The study aims to assess rural youth sustainable livelihood in Malaysia. This is a quantitative study in which a total of 240 rural youths from four districts in Peninsular Malaysia were selected as respondents. Assessment of their sustainable livelihood was based on six capitals namely, human capital, social capital, natural capital, physical capital, financial capital and cultural capital. Analysis performed confirmed that human capital was the best capital possessed by the respondents, while cultural capital was the weakest. Further analysis confirmed that the factors of gender, educational achievement and occupation had significant relationships with the types of capital studied, while the factors of age, income and period of staying in the village recorded a significant relationship with the capitals studied. The discussion highlights the important findings of this study and it is hoped that they can assist concerned parties in constructing the best strategies to further improve rural youth sustainable livelihood.
Rural development, rural youth, sustainable livelihood, youth development
This study aims to examine the factors affecting entrepreneurial intention among youths in Malaysia. This study is quantitative in nature, and made use of a questionnaire as the main data-collection tool. Via multi-stage cluster sampling, a total of 400 youths from four districts in Peninsular Malaysia were selected as respondents. The analysis confirmed that all of the factors studied were found to have positive and significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention. Further analysis concluded three factors, namely attitude towards entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship knowledge and perceived feasibility, are the most significant factors contributing towards entrepreneurial intention among youth. These three factors (attitude towards entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship knowledge and perceived feasibility) need to be given particular emphasis in order to promote entrepreneurship intention among the target group. In other words, if these three factors among the target group were to be strengthened, there would be a greater likelihood that the group's entrepreneurship intention would be increased.
Education hub, internationalization of higher education, international student satisfaction
This paper explores some topics related to enhancing the sense of togetherness among youth within a virtual community. With the wider use of the Internet among the rural youth in Malaysia, rural communities are more exposed to global connection. The 1Malaysia Wireless Village Project has taken this many steps forward. The Internet has occupied social media of all kinds, and social media are widely accessed among rural youths. Rural youths occupy themselves within the social space of Facebook in a way that suggests that they find its functions useful for staying connected with friends near and far. Primary analysis has found that use of Facebook functions creates not only a social bond and support but also builds a social channel for obtaining and sharing current issues among virtual group members. The frequent use of its specific functions such as conversation, sharing, identity, reputation and group were found to have significant correlation with users' sense of togetherness. However, it was identified that the frequent use of the group function contributed the most to enhancing the perceived sense of togetherness among the virtual community members.
Facebook function usage, group, rural youth, sense of togetherness, social connectedness, virtual community
The involvement of youth in volunteer work is essential as it enables them to contribute to society (Checkoway, 2011). However, profile studies on Malaysian youth participation in volunteer activities are scarce and the subject warrants further research (Siti Raba'ah et al., 2011; Turiman et al., 2009). What is the level of participation of youth in volunteer activities? What hinders or motivates them to participate in volunteering work? This research profiles youth participation in volunteer activities in Malaysia. Specifically, it is aimed at profiling: 1) factors that motivate youth to participate in volunteer work; 2) the level of motivation towards participation in volunteer work among Malaysian youth; and 3) the most dominant motivation factor of youth participation in volunteer work. A total of 342 Malaysian youths participated in this nationwide study. A Youth Motivation on Participation in Volunteering Questionnaire was administered to Malaysian youth. Data were analysed and interpreted to provide the key findings on Malaysian youth engagement and participation in volunteer work. This study shows that the relationship between motivation and participation in volunteer work is positively significant. It shows that almost all the respondents in this study participating in voluntary activities were influenced by a number of motivating factors. The study ends with recommendations for policy makers and practitioners on how to attract youth to participate and to engage more effectively in volunteer work.
There are few studies on the Human Development Index (HDI) with regard to the community and very little is known about the community development index and the factors that impinge on it. This study seeks to fill this gap, and makes the examination of the factors that impinge on the human development index among river communities its main focus. This is a quantitative study and the measurement of the HDI is based mainly on an established online instrument. A total of 240 respondents, who were the villagers of four selected villages, make up the respondents of the study. Analysis confirms that factors such as gender, race, level of education, area and job category lead to significant differences of the HDI, while further analysis concludes that factors such as income, period of stay, distance to the nearest city and size of household have a significant relationship with HDI. The discussion will help the concerned parties to construct a workable strategy to further improve the HDI of the locals, particularly those who are settled near the Tembeling, Pahang and Muar Rivers.
Human development, Human Development Index, river communities
The inconsistencies among findings and lack of related studies have led to this study, the main objective of which is to gain the views of Malaysian small-scale fishermen on environmental changes and to recommend several strategies that can assist the fishermen community in coping with changes. This study is qualitative in nature. A total of three FGDs and one in-depth-interview were conducted among small-scale fishermen. Based on the thematic analysis, their awareness of environmental changes, the causes of environmental changes, the impact of these changes on the community and measures taken to absorb this impact have been identified. A number of recommendations related to providing alternative skills, conducting research, encouraging proactive roles by influential persons, using fisheries technology, conducting extra monitoring activities and making conservation efforts are highlighted.
Self-Help Groups (SHGs) are local organisations that create avenues for grassroots participation at the community level in self-help activities. SGHs play an important role in helping people participate in community development activities that eventually lead to empowerment. In line with this, this paper examined the relationship between dimensions of participation and empowerment among SHG members in Kano City, Nigeria. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 400 respondents from four local government areas of Kano City. The descriptive analysis showed a high level of participation and empowerment among the respondents. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between the dimensions of participation and empowerment. This study supported previous literature on SHG sustainability. Practically, SHG activities have the potential to become a model for sustainable community development projects at the locality level.
Community development, empowerment, Nigeria, participation, Self-Help Groups (SHGs)
This study attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the impingement factors of rural library services on rural community lifestyle in Malaysia. The quantitative method is used in this study and a survey and distributing questionnaire are employed as the main instruments in collecting the data. A total of 400 rural communities that used 16 rural libraries are selected as the respondents using multi-stage cluster sampling. The results of the study show that all the factors studied, namely sources, services, access criteria and interaction have a positive and significant relationship with rural community lifestyle. Further analysis using multiple linear regression confirmed interaction as the factor that most contributed to developing the rural community lifestyle. A number of recommendations are highlighted that can assist the parties concerned in constructing the best strategies to further develop rural library services in Malaysia.
Community lifestyle, information development, rural development
It is globally accepted that the earth's climate is changing. Such a phenomenon affects communities across the globe. One of these communities is that of small-scale fishermen. Past studies have shown poor understanding of climate change and low progress in development among fishermen because of the failure among stakeholders in understanding the mindset of beneficiaries such as their attitudinal setting. Much of the top-to-bottom development is impromptu, and most of the time, this makes them disorientated and may open them to the risks associated with climate change. Therefore, a better understanding of their attitude in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for future planning for climate change mitigation and engagement of fishermen communities with stakeholders. In general, this paper aims to determine the attitude of small-scale fishermen towards adaptation to climate change. The nature of this study is quantitative and the study uses a set of questionnaires and involves a total of 300 respondents from two fisheries districts in Peninsular Malaysia. The fishermen surveyed had a high level of adaptation with regards to attitude towards climate change, while their level of education, catching area, fishing technology, type of vessel and income are confirmed as influential factors.
Small ruminant (goat and sheep) farming is one of the emerging farming sectors that has a lot of potential that waits to be developed. It is constantly supported by various Malaysian government agencies in order to increase the self-sufficiency level of ruminant food. Several factors directly influence ranch farming and could contribute to the marginal profits. Hence, some ranchers are successful, while other ranchers facing similar circumstances are not. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the relationship between ranchers' demographic profile and the factors that contribute to success in small ruminant farming. The primary data was collected via face-to-face interviews using a well-structured questionnaire. The collected data were analysed using both descriptive and chi-square analysis. The results showed that age, marital status, educational attainment and level of experience have a significant relationship with the factors of success in this type of farming. The Department of Veterinary Services as the agency responsible for this type of farming needs to take action and make the necessary improvements, taking into consideration the ranchers' demographic profile, especially their age, marital status, educational attainment and level of experience in order to design training and innovative farm visits, among other initiatives. This will enable ranchers to reach higher levels of success in small ruminant farming. This in turn will enhance and boost the livelihood activities of the ranchers and subsequently develop the small ruminant industry in Malaysia.
Virtual training with its interactive and inclusive features is a very suitable psychological empowerment tool for people with disabilities in Malaysia's rural areas. Since the conduct of virtual supervision does not require any trainer or instructor to be physically present at the training premise, it is accessible for the usage of minority groups, who usually face the issue of mobility and accessibility. A session of virtual training involving 50 people with disabilities in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah was conducted for market validation of the virtual training. Post-training, the participants were interviewed to obtain their feedback on the virtual training in which they had participated. Overall findings from the interview showed that the participants had found the motivational virtual training to be relevant to them. The themes that emerged as the findings of the study are the conduciveness of virtual training for people with disabilities, modelling behaviour and error management. It has been found that virtual training could actually provide people with disabilities with the skill development and knowledge enhancement opportunities that lead to positive implications in their career development.
Empowerment, people with disabilities, rural area, virtual training module
With the right support from adults and opportunities for participation, young people can be social, political and economic assets for communities. In many Muslim-majority countries, however, youth demographic bulges, lack of educational opportunities and political instability have left large numbers of youth under-involved, with insufficient opportunities for meaningful participation. This state of affairs undermines the potential of young people to thrive and contribute to their societies, resulting in an untapped resource for their respective countries. A growing body of research indicates that meaningful youth involvement in community organisations, through participation in governance and decision-making, has great benefit for youth and community development. Building on recent quantitative and case study research from Malaysia, the current paper puts forward youth-adult partnership as a potential strategy for enhancing positive, meaningful youth participation in community development efforts for Muslim-majority countries. Findings from two recent quantitative studies indicate that youth-adult partnership has the potential to enhance young people's experiences in community organisations by strengthening their personal agency, sense of empowerment, leadership competence and feelings of connectedness to their communities. Case study results further demonstrate how effective youth-adult partnership can bring about social change and economic development to marginalised communities. The paper concludes with broad suggestions for infusing youth-adult partnership into youth and community organisations to enhance community development efforts in Muslim-majority countries.
Community development, developmental relationships, Malaysia, Muslim youth, youth-adult partnership
There is an increasing interest in spirituality at work for the past decade as individuals seek to live out their spiritual values in the workplace. Despite its importance as an individual experience that may be unique in different work settings for different individuals, it has not received adequate attention in organisational studies. This study examines the experience of spirituality (meaningful work, sense of community and alignment of values) among employees in two selected service industries, specifically the hospitality and education industries in Malaysia. Data were collected from 198 employees using a self-administered questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistics and an independent sample t-test. The overall level of workplace spirituality among employees in the educational organisations was higher than that in the hospitality organisations. We found that there were differences in the experience of work as meaningful, sense of connectedness with others at work and alignment of personal and organisation's values between employees in the educational and hospitality organisations. The results have implications for organisations in developing and planning practices aimed at nurturing spirituality at work.
Alignment of values, meaningful work, organisational culture, sense of community, workplace spirituality
For more than two decades, antecedents of employee commitment have been studied. However, few scholars have promoted spirituality as an antecedent of commitment, especially among public service employees, and the findings on the relative contribution of different spirituality dimensions to commitment were inconclusive. This study examined the experience of spirituality at work and its linkage with affective commitment among employees from four Malaysian public rural development organisations. Workplace spirituality was examined in terms of meaningfulness of work, sense of community and alignment of employee and organisational values. Questionnaire-based survey data from 274 employees were analysed. The findings indicated that the employees experienced a great sense of meaningfulness of work, sense of community and alignment with organisational values. The meaningfulness of work and alignment of values dimensions of spirituality significantly affected employee affective commitment to the organisations. However, the sense of community did not significantly affect commitment. Workplace spirituality dimensions explained 26.7% of the variance in affective commitment. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Affective commitment, Malaysia, public service, workplace spirituality