Halal is now seen not only in terms of market share or profitability of products, but what is more important is the implementation of the production of a service or a product itself. In fact, development is not just limited to country, but across the country or even continent. In this case, the various systems and the certificate used are really halal, clean and safe. In the context of the world, and ASEAN countries in particular, the output goes for halal requirements is important for the religious practices and the quality of life that once gives confidence to the various parties including consumers, industry and government. Most existing researches focused on consumer perception of the status of certificates issued, the logo and the quality service of certification body. Moreover, the research on comparison certification done by existing research is only focusing on portal used without a global view. Thus, a qualitative approach through library research is used in collecting related data which aims to review halal certification practices in the context of ASEAN. Result of this study indicates that the ASEAN countries (Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Thailand, Vietnam and Philippines) have similarities and differences in practicing halal. However, findings prove that all countries are even in placing sharia as a guide by following Al-Quran and Sunnah as reference. Besides showing that not all countries have same infrastructure and capability as technology and standard preparation.
Debates concerning the definition of Southeast Asia as a region are intense and on-going, and the delimitation and rationale for regional analysis have become increasingly problematical in the era of globalisation. Southeast Asia is characterised, though not clearly and unequivocally defined by cultural diversity and openness. It has a long history of cultural connections with other parts of the world and it demonstrates the importance of physical migrations and cultural flows into, across and out of the region, which have generated cross-cultural encounters and social intercourse, with the Indian sub-continent, East Asia, the Middle East, Europe and the Americas. These interactions have in turn resulted in cultural hybridisation, synthesis and mixed or mestizo communities, the phenomena of pluralism and multiculturalism within national boundaries, and in the co-existence of culturally different majority and minority populations. The processes of cultural differentiation and interaction have made Southeast Asia one of the most culturally complex regions in the world and have complicated the process of regional definition. In spite of these cultural complexities, there are those who have argued that it is 'the ubiquity of publicly displayed cultural forms' and the fact that Southeast Asia is 'arguably the best place to look for culture' which serves to define it as a region. The centrality of culture in the definition of this region will be explored and it is proposed that the conceptualisation of the relationship between culture and identity might be a way forward in addressing these regional complexities.
Culture, identity, region, encounters, Southeast Asia
Teachers can improve their practices through the application of action research. However, many challenges prevail over its implementation (action research). This paper discusses major challenges to implementing action research in Malaysian schools and offers concrete suggestions for overcoming them. The main challenges which will be discussed in this article are teachers' heavy workloads, time constraints, and a lack of in-depth understanding and skills related to this methodology. Possible solutions include coaching strategies to enhance teachers' action research knowledge and skills. Action research should be a mandatory component of teachers' official duties and a component of their annual performance evaluations to motivate them to work towards implementing action research. Action research conferences could be periodically held to provide teachers with opportunities to share their action research experiences and recognise research output.
Many communication studies have established the role of credibility of the source on effective information dissemination. In particular, the factors of believability, trustworthiness, and related attitudinal attributes of the source have been found to have a high influence on the effectiveness of a message. However, very little attention has been paid to the influence of the demographic characteristics of the source. The major objective of this study was to develop a scale for measuring characteristics of gender, age, and socio-economic status of the source on effective dissemination of information on maternal mortality. The inclusion of factors such as perceptions of gender, age and socio-economic status of the source to source credibility study provides a sound appreciation of the influence of visible characteristics of the source on attitudinal and behavioural changes on the content of disseminated messages. Accepted psychometrics scale-development procedures were followed that rigorously tested a large pool of items for their reliability and validity. A total of 365 respondents were involved in this study. Data for the study were gathered through quantitative surveys that included men, and women of childbearing age in north-central Nigeria. Using exploratory and confirmatory samples, the current research developed a 16-item semantic differential scale to measure the influence of demographic characteristics of the source on effectiveness of delivering a message. The scale was validated using respondents' self-reported measures perception toward the source's gender, age and socio economic status. From a theoretical perspective, by identifying and measuring this tri-component construct, the researcher can validly assess the impact of each of the dimensions on the source credibility scale on maternal mortality information. The findings of this research have supported the views of previous scholars that the effectiveness of disseminated information depends largely on the credibility of the source. The resulting scale demonstrated high reliability and validity. The generated instrument has increased the array of measuring items that are available for source credibility and diffusion of innovation studies. The acceptable validity and reliability values of the instrument strengthen their replication in other studies and other context. The findings of this study contribute to knowledge both at the academic and pragmatic realms. They offer important contributions for communication planners change agents and individuals in their day-to-day communication discourse on the application of source credibility and diffusion of innovation theories. Consistent with source credibility theory-based studies, this study has justified the assertion that an increased perception of characteristics of the source leads to an increase in message effectiveness as proved by the introduction of demographic features of the source to the source credibility model. Findings are explained in depth and methodological, theoretical and managerial implications are highlighted.
The present study describes and assesses the effectiveness of a psychosocial intervention. We assessed the Neuro psychological functioning of 10 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 in the 8th, 9th and 10th grade respectively. They visited the outpatient department of the clinic and were screened for learning disability. A psychosocial intervention that addressed concerns in academic skills, behavioural adjustment and sociability was designed and implemented for duration of six months. Standardised inventories namely Wechsler's Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS), the Draw-a-family test and The Connors Parent and Teacher Rating Scales (Short forms) were administered prior and post intervention. Participant and parent interviews were used in understanding underlying issues of concern. Prior to the intervention scores on the WISC-IV, Draw-a-family test and the Connors Parent and Teacher Rating Scale revealed significant deficits in intellectual functioning, interpersonal conflicts and behavioural problems. Post intervention, there were significant improvements in scores which clearly implied that the intervention was effective.
Literary scholars of Zadie Smith's novel 'On Beauty' (2005) have examined Levi, the youngest male character of the novel, based on his environment, a multicultural society, and have viewed him as a representation of a multicultural family. However, this paper analyses Smith's portrayal of Levi as an ordinary child who grew up in unfavourable conditions. For this purpose, Levi's character is analysed as a representation of neuroticism and his basic anxiety, need for detachment, self-idealisation and search for glory are explored using a conceptual framework based on Karen Horney's psychoanalytic social theory. Through textual analysis, this study attempts to explore the root of psychological anxiety in Levi to discover the role of basic conflict in his behavioural and emotional responses, and to examine how Levi copes with his anxiety through self-idealisation. The outcomes indicate that, as the root of his basic anxiety, Levi's relationship with his father, transforms him into a detached person attempting to prove himself. This paper clarifies that Levi's conflict is rooted in the manner of his nurturing, with some impact from other factors such as society, culture and racial issues. In order to justify that the difficulties faced by multicultural families are not only related to their cultural and racial identity, future research could apply Horney's theory for literary works categorised under multiculturalism and immigration.
Basic anxiety, Karen Horney's psychoanalytic social theory, need for detachment, 'On Beauty', self-idealization, the search for glory, Zadie Smith
Many of the displaced ethnic Rohingya minority from Myanmar living in Bangladesh for more than two decades are as documented and undocumented refugees. Those living in two registered refugee camps are documented refugees, located in secluded areas, maintaining a safe distance from the locals and monitored by the appointed authority. How is life like for the refugees at these camps? How do the young refugees envision their present and future within the given environment? This paper examines the young Rohingya refugees' everyday politics of survival at one of the registered refugee camps, i.e. Nayapara, located in the Teknaf sub-district of Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh, in an effort to understand their interactions with the host state local society and international agencies within the framework of state-imposed boundaries. The paper takes people's perspective and the agency's approach and frames the refugee society as a political community. The ethnographic data for this research came from 30 respondents using qualitative methods of in-depth interviews, group discussion and participant observation. The paper argues that the critical voices of camp-based refugees often articulate narratives of dispossession and marginalisation that can, in one way or another, be explained as the outcome or consequence of their forced migration; however, notwithstanding adversity, the refugees learn to live and find ways to make a life, within the given situation, navigating through a complex process of contestation, negotiation, adjustment and manipulation. Some of the activities such as taking on the role of brokers between agencies and refugees, and seasonal work outside the camp boundary indicate refugees' delicate negotiation with their situation and individuals' aspirations to defy the imagined boundary of camps. This paper shows the dynamics of contestation and collaboration within the camp situation and criticises encampment as a strategy of refugee protection.
The purpose of this paper is to study the efficiency of commercial banks operating in India. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique has been applied to a sample of 57 banks. Data had been gleaned from the annual reports of banks on input variables namely Capital, Total assets, Advances, Number of employees and Cost to income ratio and the output variables namely Return on assets, Interest spread, Non-interest income, Deposits to advances ratio and percentage decrease in non-performing assets. The study covers a period of four years from 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Results indicated an overall level of inefficiency in commercial banks at 47%. This implies that the commercial banks have the scope of producing 1.88 times as much output from the same inputs. The overall Capital utilisation needs to be increased and the number of employees and Advances should be reduced. Further, the study suggests that very large size and very small size banks are more efficient compared with medium size banks. In India, foreign banks are the most efficient while private Banks operate at a higher level of efficiency compared with public banks. The study may help bank managements and banking regulators in addressing issues relating to efficiency of commercial banks and identifying the causes of inefficiency in the banks. However, since the study is covers only Indian commercial banks from2009-10 and from 2012-13, the results and findings cannot be generalised to beyond this group of banks or to a different study period.
Commercial banks, data envelopment analysis, efficiency
This paper is written on the comparison of the Girl Child protagonists in short stories of selected Indian Women Writers: Her Story So Far (Monoca Das), Merry Killing and Other Stories (Kamal Kumar ) and The Inner Courtyard (Lakshmi Holstrom), which are translated from regional Indian languages into English. In particular, this work studies the stories and compares: how girl children are doomed from the day they are born; how they are physically and emotionally exploited; how they are sucked sexually and how they are treated in the traditional land of India. The comparative study of the girl child protagonists proves that the plight of the girl child is the same and pathetic irrespective of community, caste, religion to which they belong and they are treated in a kind of 'apartheid' milieu. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis on how the fictional girl children have been a victim to exploitation, giving scope for the further study of the plight of real girl child in the society.
Girl child, physical, emotional, sexual exploitation, plight of the girl child, traditional land of India, short stories
Over the last decade the prevalence of autism has increased significantly. This drastic increase has resulted in a significant increase in students with autism in schools. Therefore, it is imperative that special education teachers have the necessary technical skills, general knowledge and self reported competency regarding the educational needs of students with autism in order to meet the unique needs of this diverse population. This study investigated Malaysian special education teachers' self-reported amount of training, knowledge and self reported competency in regards to students with autism. A survey instrument was developed and distributed to 312 special education teachers in Malaysia that asked about their pre-service and in-service preparation in autism, general autism knowledge and self reported competency in providing instruction and support for students with autism. Results indicate that the current teacher preparation programs may be inadequate in preparing teachers with the knowledge and skills necessary to teach students with autism. Additionally, in-service training is not currently addressing current teachers' needs for knowledge and skills related to autism. Implications of these results include the need for further investigation into the autism specific content of both pre-service and in-service training of special education teachers throughout Malaysia.
Autism, teacher preparation, teachers' knowledge, teachers' self reported competency and special education
This study aims to explore the interactions of the teacher with her six students in an online collaborative learning environment to complete their narrative writing task. Data sources were the online interactions archives and the teacher's reflection. The interactions were coded based on the descriptors related to teaching presence in the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model by Garrison, Archer and Anderson (2000). Findings indicated that the descriptors suggested by the CoI model were present in the interactions. The interactions related to the teaching presence encouraged students to improve their narrative writing. Additionally, other descriptors such as code-switching, exam-centeredness and teacher-centredness were also evident in the data. The teacher's reflection indicates that interacting in online collaborative learning is a good practice to encourage narrative writing.
Online collaborative learning, online writing, CoI model, social interactions, CALL and teaching presence
Soft skills development is seen as paramount in the 21st century knowledge economy but pedagogical tools to realise it are scanty. Thus, this study describes how debate, as a pedagogical tool with three stages (i.e., pre-debate, actual debate and post-debate), can develop the soft skills prescribed in the Malaysian Soft Skills Development Module (MSSDM). The key informants were five debate experts with debating experience and have taught All-Asians Parliamentary Debate (APD) for at least two years in the EFL/ESL contexts in the ASEAN region. A semi-structured one-on-one interview was used to gather the data. To triangulate the debate experts' perspective, a focus group interview was conducted with six classroom debate students from three ASEAN countries. The transcribed data were analysed using data analysis flow model where the data were condensed, sorted out, focused, organised and presented using the participants' verbatim words. In the findings, the participants discussed how the pre-debate, the crucial foundation stage to outline the team's case and arguments supported by evidences from rigid research, can develop all the soft skills in MSSDM, especially the teamwork and critical thinking and problem-solving skills. They also described how the actual debate, the most challenging stage because of the time limit in both speech and Point-of-Information, can develop soft skills, particularly quick critical thinking and effective communication skills. They also explained how the post-debate can develop the various soft skills by highlighting lifelong learning and information management and communication skills. From the findings, a debate pedagogical model to teach soft skills was developed.
Language learning is a continuous process that takes place not only in the classroom but also beyond the walls of the classroom with the help of technological tools. One of such tools includes the use of blog as an easily accessible gadget that can facilitate learners' language learning and improve their autonomous learning. The present study explores how the use of language learning materials and interaction in the Learning Management Blog (LMB) contribute to the language learning process. The samples of the study consisted of 14 ESL students studying at a local university in Malaysia. The researchers used the Response Analysis Tool (REAT) as a research instrument and data were analysed qualitatively through content analysis. The results of the study showed that the ESL students made use of meaningful interaction among them in LMB forum and improved their language learning. In addition, the findings of the study revealed that the students were eager to get involved in online interactions and develop different language skills and language patterns as well.
This paper aims to examine the relationship between citizenship and belongingness among the Malaysian Chinese diaspora in Melbourne. It draws on migration and transnationalism theory in understanding the relationship between citizenship and the notion of home. The analysis shows that the Chinese diaspora still regards Malaysia as their "home" and equates "home" with "family." In order to preserve the sense of belongingness to their home, the Chinese diaspora adopts the strategy of maintaining Malaysian citizenship while preserving Australian permanent residency status. Transnational mobility has shaped their understandings in which they appreciate their Malaysian passport as a travelling document to their place of origin, while bringing their family to Australia for vacations. The idea of travelling back to their home country with a tourist visa seemed to be unacceptable to the Malaysian diaspora. This article suggests that the diaspora desires flexibility in their citizenship choices and inclines to maintain the status quo when it comes to the question of belongingness.
Citizenship, belongingness, transnationalism, Chinese diaspora, Malaysia
This study was rooted from the findings that for many years infectious diseases remain the major cause of death around the globe especially in Africa. Economic theory also predicts among others that HIV/AIDS reduces labour supply and productivity, and the GDP of Africa declines by 2-4% annually. In addition, institution is one of the reasons for slower growth in Africa. The study, therefore, examined the impact of health care expenditure per capita and infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) on labour productivity performance in Africa using System GMM Estimation methods for 50 panels of African countries from 2002–2011. The results show that health-care expenditure per capita is positive but insignificant to labour productivity performance in the region. The results also confirm the negative impact of infectious diseases on labour productivity performance in the region. Government effectiveness and control of corruption are positive and significant to the improvement of health care expenditure in Africa. In addition, the study also revealed that political instability and conflict also contribute positively to the spread of infectious diseases in the region. Thus, it is recommended that African governments and health-related development partners increase the financial amount allocated to the health sector. At the same time, more efforts are needed to curb and control the spread of infectious diseases through strengthened institutions to improve health-care expenditure in the region.
Health care expenditure, infectious diseases, labour productivity, Africa
Tunku Halim's novella Juriah's Song (2008) revolves around the protagonist, Akri, and his encounter with the ghost of his late girlfriend, Juriah. Categorised as a horror genre, the characters and settings of this novella serve as important ground where elements of nature and the grotesque interweave to enhance the plot. In this paper, we examine the roles and functions of nature and the grotesque through a textual analysis of the chosen text by utilising the notion of 'the relationship between humans and nature' and the concept of the grotesque as proposed by Wolfgang Kayser, Sherwood and Phillip Thomson. Nature is depicted as a mirror that reflects the relationship between humans and nature. The grotesque, on the other hand, refers to various kinds of exaggerated emotions and distorted forms. Our findings demonstrate that both nature and the grotesque take on significant roles and affect the characters' perceptions, judgements and emotions, either positively or negatively. The generic designation of the grotesque applies to both actions and characters in the novel. Apart from functioning independently from each other, nature and the grotesque are also significant when they intertwine. When the two concepts are used together, nature acts as a catalyst to develop grotesque actions.
This paper analyses the relationship between Jewish religious nationalism and Israeli approach to the conflict with Palestinians. This paper explores the relationship between religious nationalism and Israeli approach to the long standing conflict in the occupied territories. . It seeks to explain why religious nationalism has become closely associated with hawkishness since 1967. While the Jewish religion advocates no single approach to the conflict with the Palestinians, religious nationalism has been significantly more hawkish than the nonreligious approach in Israel.
Religious nationalism, Israel-Palestine-conflict, hawkish
Many studies have been conducted to identify language attitude in language learning and different studies on language attitude are related to different aspects of a language. Islamic Schools in Indonesia, known as madrasa, were often assumed to perceive English and the native speakers of the foreign language negatively and also assumed to be an educational institution which emphasises anti-modern, anti-Western and anti-pluralistic communities. This study aimed to identify how madrasa students in Indonesia perceive English, English teaching and learning and native speakers of English. The data of this study were collected through a questionnaire with a 5-point Likert-type scale. ANOVA was conducted to identify how differently the madrasa students perceive English, English teaching and learning and native speakers of English from the students of other schools involved in this study. Correlation analyses were also undertaken to determine how the three categories of the language attitude were correlated with one another. The results of this study indicate that the madrasa students have positive perceptions towards the three categories of language attitude and these categories are significantly correlated with one another. The empirical data of this study imply that the madrasa students in Indonesia can develop sensitivity to the culture of the native speakers of English while learning the foreign language without losing their own cultural identities. The madrasa students are relatively open to globalisation and modernisation even though they are committed to their own culture and religious beliefs.
Attitude to English, attitude to English teaching and learning, attitude to native speakers, education for Muslims, language motivation, Madrasa
The objectives of the study were: (1) to analyse the empowerment level of Pos Pemberdayaan Keluarga (Posdaya) based on the four pillars, namely, Economy, Health, Education and Environment; and (2) to review the relationship between social capital and entrepreneurship toward Posdaya empowerment. The study was conducted in Bogor and Cianjur districts of 20 Posdayas by using a survey method. The total number of respondents was 199 consisting of members , management personnel of Posdaya and the society of the twenty Posdayas. The data were collected from May to September 2014 and processed using rank Spearman Correlation. The results indicated that Posdaya cadres empowerment, based on the four pillars, was not satisfactory yet as a result of high dependency of the cadres on university support as well as that of the government. Another reason was that there was less community initiative to realise self production resources and self capital support. Social capital and entrepreneurship are important factors in improving Posdaya empowerment. Therefore, supports from university, the local government, private sectors and society in improving Posdaya empowerment are generally and badly needed. Posdaya empowerment has developed the community's health, economic and education, but not the environment, which was categorised as less empowered. Social capital and entrepreneurship were variables to improve Posdaya empowerment through structure, relation, affective behaviour and entrepreneurship. This empowerment was supported by Posdaya's potentiality, community and economic infrastructures.
Organisation-managed traditional career is paving the way for what is known as the new career which is self-managed. It is also known as boundaryless, protean or post-corporate career. For the former, the ultimate goal of employees was to climb the proverbial hierarchical ladder up to its highest rung. This then would spell success, which was measured by upward mobility and high income levels of the employees. For the latter, however, success encompassed being employed and remaining employable in the external and internal labour markets. Success in the new career is measured by employability, multi-directional mobility and work-life balance. The trend towards achieving success in career is summarised as gaining employability, making lateral transitions for enrichment and achieving a better and richer quality of life. This study examined the relationship between employability, mobility and work-life balance among 152 MBA graduates in Malaysia. A model that was developed was tested using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique using Partial Least Squares (PLS). A positive relationship was found between employability and mobility and this relationship was stronger when work-life balance was higher. Hence, organisations should realise the high importance placed by individuals on work-life balance and would need to draw up policies and procedures to enhance this balance among the employees, including changing their inflexible corporate policies to allow for more adaptability and flexibility. The changes could include flexible work schedules, compressed work-week, job-sharing and other workplace arrangements.
Forensic linguistics is a branch of applied linguistics which deals with the analysis of linguistic evidence to clarify the ambiguities existing in any judicial process, especially in investigation crimes and legal issues. This field investigates legally valuable texts and linguistic evidence such as handwritten texts prior to a suicide, documents and evidence remained from a crime scene and notes of abductors. Discourse analysis is also widely carried out with the following aims to: understand the identity of the writer; identify the speaker with reference to the recording; and provide expert reports for legal authorities and police. The analysis of discourse greatly assists judicial system personnel to find truth. It is necessary for police officers, security experts and judges working in courts to become familiar with the potentials and application of forensics linguistics and its role in the success of legal investigations in order to attain truth in judicial processes.
Forensic linguistics, linguistic evidence, law and linguistics, legal discourse analysis, linguistic finger prints
Genre-based and process-based are approaches which claim to improve students' writing proficiency. This study determined the effect of these approaches on news articles written by 80 students in five aspects: content, accuracy, fluency, appropriateness and intelligibility; it evaluated the significant difference between the pretest and post-test of the process-based (control) and the genre-based (experimental) groups; and examined the significant difference in the writing performance of two groups. The study used t-test for independent samples and t-test for paired samples to analyse the data. Students' output had showed better improvement in five aspects when exposed to genre-based intervention than those exposed to the process-based approach; there is a significant difference between the pre- and post-tests of the control and experimental groups; and there is a significant difference in the writing performance of the students. Both approaches improved students' news articles but those exposed to genre approach performed better than those exposed to process-based approach.
Group work, when effectively implemented, fosters a close bond and camaraderie among group members. It makes group tasks less overwhelming and even promotes greater work quality. However, if it is badly implemented, it may lead to discord and arguments among students within a group. Group work encompasses various areas of English language teaching and learning, hence, free-riding is expected. While language instructors equip themselves with multiple strategies to prevent free-riding, the results of this study indicate that students too have taken this in stride and come to accept and even expect free-riding in group work. Through interviews, this study gleans student perception on free-riding and reveals that despite their awareness of the manifestation and pitfalls of free-riding, students appreciate the group work's aptitude towards producing a better quality work. Students also revealed various coping strategies for tackling and prevent free-riding in group work.
English language is the main communicative means among local and international students of Malaysian universities. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the impact of English language proficiency (ELP) on interpersonal and intergroup interactions among students from different nationalities in a Malaysian public university. An embedded design of mixed methods with the predominant role of the quantitative method was applied to conduct this study. The quantitative method, with 220 participants from both local and international students, was used as the main method and interviews were carried out to enrich the data. The results of this study confirmed that ELP is among the main factors that affect the process of interactions among local and foreign students of Malaysian public universities. Based on the findings of this study, lack of ELP among both local and international students and their different accents and linguistic assumptions have negative impacts on the process of interactions among them.
English language proficiency, interpersonal interactions, different nationalities, Malaysian universities
Although the number of programmes offered by distance education has increased significantly and gained global importance, research shows that there is a resistance towards distance degree holders and many employers are sceptical at the time of appointing such employees as the quality of outcome is questioned. This cold war has gone to the extent that especially the teachers earning degrees through distance are sometimes considered as second class in merit at the time of their appointment in public and private educational institutions. This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative case study research that investigated and explored the support given by employers to teachers during their study period through distance education and the perceptions of the employers towards the worth of distance education degrees. Two universities offering distance education in Pakistan and India were taken as units for investigation. Two semi-structured interview protocols were developed to collect data through three focus group interviews and five individual interviews of teachers and employers, respectively. Stufflebeam's (1983) CIPP evaluation model was adapted to analyse the data and important findings showed that the perceptions of the participants from both countries regarding the support and worth of distance degrees varied from employer to employer tilting more towards conventional degrees.
Conventional degrees, distance degrees, employer perceptions, teacher perceptions, value of distance degrees
Human rights culture is relatively new in Malaysia. Thus, locating and unearthing the values of human dignity from traditional heritage would help to enhance understanding on modern human rights. An attempt to connect traditional values buried under Malay proverbs with contemporary sociological findings should be made. In order to make this attempt successful, George F. Mclean's formulated framework 'human rights and the dialogue of civilizations', together with the categorisation of Malay proverbs by Syed Hussein Alatas, was chosen. Mclean's formulation looks into the needs of civilisations in dialogue, values and virtues, cultures and traditions and the ontological foundation of the many faces of humanity. Syed Hussein Alatas's categorisation of Malay proverbs helps to select suggestive and 'reprimandative proverbs' that contain human rights values. This essay intends to identify features of human rights in traditional society, and by doing so, challenges the notion that human rights are a Western product and incompatible with the culture and religion of Islam.
Human rights, cultural relativism, Malay proverbs, universal declaration of human rights
Women empowerment is a widely discussed idea all over the world. Scholars have defined the concept by explaining its dimensions including economic, socio-cultural, familial/interpersonal, legal, and political aspects, as well as psychological well being of individuals, groups and communities. The literature points out that empowerment of women is possible by providing them with economic independence, increased well being and social and political development. This is possible by giving them access to saving and credit which promotes greater economic role in decision-making, optimising household's welfare, improving women's skills, mobility, knowledge, and support networks (Basu, 2006). To tackle the problem of poverty and enable the community to improve its quality of life, "Self Help Groups" came into picture as an empowerment and financial model which particularly aimed to mobilise women in rural areas. The main objective of the paper is to throw light on self help groups operating in the rural set up of Village Balindi Baishpukur, Haringhata block, Nadia District, West Bengal. It aims to overview whether these groups act as an empowerment or financial model for the women in this particular District.
Empowerment, micro finance, self help groups, marginalisation of poor, entrepreneur, microcredit, cooperative banks, comprehensive projects
The future generation's competency in the English language is highly dependent on the performance of our very own TESL students as they are the future English language teachers who can make all the differences. Hence, any issues that might jeopardise their performance can never be taken lightly. This research was carried out to investigate whether TESL students' addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) influences their academic performance. A survey questionnaire method was used to gather data from 93 Semester 8 TESL students from the Faculty of Education, UiTM Shah Alam. The SPSS version 16.0 was used to analyse data. Despite initial prediction that student addiction towards SNSs is related to their academic performance, this study found no significant relationship between the two aforementioned variables. The finding contradicts several other studies on the relationship between SNSs addiction and academic achievement.
Social networking sites (SNSs), internet addiction, academic performance
By the 20th century, transnational immigration escalated sharply. This has caused a feeling of displacement among immigrants due to the oscillation between two geographical places, the native or ancestral land and the foreign land. Consequently, the concept of "home" has taken on an added importance at a time of multiple journeys for immigrants across the world. Interestingly, in some cases, the person is not dispossessed of a place to live; however, he/she does not feel at home in the "new home". This feeling of not belonging to a particular place is described by Homi K. Bhabha as "unhomeliness". An "estranged" sense of "unhomeliness" emerges when one lives in a place which is not his/her real home. Accordingly, Iranian Intellectuals like Sadegh Hedayat who went abroad to gain the latest knowledge, mentally absorbed Western knowledge and they could never feel at home again. Of our subject, Hedayat could never feel at home because he never succeeded in leading to a consensus between his traditional Iranian culture and the modern Westernised culture. In this respect, Hedayat's Stray Dog, a short story written in 1943, clearly portrays this feeling of never-belonging to any home. The story narrates the life of a dog (Pat) who is caught between two worlds, his motherland and the foreign land. Finally, it is suggested that the life of this dog, an unclean animal for some Muslims, exemplifies that of Hedayat himself whereby both experienced a sense of 'unhomeliness'.
Diaspora, unhomely moment, Homi Bhabha, Hedayat's Stray Dog
Tourism is a rapidly growing business that receives global attention. Successful tourism business will offer many benefits to the host countries. Although Malaysia's tourism industry is fast expanding, studies on satisfaction in the tourism context are still limited. Hence, conducting more satisfaction research in the Malaysian tourism context is vital. In this paper, three factors related to satisfaction namely service quality, value and experience are discussed. Previous studies only show direct relationship between these three constructs on satisfaction creation. However, based on comprehensive literature review, it is believed interactions of these constructs can be more complex and not limited to a one-to-one direct relationship. This paper puts forward a conceptual framework which describes how satisfaction can be influenced directly and indirectly by the three above-mentioned variables.
Satisfaction, value, service quality, experience and tourism
The specific goal of this research is to discover the socio-cultural response of Javanese society to the wave of modernism at the end of the 19th century, based on the ancient Javanese manuscript, the Serat Wedhatama, written by Kangjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya (K.G.P.A.A.) Mangkunegara IV. The form of the current research is qualitative. The type of research is a library research, which includes a literature review and makes use of the Javanese manuscripts found in the Reksa Pustaka library in Pura Mangkunegaran Surakarta. The philological approach was used for this study, which includes: (1) an inventory of the manuscripts, (2) a description of the manuscripts, (3) reading of the texts, (4) translation of the texts, and (5) comprehension of the texts. Results of the research showed the existence of a concept for a social organism which describes the figure of modern man in the socio-cultural life of a Javanese society, which is harmonious, mutually synergising and able to preserve the "Javanese world". The concept of a social organism is a response by intellectuals and writers (poets) from the Karaton and also the Javanese people who have an inclination to preserve the existence of the Javanese culture that has belonged to them for centuries.
Social organism, Javanese, Serat Wedhatama, Mangkunegara IV
This article examines Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart within a postcolonial discourse. While the majority of postcolonial critiques argue over indigenous identity, this study explores the deterioration of national identity in Things Fall Apart. Such deterioration is brought about by the spiritual and tentative defeat inherent in the failure of the protagonist, Okonkwo, to face the colonial whites. Ultimately, the protagonist's failure leads to a tragic death. In the novel's context, Achebe exhorts the fall of national identity and its pathetic aftermath. The deterioration in national identity symbolically correlates to the protagonist's personal irresolute experience which is at first physically powerful but in the end spiritually weak. The focus of this article is a textual analysis of Achebe's Things Fall Apart, applying postcolonial theoretical concepts, especially aboriginality, hegemony, subaltern and identity. These concepts facilitate a smouldering conceptualisation of national identity as it is exterminated in the novel. Thus, the these terms will be cited mainly with reference to Bill Ashcroft, Gayatri Spivak, and Laura Chrisman's postcolonial critiques.
This paper marks the beginning of a project aimed at trialling a Western learning model in a Malaysian context which has not been tested before. This is the first of a series of research papers that shows the process in which a framework that is usually used in larger studies was designed. The framework was modified and developed from The Visible Thinking (VT) Project of Project Zero research to identify and categorise manifestations of pedagogical interactions. A summary of selected PZ research projects presented in this paper highlights the learning benefits of establishing patterns of thinking within the classroom as projected by PZ studies of Harvard Graduate School of Education, a hallmark institution. Having looked at the many aspects of classroom teaching that have been shown by PZ research to enhance learning, a framework was derived arising from these school settings. Part of the focus of the study was to check if the ideas and paradigms are transferable to a Higher Education ESL context of a culturally different setting in terms of the manifestations of classroom interactions. However, for the purpose of this paper, PZ research that focuses on VT is discussed. The literature on the findings of VT project, mainly the thinking routines employed, the importance of establishing thinking routines in the classroom and examples of instances where these routines were visible in the classroom contexts are the highlights of this paper. Empirical findings on the use of this framework will be discussed in the next research paper in this series. Most of PZ research was conducted in school classrooms in a Western setting. This study prides itself in taking PZ research to a whole new level to study undergraduate students in a Malaysian classroom setting.
Project Zero research, The Visible Thinking Project, making thinking visible, thinking routines, classroom interactions