Halal logistics is part of halal supply chain and it covers warehousing, transportation and terminal operations. Thus, this study aims to examine the scope of halal logistics and its applicability for Muslim and non-Muslim countries. Apart from that, an established Shari'ah principle, namely the Maslahah concept, will be appraised with a special focus on contamination in halal-logistics. The prominent Muslim scholars' views on Maslahah and its application in this industry are also analysed. This is a qualitative study using descriptive and explanatory approaches. It employs content analysis to review systematically the facts derived from various literature and documents. This study shows Maslahah plays a significant role in the operations of halal-logistics to protect public interest. It suggests that in handling the contamination issue in the halal-logistics system, the Maslahah approach is a best practice that should be widely adopted. Moreover, it is believed that the Maslahah approach could serve as a benchmark with the existing halal standard and constitute a sufficient measure for implementation of effective halal-logistics.
Best practice, contamination, fiqh, halal-logistics, Maslahah
Islam allows the use of medication sourced from haram (impure) substance, based on the dharurah situation. Jurist (fuqaha) have agreed to allow the use of such medication based on the prevailing dharurah where the situation is critical to preserve human life as proven by a physician. This paper focuses on the collection of the Discourse of the fatwa Committee of Malaysian National Council for Islamic Religious Affairs regarding the use of swine between 1981 and 2012. An analysis is performed to examine whether all uses of swine are regarded as haram (prohibited) or there are exceptions. The study shows there are several fatwas that permit the use of swine based on dharurah method. It is obviously the easiest method to be applied in accordance with the spirit of Shariah which gives flexibility to its followers when facing complicated and demanding situation.
The first Ar-Rahnu (Islamic pawn broking) shop was established in Terengganu, Malaysia in 1992. However, the role of exchange between benefits and sacrifices in Ar-Rahnu transaction as a determination of its development has not been given much emphasis in Malaysia. Therefore, this paper explores a new perspective of Ar-Rahnu especially focusing on its benefits and sacrifices. Several studies have highlighted the benefits-sacrifices exchange (BSX) to be the determinant of customer demand. The BSX in Ar-Rahnu transaction proposes a new conceptual framework to investigate the effects of its usage. This paper provides a new insight into these constructs by introducing the Social Exchange Theory (SET). Two hundred and six respondents were selected to answer a set of questionnaires. The Factor Analysis found that the dimension of benefits and sacrifices in Ar-Rahnu is fit to be analysed using SEM using Amos. This paper suggests that BSX in Ar-Rahnu transaction produce a significant effect on the Ar-Rahnu customer-pawnbroker trust and long-term relationship.
Ar-Rahnu, benefits, Islamic pawn broking, sacrifices, Social Exchange Theory
In Islam, fathers have a primary duty to provide for halal maintenance, education and good guidance to develop their children into a righteous and respectable person. Statistics from the Syariah Court of Terengganu showed 1371 cases of noncompliance with maintenance order filed between 2010 to 2016 and eight fathers had been ordered to be imprisoned for failure to do so. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between Muslim fathers' knowledge, attitude, religiosity and the intention to provide halal maintenance to the family. A total of 353 fathers participated in this study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data. Result revealed that there were significant and positive relationships between knowledge, attitude and religiosity with the intention to provide halal maintenance. The findings implied that knowledge, attitude and religiosity influence fathers in their decision to provide halal maintenance to their families. Therefore, an increase in knowledge, attitude, and religiosity, will increase the level of intention to provide halal maintenance to the family.
In Malaysia, there is a growing demand for halal pharmaceutical products, especially from conscientious Muslims. For Muslims, seeking halal goods is a must in order to get Allah's blessings. Nevertheless, there are only a few pharmaceutical products in the market with the certified halal logo. Thus, for Muslim consumers in Malaysia, their due diligence effort involves looking at the ingredient listed in the packaging. For many consumers, some of this information is far beyond their common knowledge. If this happens, consumers are actually in the position of having imperfect knowledge. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the factors that caused imperfect knowledge in the buying decisions of Muslim consumers. Questionnaires were distributed to 100 Muslim respondents at public clinics in Putrajaya. This study found that label, awareness, and trustworthy led to imperfect knowledge in the buying decisions of pharmaceutical products among Muslim consumers.
The objective of this study is to describe the process of development of Shariah-compliant Gold Investment (SCGI-i) instrument using the Classical Delphi Technique (CDT) and Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM). The research instrument is based on questionnaire with 4-point Likert scale consisting of three dimensions and 34 items. A total of 13 Islamic Muamalat experts were selected as participants of CDT to obtain consensus. The results showed a high consensus among the participants with a score IQR = 0.00 to 1.00; Mdn = 4.00 to accept these three-dimensional, 32 of the original items and the new item (C11) and rejected two original items (B05; B15). The acceptance score is also supported by the empirical evidence of FDM analysis that shows the value of the threshold (d 0.2) and the percentage of expert agreement (75%). These instruments can be used by Islamic financial institutions to create new products or sharia audit of existing gold investments to comply with the requirements of Islamic Muamalat.
The growth and development of Islamic finance in Malaysia vis-Ã -vis the conventional finance has been supported by the comprehensive regulatory framework and a conducive environment. Despite the favourable operating environment, and commendable performance of certain Islamic financial products and services, a majority of financial services consumers is still pursuing conventional banking products. Their lack of acceptance of Shariah compliant banking products is attributable to many factors; including lack of knowledge and awareness of Shariah compliant issues, which has given rise to scepticism and continued misperception of the products as well as bankers' approaches to product and market development of Islamic financial products and services. This exploratory study is aimed at identifying consumer acceptance of Islamic Credit Cards (ICCs) and the determinants of their acceptance. The variables tested were attitude, knowledge, perceived benefits, brand reputation and Shariah compliance. Since Islamic banking products are meant for all, it is timely to highlight the focal point of Shariah compliance as the main attribute. This study also provides further insights into understanding consumers' acceptance of ICCs.
Regulating polygamous marriage is essential to preserve the sanctity of the marriage institution. As marriage in Islam is a religious contract, restricting polygamous marriage is vital to ensure marriages serve their holy purposes. In Malaysia, several provisions are incorporated in the Islamic Family Law Act /Enactment to control the practice of polygamous marriage. Yet, cases of abuse do occur in such marriages affecting the stability of the family. This paper therefore, aims to analyse the weaknesses of the mechanisms governing polygamous marriage from a legal and administrative perspective. Recommendations are made to formulate better laws and procedures to minimise such abuses. A combination of library research and semi structured interviews are employed in this study as both methods highlight important weaknesses in the current legal and administrative mechanisms. The findings of this research reveal important flaws in the present governance of polygamous marriage that have led to abuses. These findings can be an eye opener for the relevant authorities in identifying causes of abuse in polygamous marriages. Therefore, current laws must be reformed to ensure abuses do not occur in such marriages.
There is a marked increase in survival rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors in Malaysia as a result of improved acute health care management. Humanoid robots have been proposed as a therapy option to improving TBI management. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to provide insights on the use of humanoids for augmenting therapy in a brain-impaired individual, particularly the permissibility (halal) of using Maqasid principles as a therapy option for TBI. Spirituality and religious interventions will be the main focus of the paper. Data was collected using in-depth interviews with the rehabilitation physicians and therapists as well as via library search, and literature review. Since using humanoid is a new area in rehabilitation, literature on this is scarce, particularly those that are Islamic-based or Islamic oriented. The study also examines the provision of new theories of embodied spirituality relative to humanoids and their perspectives including their impacts on society, ethics, and theological implications of their basic assumptions.
Children's position after divorce often becomes an issue, as to who will be responsible for their welfare. Some divorced couples manage to mutually settle custody issues outside the court. However, many the custodial dispute to the court. It is provided in the Islamic Family Law Enactment (State of Selangor) 2003 that the mother shall be entitled to the custody of her under-aged children. When the child has reached the age of discernment (mumaiyiz), he or she shall have the choice of living with either of the parents, unless the court orders otherwise. However, the law does not provide any guidelines on how the Mumayyiz children shall be called and to what extent their opinion is to be heard. This study examines the approach taken by the Syariah court in handling custodial cases relating to mumaiyiz children. It adopts doctrinal legal research method as provided in unreported cases. Findings show the judges do not have a standard approach in handling custodial cases of mumaiyiz children. Therefore, the study recommends proper guidelines are provided in assisting Syariah court judges to arrive at a mutually acceptable solution.
Children's choice, hadhanah, Malaysia, Mumayyiz, Syariah Court, welfare of children
Food security has an important place in global agenda. The innovation of technology in food security is helpful as the consumers are able to identify or track the inventories, to ensure the product is kept in optimal condition, for example by using RFID technology. The objective of this study is to identify trends related to user behaviour and acceptance of technology in food security. The focus is on the user, technology and food security and how it's related to and affect each other for user acceptance and behaviour. This study adopted Kitchenham's systematic literature review technique. Findings show user acceptance of technology in food security is influenced by the following variables - ease of use, convenience and effectiveness of the technology.
Ease of use, food security, halal, technology, user acceptance
Shariah compliant financial service has expanded in size and geographic coverage, with its presence even in many non-Muslim countries. One of the biggest challenges facing the industry today is inadequate human capital. The demand for human resources in the industry has increased tremendously, leading to shortage of supply. Hence, there is a need for educators to develop the required human capitals to meet market demand. This study would therefore examine the competency of educators in moulding and producing high quality human capital to meet industry need. Using secondary data, the study analyses qualifications of educators as well as their academic activities to measure their competency. Findings of this study indicate that there are still rooms for improvement as far as competency of educators is concerned. It is recommended that in-house training by way of ToT (Training of Trainers) as well as exposure to industrial practice would be necessary for enhancing the competency of the educators.
Educators, Islamic finance educators, industry need, Shariah compliant financial services
The contributions of a spouse in terms of matrimonial properties are essential in determining the proportion of share for the divorced spouses. In order to determine a fair and equitable share of assets, the spouses have to show the quantum of their contributions; this has caused delays in the Shariah courts in Malaysia and prolonged the litigation process. This study examines the effectiveness of the statutory law in division of matrimonial assets by examining court practices in determining the proportion of share. For that purpose, a qualitative method was adopted and 215 unreported cases within the period of 2000-2012 was analysed. Findings showed inconsistencies in the court practices of asset division, especially when only contribution of the parties (in ascertaining their share) are factored. This study suggests that the court should use a more general consideration such as the interest of the parties and children when determining the proportion. This is to ensure a fair distribution of wealth and assets to the divorcing spouses.
Halal food supply chain is unique as it is based on Islamic teachings and hence different from other kinds of supplier management. However, research in this specific field has been scarce, particularly empirical research. Conversely, many empirical researches on conventional supply chain management have focused mainly on supply risks. Therefore, it is important to explore supplier management in halal food supply chains by applying an existing framework of supplier management from other fields. With this in mind, as a preliminary case study, this paper explores supplier management of a small and medium-sized enterprise producing halal foods in Malaysia. The main aim is to identify risk consequences, risk drivers, supply risk sources, and risk mitigating strategies for supplier management in halal food supply chains. Future research needs to include and investigate more cases in which factors such as the size of companies, the capacity and role of halal certification bodies, and the location of operation are operationalized in order to develop the framework discussed in this study
Managing halal products and production at a global scale is challenging, more so with the emergence of new technologies and applications. This paper investigates the innovative method of Al-Talfiq as a useful Islamic ruling tool to manage the challenges in halal industry. It focuses on fiqh related issues within the halal supply chain (HSC) operation, and proposes Al-Talfiq as a technical tool to reduce the constraints faced by the stakeholders in this industry. Al-Talfiq is the process of fusing two opinions from different jurists of an issue that has a number of elemental connections. To achieve that objective, literature on fiqh and halal logistics is examined to explore the applicability of Al-Talfiq in current HSC operation.
The food souvenir industry is important for tourism at Malang City. This city has become a famous tourism destination over the years which is well-known for its snacks and beverages, such as fruit chips, fruit juices and dairy products. However, information on their products for halal status is limited. On the other hand, the number of tourists who care about halal products is increasing. Therefore, this study has developed a halal culinary tracking (HCT) application to facilitate the search for halal certified souvenir products. The priority factor and the best strategy for its application are investigated. An analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was conducted to analyse content, design, organisation, user-friendly and accessibility of the HCT. The results showed that user-friendly attribute has the highest point (0.423). This attribute became priority in the development of HCT application, because with the easiest operation and appropriate information, the application will be more acceptable for users. The alternative strategy having the highest point was easy to access (0.249). Easy accesses to an application will have a positive impact on its usage.
The growth of "big data" can be observed in healthcare, financial, education, social network, food and other sectors. Unfortunately, big data has received little attention in the halal industry. This article describes the potentials and benefits of big data in the halal industry. It starts with a description of the concept and application of big data analytics (BDA) in various industries. The background of halal industries are also discussed. The SWOT/TOWS analyses show the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threat from big data analytics in the halal industry. The article concludes BDA has huge potential impact on the halal industry such as food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, education and logistics among others.
In Malaysia, some businesses have introduced Shariah-Compliant Hotel to cater to the needs of Muslim travellers. However, only a limited number of empirical researches have examined the perceived value of Muslim tourists vis a vis Shariah-Compliant Hotel in Malaysia. Delivering value is very important to hotel operators, as it has been proven as a competitive advantage and could influence customers in making decisions. Therefore, this study examined the interrelationship between the perceived value of Muslim tourists and the effect of this value in their satisfaction. Six hypotheses were developed and tested using a sample of 136 Muslim tourists who have experienced staying at Shariah-Compliant Hotel. Data was analysed using the Partial Least Square algorithm (PLS-SEM). The finding reveals six dimensions of Muslim tourist perceived value (quality, price, emotional value, social value, Islamic physical attribute's value and Islamic non-physical attribute's value) that have positive effects on their satisfaction. These findings are useful to stakeholders, especially hoteliers, to gain a better understanding of how to increase Muslim tourist satisfaction as well as develop effective marketing strategies for Shariah-Compliant Hotel.
Muslim tourist, perceived value, satisfaction, Shariah-compliant hotel
Globally, the market for Shariah-compliant products and services has expanded in recent years. Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and Luxembourg are now considered global Islamic capital market hubs. Islamic capital market products and instruments include the Islamic Equity Market in which the Islamic Real Estate Investment Trusts (REIT) are included. The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance measurement methods adopted by Malaysian REIT (M-REIT) managers, particularly those engaged in Shariah-Compliant REIT management. The existing performance measurement methods for conventional and Islamic REITs were identified through an extensive review of the current academic literature. Using semi structured interviews with senior Malaysian REIT managers, including the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Investment Officer and senior executives, this paper examines various methods and instruments used to measure REIT performance from the management perspective. Based on the semi-structured interviews, the distribution yield was identified as the most significant performance measure and is used as a benchmark by M-REIT managers to enhance REIT performance. Greater transparency in this decision-making strategy may lead to an increase in the efficiency level and better performance to capture greater investor confidence in this promising investment sector.
Malaysia, property investment, REIT, Shariah-compliant
Nowadays, majority of Muslim customers demand halal products due to increasing awareness. There is also a high demand for halal products from non-Muslim countries. Due to these reasons, manufacturers need to understand Islamic branding in order to penetrate Muslim market. However, there is lack of study about Islamic branding from the non-Muslim perspective and the emergence of unethical issues on Islamic branding involving non-Muslim producers. Therefore, this research was conducted among non-Muslim customers to ascertain the relationship between customer perception and customer loyalty towards customers' purchase intention. A set of questionnaires was administered to 201 non-Muslim employees of multiple international companies in Malaysia. Data was obtained through structured questionnaires. It was divided into three sections with statements measuring customer perception, customer loyalty and purchase intention. Results indicate that customer perceptions have a significant relationship with purchase intention of Islamic branding. This research concludes with several suggestions for marketing strategies which focus on Islamic branding.