This article aims to examine the conflict described by Arena Wati in his novel Busa Kalbu (2002). This novel shows the conflict that occurs in a Malay political party dealing with the upcoming General Assembly. The General Assembly includes the selection of top leaders with the conflict taking various forms related to power struggle, such as hostility, drop-passing and corruption and money politics. The study found the general conference to which the author refers to is actually the General Assembly. It ends with the UMNO Conference. The paper blends with the author's creativity to turn it into creative reality.
Malay grammars produced in the 17th century were a product of Dutch influence. These grammars were written a century after the arrival of the Portuguese and seven years after the arrival of the Dutch. The development of Malay grammatical studies occurred in stages beginning in 1603 with an analysis of conjugations by Houtman, followed by a brief explanation about the formation of words in Malay by Wiltens and Danckaerts in 1623 and finally in 1655, a systematic Malay grammar authored by Roman. Roman's grammar is a complete Malay grammar that discusses aspects of Malay word classes. However, in this grammar, adjectives were not categorised as an independent word class, instead, it is placed under the noun word class. This paper will explain the discussion of adjectives in Roman's grammar. Among the aspects that will be elaborated is the position of adjectives in the noun namen word class. In addition, discussions about the formation of adjectives and the degree of comparison of adjectives will be presented as well. Roman's treatment of adjectives will also be compared with the treatment of adjectives in today's Malay grammar. This paper concludes that adjectives discussed by Roman were parallel with the climate of opinion in Europe.
Adjective, degree of comparison, grammar, noun, preposition, substantive, verb, word class
Affixes and lexical verbs in Malay occupy the same head position in the verb phrase (VP). This raises the question of how is it that these two different morphemes with different syntactic categories - one a functional head and the other a lexical head - could occupy the same head position in a verb phrase of a sentence in Malay. This article will attempt to shed some light on this question. In this article, we will analyse the verb phrase structure in Malay using the Minimalist Program Approach. Based on Larson (1988) and Chomsky (1995), we will posit the VP shell hypothesis in which the verb phrase structure in Malay has two layers of the VP: one is the VP and the other is a small v (little verb phrase vP). Based on these two layers of the verb phrase, this discussion will revolve around the notion that each of these two layers has its own head and projections in their own VP structures. The head position of the VP node is occupied by the lexical verb while the affix is based-generated at the head v of the vP, which is a functional category. We will use, as examples, Malay active and passive sentences and demonstrate how this two-layer analysis could adequately describe Malay sentences. We assume that each sentence has its own functional heads which are used to hold affixes: active or passive affixes.
In the advent of becoming a modern nation, it is typical that achievement will be measured through power rankings and material fulfilment. One of the most important elements that most people forget is that the true meaning of happiness will define a strong soul in confronting greater challenges in life. Happiness is an area that is mostly subjective. However, that is the major centre of discussion in Disnman's play, It Is Not A Suicide. In this play, the main character is going through a traumatic experience whereby Adam is trying to redefine the meaning of happiness using his own interpretations. This paper focuses on Dinsman's absurd theatre style which is prominent in this play. His experiments had successfully highlighted a situation that portrays the weaknesses of humans when the concept of happiness had been misperceived. The confusions become the central thrust of the entire play, where meaning of life is questioned. The painful situation portrayed in the play reflects that humans live in a superficial, empty and meaningless life. The issues raised by the playwright had called for a special attention that the Malay Muslim perception of the concept of happiness should be realigned according to the Islamic teachings specifically. Hence, it becomes an important aspect that should be discussed at the fundamental level. For the purpose of this paper, the discussion will be carried out through the lens of Naquib Al-Attas' Concept of Happiness. It is hoped that this paper will highlight some solutions that would help to guide many in understanding the importance of finding the true meaning of happiness in order to gain a well-balanced life in this present world and the hereafter.
Absurd theatre techniques, confusions, happiness, modern nation, Malay Muslims, material fulfilment, misperception, Naquib al-Attas's The Concept of Happiness
The Malay corpus shows that the verb 'sampai' (arrive) can occur with the preposition 'ke-' as in 'Sharifah Aini mahu segera sampai ke kampung itu' (Sharifah Aini want to arrive at the village immediately). 'Sampai' can also occur with the preposition 'di'- as in 'Nisa terbangun ketika sampai di Tanjung Malim.' (Nisa awoke when she arrived at Tanjung Malim). Based on data in the corpus, it is discovered that 'sampai' occurs in two locative preposition patterns which are locative direction preposition (ke) and locative position preposition (di). 'Sampai-ke' occurs as an accomplishment (which has the features + duration and + telic), meanwhile 'sampai- di' occurs as an achievement (which focuses on telicity). Accordingly, this paper will examine the emergence of locative preposition patterns with 'sampai'. It will determine whether the verb 'sampai' is classified as an achievement verb or an accomplishment verb. Data is amassed from two novels, titled Buih and Noni. Data from both novels were electronically recorded and inputted into the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) Malay corpus data base. The analysis will be based on the aspectual features of the verb focusing on the Aktionsart's representation decomposition classes (Van Valin, 1997, 2005). This paper will further explain the situation that 'sampai di-' and 'sampai ke-' can occur in sentences. It also concludes that 'sampai' should occur with the locative preposition 'di', not with the preposition 'ke' based on the semantics properties of the verb 'sampai' as an achievement.
The development of the short story genre in Malay literature is reaching its first century. Malay short stories underwent an experimental phase in the 1970s. It brought about an interesting impact that should be analysed. The experimental decades influenced the short stories produced by young writers in the 1980s, such as Marsli, N.O., Azmah Nordin, Daeng Ramliakil, Muhd Nasruddin Dasuki, Zainal Rashid Ahmad and S.M. Zakir. This essay will focus on short stories written by Zaen Kasturi who not only continues to experiment, but is also creative and innovative in incorporating new and novel elements. This analysis utilises the “anti-narrative” framework to view the non-conformity experimentation model created by Zaen Kasturi. The analysis will focus on his collection of short stories entitled Taman Uzlah (2005, DBP) consisting of 20 stories from three earlier collections, Yuda (1992, DBP) Idola (1997, Sasbadi), Rapsodi (1998, DBP). Based on the short stories in Taman Uzlah, it is found that Zaen Kasturi generally portrayed the “search” as an authoritative subjectivity. Therefore, in many occasions in his short stories, Zaen Kasturi engaged an artistic audacity attitude when presenting an issue, in particular, dissent: courage with fiery emotion and artistic sentiments to state what he believes is the truth. Reading method used in this research can generally be used to clarify the message presented by the author.
Anti-story, experimental short story, Malay literature, Malay short stories, Rapsodi, Taman Uzlah, Yuda, Zaen Kasturi
This study was conducted to analyse the problems that have been ittifak and ikhtilaf law as decided by al-Syeikhain (al-Imam al-Nawawi and al-Rafii) in Sabil al-Muhtadin of al-Shaykh Muhammad Arshad al-Banjari in 18th century. This study was based on content analysis using the theory of al-Muctamad cind al-shaficiyyah as its structure. This theory compiles Syafiiahs' qauls or views to be the decisive qauls in Shafii Sect. Interestingly, this theory remains to be practised. Regarding al-Syeikhain, their words became a major concern in producing the final qaul. Our analysis found 58 of al-Nawawi's qauls and 10 of al-Rafii's qauls. In total, both ittifak was found in three cases while both ikhtilaf have been found in 6 cases. Through the decisive theory, it has been proven that al-Banjari was in particular presenting the al-Syeikhain's qaul especially regarding ittifak and ikhtilaf. This result explains that the content of Sabil al-Muhtadin as Malay-Muslim ancient thinking work of art is very fine discipline according to Shafii Sect perspectives and should continue to be practised.
Decisive qaul, decisive theory, ittifak and ikhtilaf, Malay thinking, Sabil al-Muhtadin, Muhammad Arshad al-Banjari, theory of al-Muctamad cind al-shaficiyyah, Shafii Sect
This paper discusses the functions of traditional Malay literature as a platform for generating knowledge to contribute towards human civilisation and fulfil his/her responsibility as Allah's representative on earth. The traditional Malay literature is rich in knowledge of various types. Consistent with the goal to produce a perfect human, knowledge is important to produce individuals who successfully achieve real perfection either spiritually or physically. Data studied involves a multiple genre of traditional Malay literature produced or copied from the 15th to 19th century including Sejarah Melayu (Sulalatus Salatin), Hikayat Raja Pasai, Syair Perang Siak, Syair Perang Mengkasar, Hukum Kanun Melaka, Taj al-Salatin, Bustan al-Salatin, Sirat al-Mustaqim, Sabil al-Muhtadin, Syair Perahu, Syair Dagang, Surat al-Anbiya, Hikayat Abu Syahmah and Hikayat Ibrahim ibn Adham. In establishing the functions of traditional Malay literature as a platform for generating knowledge, this study applies Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas's (2001) framework on adab. The study demonstrates that traditional Malay literature has played an important role of generating knowledge towards producing a noble, well-balanced individual, spiritually and physically, in this world and the hereafter. Traditional Malay literature is apparently conceived by its readership as providing enlightening principles in seeking a guided relationship both with their Creator (hablumminaLLah) and fellow human beings (hablumminannas) as well as explicating the divine purposes of every living human being in this world to become His vicegerent and servant. Knowledge contained in this traditional literary text could produce a perfect human being that has the ability to fulfil his obligations as Allah's representative on earth and His righteous slaves.
traditional Malay literature, knowledge generation, knowledge, science, perfect human, hablumminaLLah, hablumminannas, Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas
Che Wong's Language is a native language for the Orang Asli Che Wong students in Sekolah Kebangsaan Bolok, Pahang Darul Makmur while the Malay Language is their second language in everyday use and also in the classroom. This research is conducted to identify the level of Malay language proficiency in writing and comprehension based on the students' UPSR results. The Malay language proficiency of Orang Asli Che Wong students in Malay language is found to be very weak. This is proven by the previous examinations results for the period 2008-2012. Although the students' weaknesses in the Malay language proficiency cannot be justified based on their results alone, it is possible to serve as a basis to measure their weakness in the language. The weakness in the Malay language proficiency should be given serious attention because failing in the Malay Language subject will not only affect the students' future, it will also affect the improvement of the Orang Asli Che Wong's academic excellence in particular. This research adopts the interview method which includes Orang Asli Che Wong's students, the Headmaster and the teachers who teach Malay Language in Sekolah Kebangsaan Bolok. This research is a descriptive study which examines the UPSR examination results and the interview results obtained during the research. It was hoped that the study would be able to identify the reasons behind the lack of Malay language proficiency in writing and the comprehension aspects among Orang Asli students and also the measures that can be adopted to manage and minimise this problem.
Keywords: Che Wong, language proficiency, Malay language, native language, Orang Asli, primary school, second language, UPSR
This article discusses the field of folklore and urban folklore at the School of Malay Language, Literature and Culture Studies, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, National University of Malaysia. Obviously, the term oral tradition and its subtopic oral literature or folk literature is well accepted in Malaysia compared with the term folklore. Being part of the literature especially traditional Malay literature, folk literature is introduced as society's earliest form of literature before the existence of other forms of literary genres either written or print traditions. According to Mohd. Taib Osman, folk literature emerged as a tradition but eventually became incognisant in the context of nation building. Such a scenario makes the field of literature static, outdated and assume the role of a complementary subject in the field of literature as a whole. In this context, a different perspective is needed and folklore should be considered. From this perspective, literature is seen as a phenomenon that exists parallel to the changes in the way of life in the contemporary world, the world of IT and cyber traditions. Folklore now not only exists as an oral tradition but it has been captured and spread via modern technology and cyber space such as the internet, blog and social networks. Through such medium, urban folklore and urban legend exist as a continuation of yesteryear traditions when one discusses the current phenomenon as society's thought and creativity.
Cyber tradition, current phenomena, folk literature, folklore, oral tradition, social media, urban folklore, urban legend
Traditional medicine continues to flourish within the world of modern medicine as a method of treatment of illnesses for the community. Traditional treatment methods predominantly use ingredients derived from flora (plants) or fauna (animals). These ingredients are believed to contain hidden medicinal values to cure diseases. In relation to the Mujarrabat Melayu, the concoction of flora and fauna simply means acquiring selected ingredients derived from flora and fauna to be used as traditional medicine in order to treat varieties of illnesses that are either caused by physical or spiritual elements. These plants are easily found around the house and often used as flavour enhancers and seasoning for foods (such as turmeric, kaffir lime leaves, cekur (Kaempferia galanga), pandan leaves, curry leaves and ginger) or as medicine and garden plants. However, these materials should be mixed with other ingredients to increase the effectiveness of their usage. There are several common methods to prepare medicine derived from plants such as boil, blanch, squeeze, knead, grate, fry, pound, dry, parch, soak, bake, cook, smoke, dry, wet, ferment, ensile and compress. Meanwhile, there are various ways to apply the herbal medication such as dabbing, rubbing, dripping, applying as a poultice, wrapping, pasting, massaging, eating, drinking and bathing. The commonly used parts of the plants in making traditional medicine are leaves, flowers, roots, stems, seeds skin, seeds, bark, fruit, water or fruit juice, root stem, root hair, coating fruit, thorns, rubber, coir, fill, kernel and pulp. Each component also has its own usefulness as a remedy or cure for illness. In addition to the flora, fauna is also utilised in concocting potions and cures for certain illnesses. However, its use is limited to only certain parts of the body of an animal. However, such substance should also be adapted with other ingredients to demonstrate their efficacy. Among the parts of fauna or animals that are used for treatment are blood, bile, horns and bones which are mixed with other ingredients believed to be able to cure human ailments. Therefore, this paper will discuss the properties of flora and fauna in the Mujarrabat Melayu as an alternative treatment for diseases that inflict humans.
Concoction, fauna, flora, illnesses, ingredients, Mujarrabat Melayu, traditional medicine, treatment
This study explores the role of jihad as the foundation of Malay ethnocentrism as reflected in Syair Perang Mengkasar, Syair Peperangan Aceh and Syair Perang Menteng/Muntinghe. The context for ethnocentrism thus refers to the initial resistance of the natives against the invaders at the onset of colonialism. This study deploys the concept of jihad fi sabilillah and William Graham Sumner's notion of ethnocentrism as one's tendency to perceive and value another culture as being superior to his or her own. The deconstruction of the texts is carried out through the intrinsic analysis on the depth of their literariness as well as the poets' portrayal of ethnocentrism among ethnic Malays in Makasar, Aceh and Palembang. Based on the written form, it is found that the bards have utilised their poetic strength to raise and uphold the stature of the Acehnese Malays. The accuracy in the choice of dictions has enabled them to illustrate the highly spirited sense of jihad among the comrades in Makasar, Acehnese and Palembang to triumph over their adversaries. The spirit of Islam, sustained by the invocations of jihad fi sabilillah, is seen as the main factor in engaging a deeper sense of ethnocentrism among the Acehnese studied. It seems clear that, as shown in the works, the poets' propensity to attach importance to their own ethnicity as opposed to that of the Other, is strategic in order to boost ethnocentrism among the Malays of Makasar, Aceh and Palembang.
Diction, ethnicity, ethnocentrism, initial resistance, intrinsic, jihad fi sabilillah, Malay ethnic, William Graham Sumner
The study empirically analyses the attitude and acceptance of the urban and rural societies toward Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language). This study focuses on the speakers of Bahasa Melayu in the east coast of the Peninsular or more specifically in the state of Pahang Darul Makmur. Six districts in Pahang have been chosen as the area of study, namely Temerloh, Maran, Jerantut, Muadzam Shah, Kuala Lipis, and Kuantan. In this study, the attitude and view of the urban and rural communities on the capability and commercial value of Bahasa Melayu will be evaluated and compared to see if there have been any changes. The study observed closely the attitude towards the language while adopting a sociolinguistic approach as a theoretical framework. As many as 200 questionnaire forms had been distributed to respondents aged between 10 to 61 years old. Other than the questionnaires, data was also obtained using the interview and the observation methods. Data was analysed using SPSS. The findings indicate that the language attitude of the East Coast community varies according to the variables such as age, generation, religion, educational level and residential location which indicate significant differences in attitude. However, from the income level and marital status, the language attitude does not show significant difference. All in all, based on the tests of validity and reliability, the finding shows that the attitude and acceptance of Bahasa Melayu in the Malay community residing in the East Coast have been very positive.
Acceptance level, commercial value of Bahasa Melayu, income level, language attitude, marital status, proficiency level, residential location, sociolinguistics approach