e-ISSN 2231-8534
ISSN 0128-7702

Home / Regular Issue / JSSH Vol. 31 (3) Sep. 2023 / JSSH-8393-2021


Does the Urban Park Provision Fit the Social Needs of the Community? Evidence for Semarang City, Indonesia

Intan Muning Harjanti, Imam Buchori and Rina Kurniati

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 31, Issue 3, September 2023


Keywords: Urban community, urban park, urban planning, social interactions

Published on: 22 September 2023

Urban Park is a green open space in the form of social facilities that play an essential role in improving the quality of life of urban communities. This study aims to determine the categories of urban park services that can fit the community needs in Semarang City, Indonesia, covering locations of observation: Simpang Lima Park, Indonesia Kaya Park, Pandanaran Park, Banjir Kanal Barat Park, and Sri Gunting Park. Data were obtained by using a semi-open questionnaire from 100 park users. The analysis process used a scoring technique and hypothetical score category. The results showed that urban park services were in the “medium’ category. It can be seen from the assessment of 17 ideal urban park variables, dominated by the “medium” category (335<=X<397). They are completeness of the facilities, quality of facilities, types and the number of trees, suitability of the distance between spaces, park cleanliness conditions, clean air quality, wind, and sun direction orientation, parks’ use for social interaction, and users’ interest to promote the parks. These results indicated that urban park services were not yet maximum in fitting the community needs. This study is expected to be used for evaluation and input for future urban park planning.

  • Abdelhamid, M. M., & Elfakharany, M. M. (2020). Improving urban park usability in developing countries: Case study of Al-Shalalat Park in Alexandria. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 59(1), 311–321.

  • Ahn, J. J., Kim, Y., Lucio, J., Corley, E. A., & Bentley, M. (2020). Green spaces and heterogeneous social groups in the U.S. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 49, Article 126637.

  • Arifin, H. (2006). Taman Instan [Instant Park]. Jakarta: Penebar Swadaya.

  • Asibey, M. O., Yeboah, V., Poku-Boansi, M., & Bamfo, C. (2019). Exploring the use, behaviour and role of urbanites towards management and sustainability of Kumasi Rattray Park, Ghana. Journal of Urban Management, 8(2), 182-194.

  • Ayala-Azcárraga, C., Diaz, D., & Zambrano, L. (2019). Characteristics of urban parks and their relation to user well-being. Landscape and Urban Planning.

  • Azwar, S. (2013). Penyusunan skala psikologi (kedua) [Psychology scalling (second)]. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

  • Bahriny, F., & Bell, S. (2020). Patterns of urban park use and their relationship to factors of quality: A case study of tehran, Iran. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(4), 1-33.

  • Bakar, N. A., Malek, N. A., & Mansor, M. (2016). Access to parks and recreational opportunities in urban low-income neighbourhood. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 234, 299–308.

  • Bogle, M., Diby, S., & Burnstein, E. (2016). Equitable development planning and urban park space. Urban Institute.

  • Boulton, C., Dedekorkut-Howes, A., & Byrne, J. (2018). Factors shaping urban greenspace provision: A systematic review of the literature. Landscape and Urban Planning, 178, 82–101.

  • Carr, S., Rivlin, L., Francis, M., & Stone, A. (1992). Public Space. Cambridge Uiversity Press.

  • Chan, C. S., Si, F. H., & Marafa, L. M. (2018). Indicator development for sustainable urban park management in Hong Kong. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 31, 1–14.

  • Chang, Q., Li, X., Huang, X., & Wu, J. (2012). A GIS-based green infrastructure planning for sustainable urban land use and spatial development. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 12, 491–498.

  • Chen, S., Sleipness, O., Xu, Y., Park, K., & Christensen, K. (2020). A systematic review of alternative protocols for evaluating non-spatial dimensions of urban parks. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 53, Article 126718.

  • Deng, L., Li, X., Luo, H., Fu, E. K., Ma, J., Sun, L. X., Huang, Z., Cai, S. Z., & Jia, Y. (2020). Empirical study of landscape types, landscape elements and landscape components of the urban park promoting physiological and psychological restoration. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 48(211).

  • Dinas Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil Semarang. (2018). Jumlah Penduduk Kota Semarang. Retrieved From, date accessed on October 6th 2019 at 19.18 WIB

  • Diseptyanto, D. (2014). Taman rekreasi pendidikan di semarang [Educational recreation park in semarang]. Imaji, 3(3), 131-140.

  • Ellicott, K. (2016). Raising the standard: the green flag award guidance manual. Green Flag Award.

  • Hariyadi, F., Widyastuti, D., & Joni Purwohandoyo. (2015). Identifikasi kualitas fisik taman kota sebagai ruang terbuka publik (Kasus: Bagian wilayah kota i, ii, iii kota Semarang)[Identification of the Physical Quality of the Urban Park as a Oublic Open Space (Case: Part of the Urban Area i, ii, iii, Semarang City)]. Jurnal Bumi Indonesia, 1(1), 1–14.

  • Harjanti, I. M. (2020). Identification of urban park quality in Taman Indonesia Kaya, Semarang. Journal of Architectural Design and Urbanism, 2(2), 1–14.

  • Hofmann, M., Westermann, J. R., Kowarik, I., & Van der Meer, E. (2012). Perceptions of parks and urban derelict land by landscape planners and residents. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 11(3), 303–312.

  • Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat. (2008). Peraturan Menteri Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat nomor 05/prt/m/2008 tahun 2008 tentang pedoman penyediaan dan pemanfaatan ruang terbuka hijau di kawasan perkotaan.

  • Kothencz, G., & Blaschke, T. (2017). Urban parks: Visitors’ perceptions versus spatial indicators. Land Use Policy, 64, 233–244.

  • Kurniawan, E. B., Purnamasari, W. D., Setyono, D. A., & Astrini, W. (2019). The influence of physical quality on service scale and frequency of visits in “alun-alun malang” City Square Park. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 328(1), Article 012061.

  • Lee, B. K., Sohn, S. Y., & Yang, S. (2014). Design guidelines for the Dashilar, Beijing open green space redevelopment project. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 13(2), 385–396.

  • Lee, G., & Hong, I. (2013). Measuring spatial accessibility in the context of spatial disparity between demand and supply of urban park service. Landscape and Urban Planning, 119, 85–90.

  • Li, C. L. (2020). Quality of life: The perspective of urban park recreation in three Asian cities. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 29, Article 100260.

  • Lindberg, M., & Schipperijn, J. (2015). Active use of urban park facilities - Expectations versus reality. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 14(4), 909–918.

  • Lynch, K. (1981). A good city form. MIL Press.

  • Lyu, F., & Zhang, L. (2019). Using multi-source big data to understand the factors affecting urban park use in Wuhan. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 43, Article 126367.

  • Marquet, O., Aaron Hipp, J., Alberico, C., Huang, J. H., Fry, D., Mazak, E., Lovasi, G. S., & Floyd, M. F. (2019). Park use preferences and physical activity among ethnic minority children in low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 38, 346–353.

  • Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. Harper & Row Publisher.

  • Nasution, A. D., & Zahrah, W. (2014). Community perception on public open space and quality of life in Medan, Indonesia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 585–594.

  • Olapiriyakul, S., & Nguyen, T. T. (2019). Land use and public health impact assessment in a supply chain network design problem: A case study. Journal of Transport Geography, 75, 70–81.

  • Peters, K., Elands, B., & Buijs, A. (2010). Social interactions in urban parks: Stimulating social cohesion? Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 9(2), 93-100.

  • Qin, J., Zhou, X., Sun, C., Leng, H., & Lian, Z. (2013). Influence of green spaces on environmental satisfaction and physiological status of urban residents. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 12(4), 490–497.

  • Rahayu, J. M., Buchori, I., & Wijayanti, R. (2019). The need for the improvement of street vendors managmenet in public space. Planning Malaysia: Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners, 17(2), 146–157. DOI:

  • Rink, D., & Arndt, T. (2016). Investigating perception of green structure configuration for afforestation in urban brownfield development by visual methods-A case study in Leipzig, Germany. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 15, 65–74.

  • Seymour, G. (1980). Recreation planning and design. Mc. Graw Hill, Inc.

  • Sugiyama, T., Carver, A., Koohsari, M. J., & Veitch, J. (2018). Advantages of public green spaces in enhancing population health. Landscape and Urban Planning, 178, 12–17.

  • Tahmasbi, B., Mansourianfar, M. H., Haghshenas, H., & Kim, I. (2019). Multimodal accessibility-based equity assessment of urban public facilities distribution. Sustainable Cities and Society, 49, Article 101633.

  • Taylor, R. B., Haberman, C. P., & Groff, E. R. (2019). Urban park crime: Neighborhood context and park features. Journal of Criminal Justice, 64, Article 101622.

  • Tsou, K. W., Hung, Y. T., & Chang, Y. L. (2005). An accessibility-based integrated measure of relative spatial equity in urban public facilities. Cities, 22(6), 424–435.

  • Ujang, N., Moulay, A., & Zakariya, K. (2015). Sense of well-being indicators: Attachment to public parks in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 202, 487–494.

  • Wei, F. (2017). Greener urbanization? Changing accessibility to parks in China. Landscape and Urban Planning, 157, 542–552.

  • Wibowo, A., & Ritonga, M. (2018). Kebutuhan pengembangan standar nasional Indonesia fasilitas taman kota [The need for the development of Indonesian national standards for urban park facilities]. Jurnal Standardisasi, 18(3), 161.

  • Wu, K. C., & Song, L. Y. (2017). A case for inclusive design: Analyzing the needs of those who frequent Taiwan’s urban parks. Applied Ergonomics, 58, 254–264.

  • Xue, F., Gou, Z., & Lau, S. S. Y. (2017). Green open space in high-dense Asian cities: Site configurations, microclimates and users’ perceptions. Sustainable Cities and Society, 34, 114-125.

  • Yin, J., Su, B., Fan, C., & Li, Q. (2020). Location of the public service facilities in an urban comprehensive park using a multi-hierarchy and multi-constrained configuration model. Journal of Urban Management, 9(2), 205–215.

  • Zhang, H., Chen, B., Sun, Z., & Bao, Z. (2013). Landscape perception and recreation needs in urban green space in Fuyang, Hangzhou, China. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 12(1), 44–52.

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles