Home / Special Issue / JSSH Vol. 29 (S1) 2021 / JSSH(S)-1498-2021


Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Students’ MOOC-Efficacy Measurement Model

Norliza Ghazali, Siti Salina Mustakim, Mohamad Sahari Nordin and Sulaiman Hashim

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 29, Issue S1, December 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjssh.29.s1.12

Keywords: Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), measurement model, MOOC-efficacy, reliability, validity

Published on: 14 April 2021

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have been identified as a potential innovation for improving teaching and learning. This research aims to develop and evaluate a measurement model of students’ MOOC-efficacy. The study conceptualized students’ MOOC-efficacy in four dimensions of information searching, making queries, MOOC learning, and MOOC usability. Data were collected with a 23 items questionnaire whose reliability indexes ranged from 0.822 to 0.890, identified from university students who have had some experience with MOOCs and who willingly volunteered to participate in the research (N=1,524). A sample of 623 respondents was drawn through simple random sampling. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was adopted for data analysis. The findings designate that four-dimensional students’ MOOC-efficacy measurement model achieved an acceptable level of fit (RMSEA = 0.061, CFI = 0.935 and a normed chi-square, χ2/df = 3.322). All statistics provide empirical evidence that the students’ MOOC-efficacy measurement model is psychometrically sound in terms of validity and reliability. The measurement model of students’ MOOC-efficacy provides further insights into what works in an open online environment which may be used to fulfill learners’ needs and preferences.

  • Abdul Rahman, A. D., Siti Sarah, J., & Anna Syafira, A. S. (2015). MOOCs at International Islamic University Malaysia. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology Research, 3(2), 140–149.

  • Almahdi, M. E., & Sulfeeza, M. D. (2017). The challenges of massive open online courses (MOOCs) a preliminary review. In J. Zulikha & N. H. Zakaria (Eds.). Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computing & Informatics (pp. 473-479). School of Computing.

  • American Psychological Association (2014). American Educational Research Association (AERA), & National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME). Standards for educational and psychological testing. American Educational Research Association.

  • Awang, Z. (2015). SEM made simple: A gentle approach to learning structural equation modelling. MPWS Rich Resources.

  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice Hall.

  • Bandura, A. (2000). Self-efficacy. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology. Oxford University Press.

  • Branson, K. J. (2017). Academic self-efficacy and Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) completion rates: Do academic self-efficacy and adult learner characteristics influence MOOC outcomes? [Doctoral dissertation]. San Diego State University. https://search.proquest.com/openview/b6286801e1b63c914a7261a42eb7a15d/1.pdf?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss =y

  • Cartwright T. J. & Atwood J. (2014) Elementary pre-service teachers’ response-shift bias: Self-efficacy and attitudes toward science. International Journal of Science Education, 36(14), 2421– 2437. doi: 10.1080/09500693.2014.92515

  • Chen, Y. L. (2014). A study on student self-efficacy and technology acceptance model within an online task-based learning environment. Journal of Computers, 9(1), 34–43. doi: 10.4304/jcp.9.1.34-4

  • Cheng, K. H., & Tsai, C. C. (2011). An investigation of Taiwan University students’ perceptions of online academic help seeking, and their web-based learning self-efficacy. Internet and Higher Education, 14(3), 150–157. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.04.00

  • Chiam, C. C. (2016). Benefits and challenges of massive open online courses. ASEAN Journal of Open & Distance Learning (AJODL), 8(1), 16-23.

  • Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach for structural equation modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern methods for business research (pp. 295-236). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Ching, G. S., Lin, M. C., Wang, W. L., & Tchong, W. L. (2014). Self-efficacy and online help seeking tendencies of EFL learners. International Journal of Learning Technology, 9(4), 374-391. doi: 10.1504/IJLT.2014.06773

  • Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th Ed.). Pearson Education.

  • Daneji, A. A., Ayub, A. F. M., & Khambari, M. N. M. (2019). The effects of perceived usefulness, confirmation and satisfaction on continuance intention in using massive open online course (MOOC). Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 11(2), 201–214. doi: 10.34105/j.kmel.2019.11.01

  • Daneji, A. A., Khambari, M. N. Md., Mohd Ayub, A. F. (2018). Influence of students’ perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and time spent towards students’ continuance intention using MOOC among public university students. In Wu, Srisawasdi & Banawan (Eds). Proceeding of the 26th International Conference on Computers in Education, Workshop Proceedings (pp. 576-581). Alteneo De Manila University.

  • Digital News Asia (2014). Taylor’s rolls out new free interactive MOOCs. Retrieved, May 24, 2019, from http://www.digitalnewsasia.com/digital-economy/taylors-rolls-outnew-free-interactive-moocs

  • Embi, M. A. Nordin, N., & Panah, E. (2014). Blended learning readiness in Malaysia. In M. A. Embi (Ed). Blended & Flipped Learning: Case Studies in Malaysian HEIs (pp. 37-56). Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

  • Fadzil, M., Abdol Latif, L., & Munira, T.A. (2015, Mac 10-11). MOOCs in Malaysia: A Preliminary Case Study. [Paper presentation]. E-ASEM Forum: Renewing the lifelong learning agenda for the future. Bali, Indonesia.

  • Fadzil, M., Abdol latif, L., Kassim, Z., & T Subramaniam, T. (2016, October 2-4). MOOCs readiness among Malaysian adult learners. [Paper presentation]. E-ASEM LLL Forum. Copenhagen, Denmark.

  • Fornell, C., & Larker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. doi: 10.2307/315131

  • Gan, W. Y., Mohd Nasir, M. T., Siti Aishah, H., & Zalilah, M. S. (2012). Validity and reliability of the multidimensional body image scale in Malaysian university students. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 18(3), 295-306.

  • Ghazali, N., & Nordin, M. S. (2016). The perception of university lecturers of teaching and learning in Massive Open Online Courses MOOCs. Journal of Personalized Learning, 2(1), 52–57.

  • Ghazali, N., Nordin, M. S., Abdullah, A., & Mohd Ayub, A. F. (2020). The relationship between students’ MOOC-efficacy and meaningful learning. Asian Journal of University Education, 16(3), 89-101.

  • Ghazali, N., Nordin, M. S., Hashim, S., & Hussein, S. (2018). Measuring content validity: Students’ self-efficacy and meaningful learning in Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Scale. Advance in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 115, (128-133). doi: 10.2991/icems-17.2018.2

  • Goh, L. H. (2017). The effectiveness and challenges of MOOC for learning. Asia Pacific Journal of Contemporary Education and Communication Technology (APJCECT), 3(1), 41–54.

  • Greene, J. A., Oswald, C. A., & Pomerantz, J. (2015). Predictors of retention and achievement in a massive open online course. American Educational Research Journal, 52(5), 925-955. doi: 10.3102/000283121558462

  • Grover, S., Franz, P., Schneider, E., & Pea, R. (2013). The MOOC as distributed intelligence: Dimensions of a framework & evaluation of MOOCs. In Rummel, N., Kapur, M., Nathan, M., & Puntambekar, S. (Eds.), To see the world and a grain of sand: Learning across levels of space, time, and scale: CSCL 2013 conference proceedings volume 2 — Short papers, panels, posters, demos & community events (pp. 42-45). International Society of the Learning Sciences.

  • Habibah, A. J., Alyani, I., Norasiken, B., Nur Azlinda, K. A., & Kamal, A. N. (2016). Evaluation of Malaysia pilot MOOC (Final Report). CADe UPM.

  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th Ed.). Pearson Education International.

  • Hakami, N., White, S., & Chakaveh, S. (2017, September 18-19). Identfying the motivational factors that influence learners’ intention to continue use Arabic MOOCs. [Paper presented]. IRES International Conference. Edinburgh, United Kingdom, http://www.worldresearchlibrary.org/up_proc/pdf/1074-15090810755-13.pdf

  • Hodges, C. (2016). The development of learner self-efficacy in MOOCs: Proceedings of Global Learn-Global conference on Learning and Technology. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

  • Hudiya, A., Fariza, K., & Aidah, A. K. (2017). Penggunaan massive open online course (MOOC) sebagai kaedah pembelajaran baharu. Pembelajaran Abad Ke-21: Trend Integrasi Teknologi [Use of massive open online course (MOOC) as a new learning method. 21st century learning: Technological Integration Trends]. Acadamia. Retrieved April 15, 2019, from https://www.academia.edu/31631536/Penggunaan_Massive_Open_Online_Course_MOOC_sebagai_Kaedah_Pembelajaran_Baharu

  • Jansen, D. & Konings, L. (2017) MOOC Strategies of European Institutions. Status report based on a mapping survey conducted in November 2016 – February 2017. EADTU. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from http://eadtu.eu/documents/Publications/OEenM/MOOC_Strategies_of_European_Institutions.pdf

  • Kilgore, W., & Lowenthal, P. R. (2015). The human element MOOC: An experiment in social presence. In R. D. Wright (Ed.), Student-teacher interaction in online learning environments (pp. 373-391). IGI Global.

  • Krejcie, R. & Morgan, D. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610. doi: 0.1177/001316447003000308

  • Kruchinin, S. (2019). An investigation into the attraction and completion rates of MOOCs. Knowledge Management & E-Learning, 11(1), 38–58. doi: 0.34105/j.kmel.2019.11.003

  • Ministry of Economic Affairs (2015). Eleven Malaysia plan 2016-2020. Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister’s Department. Retrieved January 2, 2020, from http://epu.gov.my/en/rmk/eleventh-malaysia-plan-2016-2020

  • Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2015). Malaysian Education Blueprint on higher education [Discussion document] – Shift 9: Globalised Online Learning. Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. Retrieved Mac 13, 2019, from http://moe.gov.my/cms/upload_files/files/chapter%2010-

  • Nasab, M. F., Abdul Kadir, R., Hassan, S. A., & Mohd. Noah, S. (2015). Psychometric evaluation of the career decision scale with Iranian undergraduate students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 93(3), 344-351. doi: 10.1002/jcad.12032

  • Nordin, N., & Norman, H. (2018). Cross-culture learning in Massive Open Online Courses for higher education. Malaysian Journal of Education, 43(1), 35–39. doi: 10.17576/JPEN-2018-43.01-0

  • Nordin, N., Embi, M. A., & Norman, H. (2015a). Malaysia MOOCs: The way forward. In B. Kim (Ed.), MOOCs and educational challenges around Asia and Europe (pp. 87–102). South Korea: KNOU Press.

  • Nordin, N., Norman, H., & Embi, M. A. (2015b). Technology acceptance of massive open online courses in Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Distance Education, 17(2), 1-16. Doi: 10.21315/mjde2015.17.2.1

  • Nordin, N., Norman, H., Embi, M. A., Mansor, A. Z. & Idris, F. (2016). Factors for development of learning content and task for MOOCs in an Asian context. International Education Studies, 9(5), 48. doi: 10.5539/ies.v9n5p4

  • Padilla Rodriguez, B. C., & Armellini, A. (2017). Developing self-efficacy through a Massive open online course on study skills. Open Praxis, 9(3), 335-343. doi: 10.5944/openpraxis.9.3.65

  • Pili, O., & Admiraal, W. (2017). Students’ learning outcomes in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): Some suggestions for course design. Journal of Higher Education, 7(1), 46–71. doi: 10.2399/yod.17.00

  • Rai, L., & Chunrao, D. (2016). Influencing factors of success and failure in MOOC and general analysis of learner behavior. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 6(4), 262-268. doi: 10.7763/IJIET.2016. V6.69

  • Rose Alinda, A., Syed Norris, H., Marlia, P., & Siti Hamisah, T. (2017). Redesign higher education towards industry 4.0, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SCRIBD. Retrieved May 15, 2019, from https://www.scribd.com/document/367933437/Higher-Education-4-0-Current-Status-and-Readiness-in-Meeting-the-Fourth-Industrial-Revolution-Challenges-1

  • Sahranavard, M., & Hassan, S. A. (2015). Investigation of construct validity of state anxiety inventory among Iranian 8th grade students. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(1), 63-70. doi: 10.3923/ajaps.2015.63.70

  • Sekaran, U. & Bougie, R. (2011). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. John Wiley & Sons.

  • Siemens, G. (2013). Massive open online courses: Innovation in education. In R. McGreal, W. Kinuthia & S. Marshall (Eds.), Open educational resources: Innovation, research and practice (pp. 5-15). Commonwealth of Learning and Athabasca University.

  • Terras, M. M. & Ramsay, J. (2015). Psychological perspective on massive open online courses. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(3), 472-487. doi: 10.1111/bjet.1227

  • Toven-Lindsey, B., Rhoads, R. A., & Lozano, J. B. (2015). Virtually unlimited classrooms: Pedagogical practices in massive open online courses. Internet and Higher Education, 24, 1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2014.07.00

  • Tsai, M. J., & Tsai, C. C. (2003). Information searching strategies in web-based science learning: The role of internet self-efficacy. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 40(1), 43–50. doi: 10.1080/1355800032 00003882

  • Wang, Y., & Baker, R. (2015). Content or platform: Why do students complete MOOCs? MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 11(1), 17–30.

  • Willis, J. E., Spiers, E. L., & Gettings, P. (2013). MOOCs and Foucault’s heterotopia: On community and self-efficacy. Journal of Interactive Media in Education. Retrieved April 10, 2019, from http://jime.openn.ac.uk/jime/index.

  • Zawacki-Richter, O., Bozkurt, A., Alturki. U. & Aldraiweesh, A. (2018). What research says about MOOCs – An explorative content analysis. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(1), 1-11. doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v19i1.336

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles