e-ISSN 2231-8534
ISSN 0128-7702

Home / Regular Issue / JSSH Vol. 30 (1) Mar. 2022 / JSSH-8240-2021


Factors Influencing ESL Learners’ Behavioural Intention in Using Edmodo: An SEM Approach

Jayanthi Muniandy, Malini Ganapathy and Munir Shuib

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 30, Issue 1, March 2022


Keywords: Edmodo, ESL learners, gender, SEM, UTAUT

Published on: 16 March 2022

This study examines factors influencing ESL learners’ behavioural intention in using Edmodo, a social learning network, as a virtual learning community platform under the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use Technology (UTAUT) model with gender as the moderator variable. A total of 200 English language learners from one of the public universities completed a five-point Likert questionnaire based on the UTAUT constructs: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions. The collected data were analysed using the structural equation modelling (SEM), and the results showed that facilitating conditions were the major predictor of learners’ behavioural intention. Besides, the learners’ gender had a significant moderation effect on social influence and behavioural intention. The findings of this study have the potential to enable English language educators to take into account the importance of the UTAUT factors and gender differences while developing an engaging and active virtual learning community.

  • Abidin, Z. N. A., Abu Bakar, A. H., & Ali, Z. (2018). Web 2.0: A collaborative learning approach using Edmodo in group discussion. Journal of Humanities, Language, Culture and Business, 2(10), 26-36.

  • Abu Bakar, A., Razak, F. Z. A., & Abdullah, W. S. W. (2013). Assessing the effects of UTAUT and self-determination predictor on students continuance intention to use student portal. World Applied Sciences Journal, 21(10), 1484-1489.

  • Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

  • Alqahtani, A. S. (2019). The use of Edmodo: Its impact on learning and students’ attitudes toward it. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 18, 319-330.

  • Andrienko, A. (2017). The role of virtual educational environment in English for specific learning purposes. Advances in Computer Science Research, 72, 209-215.

  • Anggoro, A., & Arisantoso. (2018). Analisis perilaku dari penerapan e-learning secara tidak penuh terhadap penggunaan aplikasi web Edmodo pada proses belajar mengajar dengan pendekatan UTAUT [Behavioural analysis of a full application of e-learning to the use of the Edmodo web application in the teaching-learning process with the UTAUT approach]. Maklumatika, 5(1), 54-63.

  • Annamalai, N., Kabilan, M. K., & Annamalai, S. (2018). Enhancing meaningful learning of poems using Edmodo. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 26(2), 841-858.

  • Asare, A. O., Shao, Y. F., & Adjei-Budu, K. W. (2016). Adoption of e-learning higher education: Expansion of UTAUT model. European Academic Research, 3(12), 13236-13259.

  • Ashari, M. Z. S., Azmi, N., Yaacob, Y., Noor Alshurdin, S. H., & Low, K. F. (2018). Interaction behavior on Edmodo in biology: Integrating UTAUT model. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7, 104-108.

  • Baumgartner, H., & Homburg, C. (1996) Applications of structural equation modeling in marketing and consumer research: A review International journal of Research in Marketing, 13(2), 139-161.

  • Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices. Global Text Project.

  • Brahmasrene, T., & Lee, J. W. (2012). Determinants of intent to continue using online learning: A tale of two universities. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, 7, 1-20.

  • Cyfeku, J. (2013). ESP students; variations across gender and proficiency. A case study. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 3(7), 774-781.

  • Ekici, D. I. (2017). The use of Edmodo in creating an online learning community of practice for learning to teach science. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 5(2), 91-106.

  • Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (3rd ed.). Sage Publications Ltd.

  • Fisher, A., Exley, K., & Ciobanu, D. (2014). Using technology to support learning and teaching. Routledge.

  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed.). Pearson University Press.

  • Holmes, J. (2007). Designing agents to support learning by explaining. Computers and Education, 48(4), 523-525.

  • Islam, M. A., Rahim, A. A., Tan, C. L., & Momtaz, H. (2011). Effect of demographic factors on e-learning effectiveness in a higher learning institution in Malaysia. International Education Studies, 4, 112-121.

  • Kapti. (2017). Evaluasi implementasi e-learning Edmodo di STMIK Bina Patria [evaluation of Edmodo eLearning implementation at STMIK Bina Patria]. TRANSFORMASI Jurnal Informasi & Pengembangan Iptek, 13(2), 62-68.

  • Khoo, Y. Y., Yusof, R., Yap, S., & Zakariya, Z. (2018). The effects of collaborative mobile learning using Edmodo among Economics undergraduates. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 7(3), 40-47.

  • Kline, P. (2013). Handbook of psychological testing. Routledge

  • Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Education, 30(3), 607-610.

  • Kurniabudi. K., & Assegaff, S. (2016). Analisis perilaku penerimaan Edmodo pada perkuliahan dengan model UTAUT [Edmodo acceptance behaviour analysis in lectures using the UTAUT model]. TEKNOSI, 2(3), 1-10.

  • Liaw, S., & Huang, H. (2011). A study of investigating learners’ attitudes toward E-learning. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Distance Learning and Education, 12, 28-32.

  • Mokhtar, F. A. (2016). Recognizing possible limitations of e-learning through Edmodo. Proceeding of ICECRS. 1, 243-252.

  • Neuman, W. L. (2014). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (7th ed.). Pearson New International Edition.

  • Ngo, J., & Ngadiman, A. (2019). The impacts of Edmodo on students’ performance in ESP classrooms. International Seminar on Language, Education, and Culture, 369-378.

  • Nguyen, H. B., & Nguyen, B. T. P. (2019). Edmodo use in ESP writing: Students’ perceptions. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 4(4), 130-140.

  • North-Samardzic, A., & Jiang, B. (2015). Acceptance and use of Moodle by students and academics. AMCIS, 1-13.

  • Nuari, E. S., Nurkhin, A., & Kardoyo. (2019). Analisis determinan pemanfaatan Edmodo dengan menggunakan unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) [determinant analysis of Edmodo utilization using Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)]. Jurnal Pendidikan Akuntansi Indonesia, 17(1), 57-73.

  • Purnawarman, P., Susilawati, S., & Sundayana, W. (2016). The use of Edmodo in teaching writing in a blended learning setting. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 5(2), 242-252.

  • Reid, J. M. (1995). Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom. Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

  • Simon, K. (2016). Edmodo: The Facebook of learning platforms. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 20(1), 1-8.

  • Sofia, H., & Phil, M. (2018). Video recordings of oral presentation skills and Edmodo app to enhance presentation skills of students. Challenges and Opportunities for Teaching and Research in English Language and Literature, 18(6), 110-119.

  • Straub, D., Boudreau, M., & Gefen, D. (2004). Validation guidelines for IS positivist research. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 13, 380-427.

  • Taherdoost, H. (2016). Validity and reliability of the research instrument; how to test the validation of a questionnaire/survey in a research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management, 5(3), 28-36.

  • Tan, P. J. B. (2013). Applying the UTAUT to understand factors affecting the use of English e-learning websites in Taiwan. SAGE Open, 3(4), 1-12.

  • Taqwatika, S., Agustini, K., & Suyasa, P. W. A. (2019). Analisis penerimaan sistem pembelajaran online Edmodo menggunakan Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Studi kasus: Kelas IX di SMP Negeri 1 Singaraja [Acceptance analysis of Edmodo online learning system using Unified Theory of Acceptance And Use Of Technology (UTAUT) case study: Class Ix At Smp Negeri 1 Singaraja]. Kumpulan Artikel Mahasiswa Pendidikan Tekni Informatika, 8(2).

  • Tatarinceva, A. M. (2009). Influence of the gender factor on a student ’s learning style and achievements in language learning. Problems of Modern Education, 64-71.

  • Thongmak, M. (2013). Social network system in classroom: Antecedents of Edmodo adoption. Journal of e-Learning and Higher Education, 1-15.

  • Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B. & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a united view. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425-478.

  • Viriya, C., & Sapsirin, S. (2014). Gender differences in language learning style language learning strategies. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(2), 77- 88.

  • Warawudhi, R. (2017). The evaluation of Edmodo in business reading class. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 7(2).

  • Williams, M. D., Rana, N. P., & Dwivedi, Y. K. (2015). The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT): A literature review. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 28(3), 443-488.

  • Wolf, E. J., Harrington, K. M., Clark, S. L., & Miller, M. W. (2013). Sample size requirements for structural equation models: An evaluation of power, bias, and solution propriety. Educational and psychological measurement, 76(6), 913-934.

  • Yunkul, E., & Cankaya, S. (2017). Students’ attitudes towards Edmodo, a social learning network: A scale development study. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education.

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Recent Articles