-probability sampling were used in the data collection for this study. The findings show that love, hope, and peace are associated with membership and meaning, meanwhile membership and meaning are associated with organisational behaviour. Hence, this study has contributed in leadership training that will affect the turnover rate and ultimately result a cost effective managerial policing in the Malaysian private institutions of higher education.
It is pertinent to specifically conduct research on the viability of introducing dispute avoidance procedure (DAP) for construction industry due to the lack of research in this area, as most of the current research covers various issues within dispute resolution procedure and management field. The objective of this study is to examine the future of DAP in the Malaysian construction industry by looking into the perceptions of the construction industry players. Data were collected through interview of selected respondents and analyses to reveal patterns to help formulate a viable DAP mechanism. NVivo software has been used to manage and organise complete interview transcripts and facilitate data analysis process for this study. This study reveals that the existing DAP mechanisms are not viable for the Malaysian construction industry at present, mainly due to the issue of costing. Thus, a modified version of DAP was formulated to promote a viable mechanism. This study suggests that the structural elements of a viable DAP mechanism could be in the form of an 'involvement of top management' from both contracting parties (without the involvement of any third parties) who are decision makers or persons with financial authority, and the process is through 'discussion and negotiation'. In essence, this study captures the legal culture and trade usage of the industry which assisted the formulation of a viable DAP mechanism.
DAP, dispute avoidance, legal culture, legal system, structural elements
As a demanding language skill, listening is frequently underestimated by students and educators in the field of second language learning because effective listening skills are developed over time with lots of practice but listening practices are limited and the activities are either decontextualised or inappropriate for students of a particular proficiency level. In an attempt to incorporate more communicative listening activities appropriate for different proficiency levels, this study integrated Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) approach to: 1) investigate the overall effect of task-based listening activities on Iranian EFL learners' listening ability, and 2) identify the extent to which receptive and productive listening task types correspond with a particular language proficiency level. The participants were 90 Iranian language learners in three intermediate, upper-intermediate, and advanced proficiency levels. Different receptive and productive task types were practiced in all the classes. Then, the learners were pre-tested and post-tested on a task-based test of listening comprehension. Descriptive statistics and several paired and independent t-tests were run to analyse the collected data. The findings of the study showed that students at all proficiency levels outperformed in their posttests compared to their pretests. Concerning the correspondence between the listening tasks and proficiency levels, students at all three levels of proficiency outperformed in their posttest compared to their pretest in both the receptive and productive listening tasks, except for the intermediate group whose improvement was not significant in the productive tasks. The study yielded some useful implications for language instructors, encouraging them to incorporate the TBLT in their classes and assign more appropriate task types for different proficiency levels.
Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT), listening comprehension, task types, proficiency level.