Rendering students resilient and intellectually rigorous is a primary objective of education in Malaysia. The Education Ministry has emphasised the enhancement of problem-solving and critical thinking skills, but reported that the skills performance of students in secondary schools and higher education is below the targeted proficiency level. According to the Ministry, the educational institutions are responsible for the lack of optimal performance. However, the unsatisfactory result might also be ascribed to the students' overall experience of adversity. Some students, against all odds, are academically resilient. How Malaysian secondary and higher-education students construct, develop and demonstrate academic resilience has yet to be investigated. This review of related literature is, therefore, aimed at explaining how the academic resilience approach relates to cognitive task performance of the students. Further investigations can provide guidelines to help students who are not academically resilient. This would facilitate achievement of the objective.
Focussing on the practice of public engagement and the teaching of history in higher education, this article will argue that public engagement is a welcome platform for sustaining humanities education through the economic stagnation and educational changes that have impacted Europe in the early 21st century. However, effective public engagement is becoming an increasingly important practice that universities are implementing all over the globe. Based on a case study of a course module run at a UK university for final-year undergraduates, this article proposes a practical framework for humanities departments to embed public engagement into departmental teaching programmes. It will demonstrate from the real-life experiences of staff and students engaged on a pilot programme how humanities subjects can also be practical skills-based learning experiences. The first section will review the current field of public engagement practice and methodology and explore why the subject has received much more attention over recent years, particularly within a UK context. The second section examines the case study itself, which was conducted during the 2009-10 academic year. The concluding section provides reflection and considers the possibilities for adopting a public engagement initiative within humanities departments in the future.
Higher education, public engagement, teaching practice, case study
The paper begins with a reminder of early criticism on traditional feminism and then traces the beginnings of occasional opposition leading to provocative positions through representative works and criticisms of some writers and critics. The paper, therefore, identifies a trilogy and moves to uphold the last of the trilogy which might startle the revolutionary feminist because it is more accommodating in its gender approach than the revolutionist would aspire to in dismantling the hegemonic phallus. It submits that there is certainly revelation in deconstructing, transforming, re-inscribing and negotiating "male patriarchy" as this leads to a conversation that empowers its readers to soft-pedal on both anti-masculinity and anti-femininity, an argument towards policy reform on gender. In doing this, it uses nego-feminist theory to locate and critique Chinua Achebe's sudden change from anti-thesis of feminism to gender justice through his last novel, Anthills of the Savannah. However, it hypothetically praises Achebe's stand for being feminist and then questions it for being improperly feminist.
This study investigates the relationship between the ownership structure of Malaysian public-listed companies and the choice of auditor based on ethnicity. In addition, the study compares results for the years 2006, 2007 and 2008. The years were chosen as the Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance (MCCG) was revised in 2007. This enabled comparison to be made in the pre, during and post revision periods of the Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance. The data were derived from a sample size of 300 companies listed on Bursa Malaysia for three years i.e. 2006, 2007 and 2008. As such, it is possible to observe any impacts of the changes in the revised MCCG on ownership structure and auditor's ethnicity. Multinomial logistic regression was employed to analyse the relationship as the data levels support its use. It is found that in general MCCG 2007 influences the selection of auditor's ethnicity by companies. Future research is recommended to study the reasons and rationale of this result by employing other research strategies such as qualitative techniques and increasing the sample size to get more generalisable findings.
Corporate governance, ethnicity, audit, Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance, Malaysia
Understanding the psychological factors related to waste-prevention behaviours of university students could enable local governments and policy makers to craft effective policies to reduce waste. This study utilised a questionnaire-based survey to assess the associations between spiritual intelligence and Machiavellianism as factors that influence waste-prevention behaviours. A total of 210 participants from Universiti Putra Malaysia completed the questionnaires, including the demographic questions, spiritual intelligence inventory, Mach IV, and the waste-prevention behaviours. The data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results showed that individuals with higher spiritual intelligence and lower Machiavellianism were more likely to report a positive attitude towards waste-prevention behaviours, and that an inverse association existed between spiritual intelligence and Machiavellianism. Overall, these variables explained 12.0% of the variance in waste-prevention behaviours. Therefore, these findings reinforce the importance of personality traits and cognitive abilities in waste-prevention behaviours.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of foreign architecture on the 'Neo- Mughal' or 'Moorish' style of design seen in Malaysian mosques of the colonial period (1800-1930). The colonial period of Malaysian history is one of the best examples of the emergence and influence of various imported types of architecture, especially Islamic ones. The trend of 'Neo-Mughal' " or 'Moorish' design is notable due to the different beliefs and attitudes regarding the influence of Moorish or Mughal architecture. This difference is already poignant even in its taxonomy, for instance, based on the classification of Dr. Ghafar Ahmad (1997) in 'British Colonial Architecture in Malaysia 1800-1930', this trend is regarded as being of Moorish influence while in the work of John Michael Gullick (1998), the style was regarded that of the 'British Raj', created from the combination of Mughal and Gothic styles. The significance of the research is to reveal the manner and contact of Islamic foreign styles on Malaysian buildings, particularly in this period, where the amount of influence from stranger styles was at its peak. The research methodology selected for this paper is historical interpretative using the case study approach. The first step in the research is studying different attitudes of the trend argument by reviewing secondary data. This will be followed by the selection of a suitable case study and comparative analysis between a case study of Malaysian mosques with samples of the Mughal and Moorish architecture. The findings of research show which Mughal and Moorish architecture influenced Malaysian mosques more and which of the attitudes of this argument is more accurate.
Moorish (Neo Mughal) style, Moorish architecture, Mughal architecture, influence, Malaysia
This study examines Ted Hughes's portrayal of the relationship between mankind and nature in 'Remains of Elmet' and 'Moortown Diary'. The central theme of 'Remains of Elmet' is the toll that both the textile industry and Methodism had on Calder Valley's natural landscape and man's psyche. Hughes believes that the healing process is attainable by connecting with the elemental energy of the natural world, thereby acquiring nature's capacity for continuous rebirth and rejuvenation. However, Hughes provides the possibility of balance between civilisation and the natural world in 'Moortown Diary'. The sequence concentrates on the facets of death and birth of the farm livestock.
Calder Valley, Industry, Methodism, Moortown, farming, Mother Nature, mankind
After Sanskrit, Arabic is the second-largest donor language to the Malay vocabulary. Through a vocabulary survey containing 40 Arabic-origin Malay loanwords, this study examines the utility of explicit presentation of Arabic-origin Malay loanwords and their etymologies in teaching Malay as a foreign language to Arabic speakers. The participants included 20 Arabic-speaking students at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The participants averaged 24.4 correct answers and 17.6 newly learned vocabulary items. At 5% significance level, a clear significant difference was found in participants' scores before and after the presentation of the loanwords' Arabic etymologies (p = .000). This study concluded that the explicit presentation of Arabic-origin Malay loanwords containing one or more modified consonants or vowels and their etymologies benefits Arabic speakers who are learning Malay as a foreign language.
Sal seeds are an important Non Timber Forest Product (NTFP) and are an important livelihood resource for about 90,000 forest fringe villages with a combined population of 56 million. During the month of May and June, when there is almost no other source of income, rural people are engaged in seed collection which provides them with a crucial bridge income before the commencement of the agricultural season. Hence, a study was conducted at three sites in the mixed Sal forest of Nainital district of Uttarakhand (India) to assess the present and future resource potential of Sal seeds, existing market mechanism and its role in livelihood generation of rural communities in Kumaun Himalaya. Seed fall was more in June accounting for more than 50% of annual seed fall. The average dry weight of seed wings was 21.33%, kernel 64.83% and shell 13.83% at the study sites, and the average biomass of seed was 722 kg ha-1 seed collection year. Sal seed collection work in Kumaun is capable of generating about 146,025 man-days of employment in a collection season.
Sal seed, Non Timber Forest Product, biomass, marketing, livelihood generation
This article presents the pioneering outcomes of a non-interventive ethnographic observation of a Semai musician's transmission of indigenous musical traditions using selected indigenous musical instruments from his community. The musician, who is primarily a performer, was placed in the role of teacher. Fifteen Semai children from his village between the ages of six and nine were involved. The Semai musician conducted the workshop in his village hut in Tapah, in the state of Perak, over a period of six months. Findings showed that teacher-student mobility, freedom of choice, intuitive responses, integration of cultural concepts, flexibility and adaptability were approaches utilized by this Semai musician in response to the children and particular situations. This paper further posits that teachers need to consider cultural nuances and differences in musical experiences when designing their music curriculum and assessment approaches for music education. Furthermore, this paper argues for versatility and adaptability of the teacher to actively construct and reconstruct his/her teaching approaches by accessing the musical understanding, talents and competencies of children from various cultural backgrounds.
Indigenous music transmission, multi-cultural music education, Orang Asli, teaching approaches, world music
Orphanhood is a vast problem in the world with impacts on the social and public health sectors. Evidence-based information on the geographic distribution of orphans is an important information gap in Nepal. The present study aimed to identify the proportion of children who are orphans and their geographic distribution in Nepal. This study used the population subset of 0-17 year olds from the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2011, Nepal. The Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method was used while fitting a logistic regression model to adjust for the correlation among children in the same household. The result was adjusted for age and sex of a child and wealth index of the household. The analysis was further stratified by age groups. Of the total 21,484 children, 1,142 (5.3%) were orphaned. Among the 13 sub-regions, Western Mountain and Eastern Terai had higher and Central Hill had lower proportions of orphan children than the overall mean. However, the results differed in age-stratified analysis. The study also explored possible factors related to orphanhood: poverty and famine, conflict and displacement, a high adult mortality related to HIV/AIDS and maternal causes. In conclusion, the distribution of orphan children in households was found to vary by sub- regions. Therefore, orphan welfare programmes should be focused on those regions with higher proportions of orphans.
This quasi-experimental study attempted to investigate which mode of language games, paper-based or computer-based, can better expand the English vocabulary size of Form Four students especially at the 2000 word-level. Seventy students were involved in this study i.e. thirty-five in each group. The study was conducted in three stages. First, the participants sat for the Productive Vocabulary Levels Test (PVLT) as a pre-treatment measurement. Then the Experimental Group 1 played the computer-based games and the Experimental Group 2 played the paper-based games for seven weeks before sitting for the first post-treatment parallel PVLT. After that, both groups switched treatments before they were assessed again using the second parallel PVLT. The statistical analysis of the pre-and post-treatment test scores were done using the t-test. The results show a significant gain for both modes of games, but the computer-based games had a higher mean gain. The study provides evidence that the computer-based games had better influence on students' vocabulary enhancement than the paper-based games.
Vocabulary, incidental learning, games, computer-based, paper-based, Productive Vocabulary Levels Test
The new century has witnessed unprecedented efforts by both international institutions and mental health movements to promote and prioritise mental health at the same level as other priority health issues, especially HIV/AIDS. The release of the highly influential Lancet series on global mental health in 2007 highlighted these efforts, and the slogan "no health without mental health" became widely known. Despite success in developed regions, mental health and illness have been largely neglected in lesser developed areas made up mostly of low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). This preliminary research explored the efforts to prioritise mental health through securitisation and attempted to determine why such efforts are not successful in LAMICs regions, focusing on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) as a case study. According to our findings, a primary reason mental health is not prioritised in ASEAN is the difference in the values and social norms of LAMICs versus liberal-Western values and norms. These liberal-Western values and norms are the root of securitising, prioritising efforts. Securitisation can be considered a humanitarian effort, because the process is grounded in moral arguments and a universal value of human rights and dignity. For such securitisation efforts to succeed, however, a region must share the values at its roots. The final recommendation is that mental health advocates find a more pragmatic strategy in order to make the efforts workable within LAMICs regions.
Mental health, human security, securitisation, ASEAN