There has been a growing body of studies on religion and human safety behaviour in recent years. However, psychologists seem to be more inclined to pairing religiosity and non-occupational risky behaviour (such as smoking, substance abuse, drinking and driving) in their studies, while safety scientists have hardly explored the influence of religiosity on occupational safety behaviour such as taking shortcuts or breaking the rules. To close this gap, this paper suggests that empirical studies should be conducted to explore possible associations between religiosity and safety behaviour at the workplace. To facilitate such studies, a conceptual framework is proposed based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). This paper explains the rationale of choosing TPB. While TPB postulates that both the behavioural intention and perceived behavioural control explain the behaviour, it is interesting to examine the effect of religiosity on occupational behaviour. Examining religiosity as a new construct in occupational safety behaviour studies can help trigger the interest of other religious scholars, psychologists and safety scientists to use religiosity as a construct more rigorously in their future studies on safety to address the gap. Such studies can also help formulate or enhance safety interventions, since these human-related incidents and accidents seem endemic in high-risk industries.
Occupational safety behaviour, religiosity, Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)
The main purpose of the paper is to systematically review the common issues and challenges inhibiting breast cancer awareness in Malaysia. Drawing upon journals and database search dealing with breast cancer awareness in Malaysia, 38 articles were retrieved and then analysed using the content analysis method. Issues related to public health management of breast cancer pandemic in Malaysia, its effects and the fundamental principles used in developing and designing cancer control programmes, screening management as well as challenges faced by authorised agencies in promoting breast cancer awareness were studied. Methodology included identification of research streams, and the categorisation of reviewed articles into five main pillars, namely (a) thematic issue/problem statement in the articles; (b) target population; (c) applied methodologies; (d) measurement of dependent variables, and (e) findings that discuss the emerging issue and challenges in promoting breast cancer awareness in Malaysia. It is hoped that the knowledge gained will serve as a significant foundation in designing public health awareness campaigns to cultivate, instil early detection behaviour and ameliorate promotion efforts among public health authorities in Malaysia.
Breast cancer awareness, Breast Self-Examination (BSE), health campaign, Clinical Breast Examination (CBE), early detection, mammogram screening
Biomedical advancement has significantly contributed towards depression recovery but there are still populations who are affected, with limited access to health services. There is lack of attention paid to psychosocial factors that are helpful in depression recovery. This narrative review aims to examine the psychosocial factors in depression recovery through qualitative studies. Keyword searches were conducted using EBSCOHost, JSTOR, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, SAGE Journals and Scopus databases. Qualitative studies (n = 15) on psychosocial factors in depression recovery were identified. Review of the studies revealed the impact of psychological and social factors in the view of oneself and identity transformation throughout depression recovery and acceptance of self-initiated help-seeking behaviour that facilitated transformation of ill-self to better-self. The three main conclusions drawn from the review are (a) hope, optimism, resilience and self-efficacy; (b) working on oneself; and (c) social factors available for re-constructing of selves and functional lives. Enhancement and inclusion of psychosocial factors are needed in mental health policy. Future studies are suggested to focus on the ways of strengthening psychosocial factors at individual and community levels.
The main objective of this study is to explore the role of juveniles' personal observation and their poverty status in influencing their perception of the police. The article draws on detailed informal interviews with 34 male juveniles on probation in Karachi. This study found that besides family members, friends and the media, juveniles' personal observation of the police's negative activities in their neighbourhood and vicinities was the leading factor influencing their perception of the police. All 34 juveniles have seen the police engaging in negative activities (being involved in crime) in their vicinity. In addition, the juveniles' poor socioeconomic status was found to be an important factor in shaping their negative perception although it was not as significant as the police's practice of criminalising the poor. It was also found that the majority of the juveniles were tortured; these juveniles claimed that they were innocent and were falsely implicated in false cases by the police. These vicarious encounters reinvigorated their pre-established negative perception of the police. The article concludes that personal observation plays a major role in shaping juveniles' perception of the police in Karachi.
Criminalisation of poor, juvenile justice, perception of police, socialisation, violence, Pakistan
In West Sumatra, radicalism does not develop and even tends to decease because of the self-defense system of the local society, in the form of the religious and socio-cultural system that arises from the doctrine, values and teachings of Islam practised by the Tarekat community. The study aims to understand the conceptual world of the Tarekat community faith towards radicalism and to explain the struggle of radical idealism in the midst of the dynamics of the religious Tarekat culture in West Sumatra. This research uses the descriptive-phenomenological approach. Focus group discussion was first conducted with the teachers (mursyid) and members of the Tarekat congregation followed by in-depth interviews with the teachers and members of the congregation. Observation was made to examine the socio-cultural conditions of the Tarekat community surrounding their activities in relation to their religious teachings and ideals. This study found that firstly, the fusion of Tarekat teachings with the Minangkabau culture was not conducive to the rise of radical idealism in West Sumatra; secondly, the resilience of Tarekat religious culture and the local wisdom of the Minangkabau prevented radicalism from taking root in the Tarekat community, thus reducing conflict, and; thirdly, the opposition of the Tarekat to radicalism seen in its practice of dakwah culture, has shaped its lifestyle and response to the world.
Resistance, local wisdom, Tarekat community, radicalism
Authorship profiling, which is the process of extraction of information about a text's author through linguistics analysis, is now gaining momentum as an interdisciplinary subject. Scholars who employ this technique (i.e. data analysis specialists, linguists, psychologists) study the identification of demographics, personality traits, education and the native language of authors of texts, among others. Gender, in this context, is the most popular variable. Some studies report accuracy as high as 80% or even higher in identifying the gender of a text's author. However, there are still many issues that must be addressed. Firstly, most of the previous research concerns English texts. Secondly, most of the papers focus on content-based features, which are obviously easily to imitate. Thirdly, many recent papers in the field make use of machine-learning algorithms with emphasis on accuracy, not on the differences between male and female writing. The objective of this paper is to reveal differences in male and female Russian written texts and to design a mathematical model to identify the gender of authors of texts using only high-frequency topic-independent text parameters. Special emphasis is made on comparing the obtained data on the differences in male and female written texts with those previously obtained for Russian and other languages. An original mathematical solution for identification of author's gender is set forth.
This paper focusses on the characteristics of entrepreneurs with successful and sustainable small businesses in Northeastern Thailand. It presents a new model and components. This study aims: (1) To investigate the characteristics of entrepreneurs with successful and sustainable business; (2) To study the factors influencing success and sustainability; and (3) To develop a model based on these factors. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are implemented. The former makes use of in-depth interviews in which the collected data are analysed using content analysis. The results show that the characteristics of entrepreneurs who enjoyed sustainable success in operating small businesses could be categorised under six dimensions: a business spirit, proactiveness, competitive advantage, sustainability, human capital and firm performance. These factors had 12 components, namely, business orientation, business intelligence, environmental learning, corporate social responsibility, flexibility, technological speed, production capability, innovativeness, opportunity competency, inter-functional coordination, work effort and firm performance. Quantitative data are gathered using a questionnaire measuring these 12 components. It was administered to 391 small business entrepreneurs. The data are analysed using the LISREL Programme to develop a model. The results of the model show a good fit with a chi-square value of 10.45, p value of 0.98, goodness-of-fit index (GFI) of 1.00, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) of 1.00, comparative fit index (CFI) of 1.00, standard root mean square (SRMR) of 0.01 and a root mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA) less than 0.01. The findings are discussed. Based on the characteristics of entrepreneurs with successful and sustainable small businesses, the results are a valid measure within a Thai context.
Granting an annual increment is the norm in Asian countries. Organisations spend millions on salaries, hoping for better performance. Undeniably, money is a crucial necessity for all. However, can it motivate every individual to work harder or to perform better at a job? Is the thought that everyone is money driven a misguided perception? This question is becoming increasingly pertinent with every change to workforce demographics as workers of newer generations come on board. With Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y working side by side in the same space, workers are no longer a homogenous group. Today's workforce is the most diverse in history. Hence, the purpose of this study is to explore the truth of the perception that money is a motivator for good performance at work and to discover the actual motivators to work well of each generation. The findings confirm that money is perceived as the motivator for all the three generations. However, each generation is also driven by other specific motivators. With a multigenerational workforce, employers will need to take these motivators into consideration.
Baby boomer, Generation X, Generation Y, money, motivator
This study investigates the effect of self-transcription and expert scaffolding on the accuracy of oral production of EFL learners. Thirty elementary level and six advanced level EFL learners from a private language institution in Sari, Iran, participated in this study. The elementary learners formed two experimental groups that were engaged in self-transcription (n=10) and self-transcription followed by expert scaffolding (n=10) and one control group (n=10). Another group of advanced learners (n=6) were invited to participate as the expert assistants. A picture description task was administered to all the elementary participants as their pre-test and post-test. Furthermore, their oral performance in all stages of the study was audio-recorded one at a time. Finally, the participants' oral performance in the pre-test and post-test was analysed based on the accuracy rate of five linguistic features (verb form, preposition, pronoun, subject-verb agreement and vocabulary) and error-free clauses. The analysis showed that both treatment types of self-transcription with or without scaffolding had significant effect on improving the accuracy of two linguistic features (preposition and verb form) and error-free clauses. It can be implied that self-transcribing an oral production and expert scaffolding can be conducive to noticing the gaps in some linguistic features, which under normal circumstances are hard to recall and notice. The findings of the study provide some pedagogical implications for employing these techniques in EFL contexts for improving the overall accuracy of oral production.
Law enforcement is one of the weakest links in wildlife conservation. This paper analyses the main challenges facing wildlife law enforcement in East Malaysia and identifies the enforcement strategy used by wildlife officers in the region. To these ends, a questionnaire was distributed to the wildlife officers. The study found that the respondents tended towards deterrence strategy in enforcing the laws which focuses on detecting and punishing violations. The study also revealed that the primary challenge facing the wildlife enforcement officers was lack of institutional capacity. This was reflected by problems related to inadequate equipment, facilities, limited manpower and lack of skills. Other major challenges highlighted by the respondents were lack of cooperation from the public and other enforcement agencies, lack of political will and threats from the regulated parties. The findings of the study contribute to a greater understanding of the main enforcement strategy used by wildlife officers in East Malaysia and highlight challenges they encountered in undertaking their duties. These insights provide useful information into developing better informed capacity-building programme for the wildlife officers and for decision-makers at state and federal level in determining allocation or other provision for the wildlife authorities.
Challenges, East Malaysia, enforcement, laws, wildlife
In recent years, the elderly population has increased, and most of them tend to live alone. This means that the elderly need to communicate with their younger colleagues, friends, and family via smartphones because these devices provide several channels of communication, such as calling, chatting, and video conferencing. However, the main problem for the elderly is their physical condition which inhibits them from using smartphones. Thus, the objective of this paper is to find out what are the UI components that degrade their ability for using smartphones. This can be achieved by comparing the capabilities of using smartphones between younger and elderly users and finding out the UI components what cause their capabilities to be different. From our assumption that physical conditions limit the capability of the elderly, we focused our research on their visual capabilities by conducting the experiments on younger users and elderly users, who were requested to perform specific tasks on Line, which is one of the most popular communication applications among Thais. The experimental results reveal that most of the elderly people take longer time to complete their tasks and make more mistakes than younger users. It was found that most of them have problems with color, font style, size, and brightness of UI. As a consequence, it is suggested that a more appropriate UI for smartphone applications, especially communication applications, should be designed to solve such problems in order to increase the elderly's capabilities of using smartphones.
Elderly, younger generation, mobile social network, limitations of using a smartphone by the elderly
Finding effective methods for improving teaching quality is crucial because it has been found to be the most important factor in education. This paper compares two approaches of improving teaching quality through a one-year experimental study involving two experimental groups and one control group. The first is the use of education standards and the second is the use of education standards combined with a teacher development program. Teaching quality was measured in four variables: Building classroom as a learning environment (CLE), instruction, questioning, and orientation. In this study, 1255 students and 45 teachers from 43 junior secondary schools in two provinces of Indonesia voluntarily participated. Multilevel modelling was employed and the results indicate that both interventions have significant effects on the outcomes. However, as expected, the second intervention is significant in all variables and has larger effects, whereas the first intervention is significant only in two variables: CLE and questioning. The findings of this research imply the need to have clear and concrete education standards and to enhance these education standards with training sessions to facilitate better teaching quality.
Education standards, teaching quality, teacher professional development program, dynamic model of educational effectiveness research
To enhance learning among the Orang Asli, the Faculty of Law of the National University of Malaysia, popularly known as Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), organised a motivational programme for Orang Asli students in November, 2014. The programme was facilitated by Orang Asli Student Icons, 12 Orang Asli students representing various faculties in UKM. This article discusses the role of the Orang Asli Student Icons in strengthening the level of awareness and motivation among the participants. To gather their insight into their role as facilitator in transferring knowledge and ideas to fellow Orang Asli students, a questionnaire was developed and administered following the motivational programme. In addition to the introduction and conclusion, this article covers four main areas. First, it discusses challenges and barriers within the Orang Asli education system. This is followed by an in-depth description of the motivational programme that was carried out. Third, a demographic analysis of the Orang Asli Student Icons is done. The final section of the ariticle presents the findings and analysis of the Orang Asli Student Icons' perception of their role in knowledge transfer towards motivating and increasing awareness among Orang Asli students. This article concludes that the Orang Asli Student Icons have played a significant role in addressing all challenges and barriers within the Orang Asli education system. This conclusion is supported by the positive feedback received from the participants and post-event statistics on student dropout among the participants involved in the programme.
Indigenous teachers, learning challenges, Malaysia, roles, Orang Asli, student icons
This study attempted to address the question concerning the influence of commuter families on adolescent school performance using the proposed Model for Adolescent Development Among Commuter Families (MADCF). We investigated whether the adolescent problem mediates the relationship between parental readiness and adolescent school performance, and clarified the moderating effect of gender. The survey data were drawn from 434 respondents (adolescents-parents) in Malaysia. The results indicated that the adolescent externalising problem partially mediated the relationship between parental readiness and adolescent school performance. The model accounted for 21% of the variability in adolescent school performance. The moderator findings presented that gender moderates the causal effect of parental readiness and the adolescent externalising problem with respect to adolescent school performance. This study clearly shows the importance of parental readiness, and that the results are in line with the proposed mediation and moderation effects. The model proposed by this study was strongly supported.
Parental readiness, commuter families, adolescent development
In the current scenario, the common news in newspapers is that many highly educated and dual income couples prefer to opt for divorce, separation or the partner may get killed by the spouse. The reason for this may be due to the immense stress they face at work and also due to the family environment. Their work-life balance is very poor, suffer high ego, unable to spend time with family members and are pampered children of their parents. If the person is highly educated, has high income, and also receives support from family members, he / she can face failure easily which is caused by family life; for others, they may end up making harsh decisions like committing suicide, lodging a report against their spouse, starting unhealthy habits which affect his / her health or harass their life partner. This motivated the researchers to carry out the study of less educated, lower income female employees who are working in the tannery industry. The researchers found that current experiences and dual earners are the most important independent variables in predicting stress, such as hypertension, obesity and gynecological problems. The researchers also found respondents with certain demographic profiles to work more productively than others. This study also reveals the most and least preferred attributes of work life balance.
Stress, failure, productivity, attributes, family and work life balance
Wartime rape is a widespread phenomenon that accompanies most wars and conflicts, especially contemporary ones, yet there is much misconception about it. Earlier studies done on war rape focused exclusively on the experiences of female victims. Men as victims of war rape is a topic not many are familiar with or even aware of. The inclusion of men as victims of rape is very rare in society. Moreover, the rape of women often finds its way to the stage, but not the rape of men. Thus, the rape of men in time of war has been overlooked due to unfamiliarity with the topic or to the myth of the invulnerability of man to rape. More importantly, wartime man rape is not taken into consideration as a strategic weapon. Thus, the present study aims to explore the sexual victimisation of men in times of war as an orchestrated combat tool. It investigates the reasons why American combatants raped Iraqi prisoners in Judith Thompson's play Palace of the End. Inger SkjelsbÃ¦k's Social Constructionist Concept is used to explain the rationale behind wartime man rape and to map out the mechanism of its victimisation and perpetration. The present study concludes that men can be victimised like women by rape. In addition, the present study contributes a new understanding of the strategic function of rape with the inclusion of male rape. More importantly, it concludes that the rape of male prisoners in this play is not a natural consequence of war stemming from sensuality or abnormality but a pre-planned institutional act to dominate the perceived enemy.
Judith Thompson, Palace of the End, strategic weapon, social constructionist concept, wartime rape
In present day tourism, ecotourism has gained significant popularity and is an avenue to foster synergy between economic, cultural, and ecological growth. This paper attempts to demonstrate how the ecotourism industry uses the power of human imagination to generate tourism imaginaries. By employing these two tools, ecotourism industry plants a very unique notion of 'nature' in tourists' minds, in which nature remains pristine and immaculate. Although this notion hardly matches the actual reality, ecotourism showcases a fabricated reality of tourist spots to fulfil tourist demands. By drawing examples from the flourishing ecotourism industry of the Sundarbans, through in-depth interviews of tourists and analysis of tour brochures, the stark differences between imaginaries and actual reality are documented. Finally, this paper concludes that what ecotourism attempts to offer through imaginaries and the primary objectives of this industry are self-contradictory and can only be attained through the power of imagination.
Although most studies in the field agree on gender differences regarding reaction times, disagreements also remain about this trend. This is a replication study with a large sample size designed to verify the consistency of a prior result that showed an absence of gender differences in omitted stimulus reaction time (OSRT) task using behavioural criteria to fractionate reaction time into Premotor (cognitive) and Motor components. A total of 112 healthy participants (56 males) responded to the termination of a train of visual, auditory, or somatosensory stimuli. The results did not support the previous finding and showed that men have faster Premotor and Motor responses on each of the three sensory modalities. Faster responses were obtained with auditory rather than visual or somatosensory stimuli. These results are relevant to developing a better understanding of the different time processing capabilities of the male and female brains.
Cognitive, movement, multisensory, omitted stimulus, reaction time
Teaching and learning geometry is not merely about memorising geometrical properties but about grasping the conceptual understanding of geometry as well. Students, however, face challenges in the classroom trying to develop their geometrical thinking. The purpose of this study is to identify whether phase-based instruction using Geometer's Sketchpad helps primary school pupils develop their Van Hiele levels of geometric thinking regarding angles significantly. Eight different pre-sketched activities were designed based on Van Hiele's five phases of learning to guide the students in learning about geometrical angles. Pre and post Van Hiele Achievement Tests were given to both the experimental and control groups before and after the intervention. Inferential statistics such as Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used in analysing the quantitative data. Results of the pretest indicated no significant difference between both groups of students in their Van Hiele levels of geometric thinking. After the intervention, the findings showed that students in both the experimental and control groups have improved significantly in terms of their Van Hiele levels of geometric thinking. Additionally, results of the Mann-Whitney test revealed that the difference in Van Hiele levels of geometric thinking between students in both groups was significant during posttest. In short, phase-based instruction using Geometer's Sketchpad has helped the students to develop their Van Hiele levels of geometric thinking and provided an insight for the educators to further utilise the software.
Van Hiele levels of geometric thinking, phase-based instruction, Geometer's Sketchpad, primary mathematics, geometrical angles
In Jungian psychology, Individuation is the process of achieving psychological maturation wherein individuals are able to integrate their conscious and unconscious mind to create a balanced psyche. One aspect of the unconscious mind that needs to be integrated with the conscious is the Shadow, a psychological component consisting of all rejected and repressed aspects of one's personality. The process of dealing with the Shadow aspect is analogous to the journey of the Hero archetype, and the goal of this journey is Individuation, whereby one becomes connected to their Self, an archetype that represents wholeness and totality. In Tunku Halim's "A Sister's Tale" (1999), Jessica has been pulled into a Hero's journey because of an unaddressed repressed guilt that ultimately becomes her Shadow. This paper aims to examine Jessica's Heroic journey in attaining her Self through the integration of her unconscious component, the Shadow, with her consciousness. To achieve this objective, the text is analysed through Jungian's concept of the Shadow and Hero archetypes. The findings reveal that Jessica's Shadow had become too dense for a successful integration to occur and therefore, she failed to achieve Individuation.
This study focuses on the integration of values and culture in the Malay folklore animation. The objectives of the study are to rank and discuss the values and culture in the Malay folklore animation. The study adopts the values incorporated in the Malaysian National Education Philosophy (1996) to analyse the values and culture in the animations. The philosophy consists of 16 values, which are understood by all students in Malaysia. The values stated are related to the culture among the community, with 10 animations from The Kingfisher Stories. The results of the study reveal that the folklore Leader and Palm Tree contain the most number of values, that is, 10 values, while the folklore Crow, with two values, is ranked the lowest. The results show that values and culture are important in folklore. It is hoped that further studies will focus on values in Malay short stories.
The classroom is considered a social institution in which the social interaction that happens between students and professors in a university setting is of prime importance. Accordingly, classroom participation as an important variable in this setting and pros and cons to grading the students' class participation have been considered to be researched further to answer four research questions regarding EFL students' perception toward: (1) their class participation; (2) the common factors that hinder or encourage their participation; (3) grading or not grading class participation; and finally (4) positive and negative effects of grading class participation. To answer these questions, this study applied a qualitative descriptive research method using a case study to collect data first from 120 medical students through four close and open- ended questions and then through interview with 10 students. The results showed that majority of the students (85%) do not consider themselves as active participants in their English classes, and psychological, physical and teacher factors are regarded as intensives for their class participation while cultural norms, textbook and teacher factors are among the factors that prohibit students' class participation. Furthermore, about half of the students reported that they are indifferent about whether class participation is graded or not because they are not intrinsically motivated to even study English. Pedagogical implications based on the above mentioned findings have been provided for teachers in this article.
Class participation, grading class participation, student participation, EFL context
The present paper studies Paul Auster's Sunset Park from the Deleuzian perspective. Gilles Deleuze in his books on cinema introduces his theory of metaphysics of imagination through which he analyses images of past as well as the crystal-images in the perceiver's [character's] memory. Accordingly, the paper looks for new ways to apply Deleuze's analysis of cinematic images on literature. Such analysis enables us to study the mentalities of Auster's characters' in terms of their relationship with their past memories, and their rejoining of the society after a self-inflicted exile. As such, Deleuze's treatment of the images of the past through the crystalline narrations and flashbacks will be used to analyse the past mindsets and memories of Auster's characters. The findings will ultimately show how these Deleuzian concepts can work as a new arena to critically evaluate literary works in terms of the role of images of the past and virtualities in creating evolving fictional storyworlds, using Paul Auster's Sunset Park as the tool for analysis.
Paul Auster, Gilles Deleuze, Sunset Park, time-images, crystal-images, virtuality
With greater prevalence of Internet access, there is an alarming trend in the number of students using the Internet in the classroom for non-class-related purposes. Cyberloafing (defined as personal Internet use at work or during class) has been extensively studied by researchers in workplace settings but not in education settings. Particularly, there is lack of research on developing a valid and reliable scale to measure cyberloafing behaviour among students. Hence, this study aims to examine the prevalence of cyberloafing activities among university students and to validate the cyberloafing scale of Akbulut et al. (2016) in the Malaysian context. A total of 238 usable data was collected from the 30-item cyberloafing scale that assessed five dimensions of cyberloafing behaviour namely sharing, shopping, real-time updating, access to online content and gambling / gaming. Descriptive analysis shows that students spend more time on sharing- related activities and least time on gambling / gaming-related activities in the classroom. Based on exploratory factor analysis, five factors are retained with most of the items loaded on its intended dimension factors, suggesting evidence of construct validity. The analysis also indicates that convergent validity is achieved as the factor loadings of each set of items measuring its intended dimension factors are above 0.5. Given that the correlations between extracted factors are not highly correlated, discriminant validity is warranted. These results support the investigated cyberloafing scale as reliable and valid.
Children have been found to spend more time on gadgets in learning and passing leisure time especially in the era of this new millennium. Besides, modern parents also claim that gadgets possess additional education function for children in acquiring new information. Nonetheless, on the flip side of using gadgets, little is known about the intervention in reducing sedentary behaviour, which mainly refers to prolonged sitting, especially among pre-schoolers. Thus, the present study investigates the effectiveness of ToyBox intervention in Malaysia to reduce sedentary behaviour among pre-schoolers (n = 281) via primary caregivers' self-reports. In addition, the Mann Whitney U test displayed significant variances between the experimental group and the control group in reducing sedentary behaviour among five-year-old and six-year-old pre-schoolers. Besides, the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test revealed significant differences in the experimental group before and after treatments among four-year-olds, five-year-olds, and six-year-old pre-schoolers. Interestingly, Split-plot ANOVA analysis showed that the interaction terms of groups and treatment were significant, where the treatment for experimental groups was significantly lower in sedentary behaviour after treatment. As a result, the ToyBox intervention in Malaysia is indeed a promising intervention to reduce sedentary behaviour among pre-schoolers.
Pre-schoolers, sedentary behaviour, teachers, ToyBox intervention in Malaysia
Palestinian exile under the Israeli occupation is one of the core themes in Palestinian narratives. Exiles encounter multiple issues like dislocation, fragmentation of identity, separation from the family and psychological anguish in their day-to-day life. Palestinian writers have been engaged in writing extensively on the harrowing experiences of exile. Simultaneously, they have written on the emerging challenges faced by the Palestinians on return to their homeland. This article explores the theme of exile in the narratives of Sahar Khalifeh through an interpretive lens of settler colonial theory. Exile, however is experienced differently by both men and women. Indeed, women's experience of exile and impact of male exile on women has been marginalised in male narratives. The paper brings out how the Palestinian writer Sahar Khalifeh broaches the impact of Palestinian exile on both men and women as a negative and demoralising experience. The paper specifically focuses on women who are the victims of exile and their suffering â€“ from subtle to the more conspicuous.
Exile, Israeli occupation, identity, settler colonialism, space, time
The literature on Autism has been considered marginal but developing. Various writers and critics in the field have tried to set forth a more palpable attitude of this form of disability while missing and/or escaping one crucial question: does Autism make possible an advantageous ground for the autistic person? In other words, what is the semantic role of the slash in dis/ability? This study directs this question through a literary case of the novel "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time" by Mark Haddon. The process and result of such analysis is directive in both providing us with a new paradigm of autism, as well as exemplifying strategies through which the autistic person performs progressively. In this respect, the concept of individual empowerment, theorised by Elisheva Sadan, holds the axle of analysis. In the scope of this research, Haddon's novel proves to be a formative ground for redefining autism in its current manipulation, a source of self-reliance and inner-outer evaluator which processes socio-communal inputs given to it in order to systematise the action/reactions of the autistic person. Meanwhile, this study concludes with suggestions on how an autistic person can filter and organise his environment to perform distinctly and productively.
Autism, critical consciousness, Elisheva Sadan, empowerment, Mark Haddon, practitioner
An economic value of urban green space (UGS) in Kuala Lumpur (KL) city is estimated in this study. A global model and a local model are formulated based on hedonic price method. The global and local models were analysed with an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression and a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) respectively. Both the models were compares to see which model offered a better result. The results of OLS regression illustrated that Titiwangsa and Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) offer the highest economic value for model 2 and 3 respectively. The results of GWR determined that the economic value of an UGS can be analysed by the region. The GWR result revealed that FRIM provides high economic value to all the residential areas in KL city. However, the economic value of Titiwangsa is not valuable for the residential areas in KL city including Mont Kiara Pines, Jinjang Selatan, Segambut Garden, Bandar Menjalara and Taman Bukit Maluri. As a conclusion, even though Titiwangsa generates the highest economic value, it is only significant at certain residential areas as proved by the local model. In terms of model application, the local model performed better than the global model.
Economic valuation, geographically weighted regression model, hedonic pricing model, urban green space
Train overcrowding has been associated with psychological stress, adverse health effects, negative behavioural reactions, and spillover effects. However, there is little agreement on the appropriate demand management strategies to deal with the increasing passenger numbers, especially on rail services in Malaysia. To begin addressing this issue, a preliminary study involving 13 participants (Male = 8; Female = 5) from an organisation under the Ministry of Transport, Malaysia focusing on demand management issues and transportation research and development activities was conducted. Participants ranked three sets of demand management strategies (pricing, service quality, and policy) based on their feasibility, effectiveness and cost. Using Kendall's coefficient of concordance (Kendall's W), findings showed a relatively weak, but consistent agreement rate among participants across all strategies on their feasibility, effectiveness and cost. In particular, high priority was placed on four strategies namely, free early bird incentives, discounted early bird or off-peak fares, increasing train frequency, and travel demand management programme, implying their potential applications for peak smoothing in Malaysian urban rail systems. The implications for practice and limitations of this study are discussed. It is suggested that the identified strategies should be targeted for intervention and evaluation to further refine our understanding of sustainable, effective, and cost-efficient ways in addressing current and future train overcrowding issues.
Rail, crowding, demand management, peak period, Malaysia
This article aims to examine the role of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states in enhancing the capability of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) for the purpose of achieving their ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint. A comparative case study between Singapore and Malaysia was adopted whereby multiple sources of data and information were gathered and synthesised using content analysis. Quantitative data were also used to support the qualitative analysis. An essential result indicates that even though Singapore and Malaysia have collectively agreed to develop regional economic community using SMEs as a tool, their strategic-oriented economic policies seem to be affiliated outside the group. They are more open to trade and investment with countries outside the group than their ASEAN partners. Additionally, besides the internal restrictions and differences on productive resources, market demands, workforce skills, and even technology and innovation for SMEs development, a paramount challenge stems from the aspiration of being the key economic player at both regional and global levels. Therefore, the pursuit of economic power has practically undermined the collective agreement mentioned above, and has simultaneously put the ASEAN regional economic integration process in jeopardy in face of the inconsistency of its member states' strategies and policies.
ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint, ASEAN Economic Community, economic integration, regional cooperation, small and medium enterprises development, strategic orientation
The overall aim of the study was to use the stories of four Mathematics teachers in a South African primary school to understand the influence of their current school context on their professional identity at a given point in time. This study forms part of a larger project that has been a narrative inquiry, undertaken as its research design to explore the identity construction of two experienced and two less experienced teachers. Data were collected by means of written accounts and individual interviews with these teachers. Although the participants' stories revealed previous personal and professional experiences as children, students and teachers in other school contexts, the positive impact of the current school context on their professional identity emerged as a central theme. The major finding of this investigation speaks of the dominance of the school context that seems to be a powerful force in the construction and reconstruction of teachers' professional identities.
Professional identity, narrative inquiry, school context, teacher collaboration, primary school, South Africa
Until 2010, the Indonesian cocoa exports had been dominated by cocoa beans, which led the government to stimulate the processing industry by implementing cocoa export tax policy. This study aims to determine the impact of cocoa industrialisation policy on the competitiveness of cocoa beans and processed products as well as the integration of cocoa prices. The implementation of export tax policy significantly decreases cocoa bean export competitiveness, contradictory with intermediate products. Export tax policy also has no impact on the integration of domestic and international cocoa market. In developing the cocoa downstream industry, on-farm support in producing fermented cocoa beans is vital.
Cocoa, comparative advantages, price, industry, Indonesia JEL classification F1 H2 H3 Q1
This study examines internal labour migration in Thailand to study the stress level of workers who have to care of and look after their ageing parents. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 300 Thai migrant labourers who continuously have to attend to their ageing parents. Thai Job Content Questionnaire (Thai-JCQ) was used to gather information on job stress level using the Job Demand Control (JDC) model developed by Karasek. Findings show that distance, wages, and working conditions have a direct effect on job stress. Wages had the most direct relationship with job stress with a standardised regression weight of 0.400 (p-value<0.01). In conclusion, distance, wages, and working conditions, each directly impacts job stress. However, caring for ageing parents is a mediator and a moderator of job stress levels.
Play is a social-centred process, able to boost motivation and promote learning across all levels and ages. With the growing push for creativity in the classroom as well as the application of effective technology in teaching and learning, it can be a daunting task for educators to find fitting competitive or game-based learning platforms. Foremost, educators need to consider elements such as motivation and whether the platform is likely to foster and reinforce learning. In the present study, a cohort of undergraduates at a public university in Malaysia were exposed to the use of Kahoot!, a game-based learning platform, during their weekly lectures for one semester. The participants were students of English for the Media, which covers theoretical and practical dimensions. The latter dimension includes the learning and application of media language features and devices. Survey data (51 respondents) on the whole, indicated that the students found Kahoot! to be beneficial in terms of: 1) inducing motivation as well as engagement, and 2) fostering and reinforcing learning (for both theoretical and practical aspects). The 33-item questionnaire created by the researchers was also tested for reliability, with returned values indicating high internal consistency, thus making the instrument a reliable option for use in future studies. The findings of this study are of relevance to researchers, educators, course designers, and designers of game-based learning applications.
Currently, due to the increase in life expectancies and the number of aging populations worldwide, there is a rise of aging illnesses, out of which the most common is dementia. At present, there are both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches which attempt to help the affected people in their fight against dementia. One of these approaches seems to be travelling. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to explore the current literature which deals with accessible tourism with special focus on tourists with dementia and their caregivers. In addition, the author attempts to detect difficulties tourists with dementia and their caregivers might face during their travels.