Rice is a staple food for the Malaysian population. Special attention is always given by the government to ensure the sustainability of the Malaysian paddy/rice industry. In order to encourage paddy farmers to increase paddy production, a food security policy for the paddy/ rice sector has been implemented by the government towards self-sufficiency by 2020. There are three types of government intervention on Malaysian paddy and rice industry namely fertiliser subsidy, price support and import restriction or quota. There would be some impact to the industry if the government decides to implement a trade liberalization policy. This is because trade liberalisation involves removing barriers to trade between different countries. Therefore, it would cause the supporting elements of the industry to be limited. In view of this this study has made its main objective the simulation of the impact of a fertiliser subsidy on the Malaysian paddy and rice industry. The methodology used is the system dynamics model. In addition, this study also attempts to simulate the impact of improvement in yield on the performance of the system. The simulation results suggest that there would be a positive impact to the industry with the implementation of the current policy for fertiliser subsidy. Yield obtained would increase with the implementation of the fertiliser subsidy. Consequently, it would increase paddy production. Paddy production would decrease if the government decides to remove the fertiliser subsidy. Hence the self sufficiency level (SSL) also would decrease. Due to the reduction in production, the importation of rice seems unavoidable in order to meet the demand. Meanwhile, due to population growth, the government needs to find alternative policies to sustain the industry and increase imports in order to ensure adequate supply of rice for the Malaysian population. The simulation results indicate that the introduction of a new variety of paddy leads to increase in yield, and in turn to increase in the production level. The percentage increase in yield and production is about 3% per year.
System dynamics, fertiliser, paddy/rice, policies, yield, simulation
To succeed in an agribusiness, growers must understand what is required by their downstream customers. This paper explores the perceptions of apple growers in Western Australia towards the needs of their downstream customers. The results indicate that the most important factors that are perceived by growers to influence their downstream customer's choice of supplier are quality, price and continuity of supply. On the other hand, for downstream buyers, quality, price and a favourable long-term relationship were the most important factors that they used in selecting their preferred supplier. The growers' perception of their downstream customer's needs, and indeed, the criteria by which customers evaluate their alternative suppliers, are closely aligned. Both growers and downstream intermediaries identified quality and price as the major factors in selecting their preferred trading partners.
Grower's perception, needs, downstream customers, quality, apple industry
This study focuses on the structure of household expenditure in discovering the real condition of household economy in rice-growing villages. We identified actual expenses and detailed consumption items for basic subsistence at the household level in two villages. The expenditure function in the two villages indicates that the head of the household, on-farm income and off-farm income are major determinants influencing the expenditure patterns and items bought by the household. In Kg. HC off-farm income and remittances determine household expenditure rather than on-farm income. The results indicate a contrast in expenditure behaviour at the household level between the two villages, where off-farm income in Kg. HC was strongly related to household expenditure while in the case of Kg. PTBB the relationship was influenced by on-farm income.
Household economy, expenditure, on-farm income, off-farm income
Water service is a key factor in tidal lowland agriculture where water supply fluctuates following the tidal cycle. Under controlled situations, water can be properly supplied to farmland based on crop water requirements through proper operation and maintenance of the tidal irrigation system. This study aimed at estimating the value of water service in order to support the implementation of a water service fee. The benefit from water service is compared to a water service fee estimated from the cost of water distribution. To achieve the objective, the study employed production function estimation with rice as the main crop. Data were collected through a field survey on randomly selected farmers at Telang Delta, the rice production centre for tidal lowlands of South Sumatra, Indonesia. The result indicates that the value of water service in rice production is higher than any estimates of a water service fee. Proven to be a significant determinant of rice production, it has been suggested that water service should obtain financial support from farmers who benefited from available water service.
Higher concentration tends to be inefficient in the allocation of resources especially in price setting and probable collusion among larger firms. One of the most influential approaches among various theories of industrial organisation is the Structure-Conduct-Performance (S-C-P) model, which highlights the competitive conditions of an industry by examining the structure of the industry in relation to behaviour (conduct) and performance of companies. Thus, the objective of the study is to investigate the level of concentration and industry performance of selected meat and meat preparation manufacturing sub-sectors in Malaysia and to examine the relationship between market structure, conduct and performance of the industry. Secondary data were collected from selected meat manufacturing firms registered under the CCM. Results indicate that the meat processing industry tended to have a moderate concentration with monopolistic market structure prevailing throughout the study period, where more than 60% of the industry market share is being controlled by four firms. Results from the TSLS regression technique indicate that market structure provides a weak effect on advertising. This indicates that the lower the concentration ratio of the industry, the higher the expenditure spent on advertising in order to attract customers to buy products. Consequently, increases in advertising expenses have a positive effect on a firm's profit. Thus, there is a direct relationship between market structure, conduct and performance with positive and significant feedback effect among the variables; however, the magnitude of the feedback varies.
The objective of this study was to assess comparative advantages of the non-ruminant subsector in selected states of Peninsular Malaysia. The study analysed livestock production, namely chicken meat and eggs in three states i.e. Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Selangor. This study used a Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) to determine whether non-ruminant products have a comparative advantage for production under commercial, medium or small scale farm size. The study demonstrated that Malaysia has a strong comparative advantage in the production of chicken meat compared to the production of eggs. Chicken meat produced on a commercial scale has a DRC ratio of 0.24 while eggs produced on a medium scale have a DRC ratio of 0.26. Both farms have a comparative advantage because their ratio implies that the value added per unit of product is larger than the value of domestic resources used to produce in that unit. According to Tsakok (1990), the level of comparative advantage of each subsector is greatest if the DRC ratio is close to zero. As a result, broiler farms on commercial scale with a DRC ratio of 0.24 have a higher degree of comparative advantage compared to layer farms on a commercial scale with DRC ratio of 0.71.
A lot of effort has been made by the Malaysian government via go-green campaigns to relay the importance of green behaviour to society. Go-green campaigns have been in force over the last three decades but the effectiveness of such campaigns is yet to be determined. This study seeks to uncover the association between the socio-demographic characteristics and the respondents' attitude towards green behaviour based on the information they received through the go-green campaigns. A structured questionnaire was designed as the instrument to gather data for this study. A conceptual model was developed to identify the variables that were likely to affect the respondents' attitude and decisions on adopting green behaviour. One thousand two hundred and six (1,206) respondents were administered randomly to discover their intention of performing green behaviour following the go-green campaigns. Chi-square and the binary logistic regression model were applied to answer the study objectives. The results show that selected socio-demographic profiles such as age and marital status significantly affect the respondents' intention towards performing green behaviour.
Attitude, green behaviour, go-green campaign, logit regression, socio-demographic