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  • Al Asmari, A. (2013). Investigation of writing strategies, writing apprehension, and writing achievement among Saudi EFL-major students. International Education Studies, 6(11), 130-143. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v6n11p130

  • Ali, N. L. (2013). A changing paradigm in language planning: English-medium instruction policy at the tertiary level in Malaysia. Current Issues in Language Planning, 14(1), 73-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2013.775543

  • Allen, L. K., Snow, E. L., & Mcnamara, D. S. (2016). The narrative waltz: The role of flexibility in writing proficiency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(7), 911-924. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000109

  • Ansarimoghaddam, S., & Tan, B. H. (2014). Undergraduates’ experiences and attitudes of writing in L1 and English. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 14(1), 7-28. https://doi.org/10.17576/GEMA-2014-1401-02

  • Aryadoust, V. (2016). Understanding the growth of ESL paragraph writing skills and its relationships with linguistic features. Educational Psychology, 36(10), 1742-1770. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2014.950946

  • Chiang, S. (2003). The importance of cohesive conditions to perceptions of writing quality at the early stages of foreign language learning. System, 31(4), 471-484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2003.02.002

  • Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge University Press.

  • Council of Europe. (2020). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Cambridge University Press.

  • Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). The development and use of cohesive devices in L2 writing and their relations to judgments of essay quality. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2016.01.003

  • Cummings, V. (1990). Speech and writing: An analysis of expository texts compared by native and non-native speakers of English at The City University of New York (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York.

  • Deygers, B., Van den Branden, K., & Peters, E. (2017). Checking assumed proficiency: Comparing L1 and L2 performance on a university entrance test. Assessing Writing, 32, 43-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.12.005

  • Don. Z. M. (Ed.). (2015). English language education reform in Malaysia: The roadmap 2015-2025. Ministry of Education Malaysia.

  • Eckstein, G., & Ferris, D.(2017). Comparing L1 and L2 texts and writers in first‐year composition. TESOL Quarterly, 52(1), 137-162. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.376

  • Finch, A. E. (2009). Europass and the CEFR: Implications for language teaching in Korea. English Language and Literature Teaching, 15(2), 71-92.

  • Ganapathy, M. (2015). Boosting Malaysian graduates’ employability via the new MUET policy. National Higher Education Research Institute (IPPTN).

  • Gyllstad, H., Granfeldt, J., Bernardini, P., & Källkvist, M. (2014). Linguistic correlates to communicative proficiency levels of the CEFR: The case of syntactic complexity in written L2 English, L3 French and L4 Italian. EUROSLA Yearbook, 14(August), 1-30. https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.14.01gyl

  • Harsch, C., & Hartig, J. (2015). What are we aligning tests to when we report test alignment to the CEFR? Language Assessment Quarterly, 12(4), 333-362. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434303.2015.1092545

  • Ivanic, R. (2004). Discourses of writing and learning to write. Language and Education, 18(3), 220-245. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500780408666877

  • Jafarpur, A. (1991). Cohesiveness as a basis for evaluating compositions. System, 19(4), 459-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(91)90026-L

  • Lee, Z. E. (2015). Colloquial Malaysian English (CMalE): A problem or a cool phenomenon? (Published Masters Thesis). Universitat Jaume I, Spain.

  • Liu, M., & Braine, G. (2005). Cohesive features in argumentative writing produced by Chinese undergraduates. System, 33(4), 623-636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2005.02.002

  • Llurda, E. (2013). English-medium instruction at universities: Global challenges. ELT Journal, 67(4), 497-500. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/cct045

  • Lowie, W. (2012). The CEFR and the dynamics of second language learning: trends and challenges. CercleS, 2(1), 17-34. https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2012-0002

  • McCarthy, M. (2013). Putting the CEFR to good use: Designing grammars based on learner-corpus evidence. Language Teaching, June 2013, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444813000189

  • Ministry of Finance. (2014). Budget 2015: People’s economy (Issue October 2014). Ministry of Finance.

  • Mohamed, M. (2008). Globalization and its impact on the medium of instruction in higher education in Malaysia. International Education Studies, 1(1), 89-94. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v1n1p89

  • Ming, T. S., & Alias, A. (2007). Investigating readiness for autonomy: A comparison of Malaysian ESL undergraduates of three public universities. Reflections on English Language Teaching, 6(1), 1-18.

  • Noijons, J., & Kuijper, H. (2010). Mapping the Dutch foreign language state examinations onto the CEFR. Aligning Tests with the CEFR: Reflections on Using the Council of Europe's Draft Manual, 33, 247.

  • Noor, S. N. F. M., & Kadir, Z. A. (2007, June 14-16). Students’ learning preferences of English for academic purposes -A KUiTTHO affair. In The Second Biennial International Conference on Teaching and Learning of English in Asia : Exploring New Frontiers (TELiA2) (pp. 1-11). UUM, Malaysia.

  • Nunan, A. (2014). Standardising assessment to meet student needs in foreign language modules in a university context: Is standardisation possible? Language Learning in Higher Education, 4(1), 117-135. https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2014-0008

  • Raoofi, S., Binandeh, M., & Rahmani, S. (2017). An Investigation into writing strategies and writing proficiency of university students. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 8(1), 191-198. https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0801.24

  • Shah, P. M., Mahmud, W. H., Din, R., Yusof, A., & Pardi, K. M. (2011). Self-efficacy in the writing of Malaysian ESL learners. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15(October), 8-11.

  • Singh, M. K. M. (2016). An emic perspective on academic writing difficulties among international graduate students in Malaysia. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 16(3), 83-96. https://doi.org/10.17576/gema-2016-1603-06

  • Samuel, R., & Bakar, Z. (2008). The effectiveness of ‘ VELT ’ in promoting English language communication skills : A case study in Malaysia. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 4(3), 109-126.

  • Schoonen, R., van Gelderen, A., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Simis, A., Snellings, P., & Stevenson, M. (2003). First language and second language writing: The role of linguistic knowledge, speed of processing, and metacognitive knowledge. Language Learning, 53(1), 165-202. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00213

  • Shakir, R. (2009). Soft skills at the Malaysian institutes of higher learning. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10(3), 309-315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-009-9038-8

  • Tajuddin, A. J. A. (2015). A Malaysian professional communication skills in English framework for English for occupational purposes courses [Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham]. Nottingham eTheses. http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/28747

  • Tan, K. E., & Miller, J. (2007). Writing in English in Malaysian high schools: The discourse of examinations. Language and Education, 21(2), 124-140. https://doi.org/10.2167/le663.0

  • Taylor, L., & Jones, N. (2006). Cambridge ESOL exams and the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). Research Notes, 24, 2-24.

  • Weigle, S.C. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511732997

  • Wu, J. R., & Wu, R. Y. (2007). Using the CEFR in Taiwan: The perspective of a local examination board. The Language Training and Testing Center Annual Report, 56, 1-20.

  • Wudthayagorn, J. (2018). Mapping the CU-TEP to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 11(2), 163-180.

  • Yang, W., & Sun, Y. (2012). The use of cohesive devices in argumentative writing by Chinese EFL learners at different proficiency levels. Linguistics and Education, 23(1), 31-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2011.09.004

  • Yoon, H. J. (2016). Association strength of verb-noun combinations in experienced NS and less experienced NNS writing: Longitudinal and cross-sectional findings. Journal of Second Language Writing, 34, 42-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2016.11.001

  • Yoon, H. J. (2017). Linguistic complexity in L2 writing revisited: Issues of topic, proficiency, and construct multidimensionality. System, 66, 130-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.03.007

  • Al Asmari, A. (2013). Investigation of writing strategies, writing apprehension, and writing achievement among Saudi EFL-major students. International Education Studies, 6(11), 130-143. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v6n11p130

  • Ali, N. L. (2013). A changing paradigm in language planning: English-medium instruction policy at the tertiary level in Malaysia. Current Issues in Language Planning, 14(1), 73-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2013.775543

  • Allen, L. K., Snow, E. L., & Mcnamara, D. S. (2016). The narrative waltz: The role of flexibility in writing proficiency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(7), 911-924. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000109

  • Ansarimoghaddam, S., & Tan, B. H. (2014). Undergraduates’ experiences and attitudes of writing in L1 and English. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 14(1), 7-28. https://doi.org/10.17576/GEMA-2014-1401-02

  • Aryadoust, V. (2016). Understanding the growth of ESL paragraph writing skills and its relationships with linguistic features. Educational Psychology, 36(10), 1742-1770. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2014.950946

  • Chiang, S. (2003). The importance of cohesive conditions to perceptions of writing quality at the early stages of foreign language learning. System, 31(4), 471-484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2003.02.002

  • Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge University Press.

  • Council of Europe. (2020). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Cambridge University Press.

  • Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). The development and use of cohesive devices in L2 writing and their relations to judgments of essay quality. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2016.01.003

  • Cummings, V. (1990). Speech and writing: An analysis of expository texts compared by native and non-native speakers of English at The City University of New York (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York.

  • Deygers, B., Van den Branden, K., & Peters, E. (2017). Checking assumed proficiency: Comparing L1 and L2 performance on a university entrance test. Assessing Writing, 32, 43-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.12.005

  • Don. Z. M. (Ed.). (2015). English language education reform in Malaysia: The roadmap 2015-2025. Ministry of Education Malaysia.

  • Eckstein, G., & Ferris, D.(2017). Comparing L1 and L2 texts and writers in first‐year composition. TESOL Quarterly, 52(1), 137-162. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.376

  • Finch, A. E. (2009). Europass and the CEFR: Implications for language teaching in Korea. English Language and Literature Teaching, 15(2), 71-92.

  • Ganapathy, M. (2015). Boosting Malaysian graduates’ employability via the new MUET policy. National Higher Education Research Institute (IPPTN).

  • Gyllstad, H., Granfeldt, J., Bernardini, P., & Källkvist, M. (2014). Linguistic correlates to communicative proficiency levels of the CEFR: The case of syntactic complexity in written L2 English, L3 French and L4 Italian. EUROSLA Yearbook, 14(August), 1-30. https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.14.01gyl

  • Harsch, C., & Hartig, J. (2015). What are we aligning tests to when we report test alignment to the CEFR? Language Assessment Quarterly, 12(4), 333-362. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434303.2015.1092545

  • Ivanic, R. (2004). Discourses of writing and learning to write. Language and Education, 18(3), 220-245. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500780408666877

  • Jafarpur, A. (1991). Cohesiveness as a basis for evaluating compositions. System, 19(4), 459-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(91)90026-L

  • Lee, Z. E. (2015). Colloquial Malaysian English (CMalE): A problem or a cool phenomenon? (Published Masters Thesis). Universitat Jaume I, Spain.

  • Liu, M., & Braine, G. (2005). Cohesive features in argumentative writing produced by Chinese undergraduates. System, 33(4), 623-636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2005.02.002

  • Llurda, E. (2013). English-medium instruction at universities: Global challenges. ELT Journal, 67(4), 497-500. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/cct045

  • Lowie, W. (2012). The CEFR and the dynamics of second language learning: trends and challenges. CercleS, 2(1), 17-34. https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2012-0002

  • McCarthy, M. (2013). Putting the CEFR to good use: Designing grammars based on learner-corpus evidence. Language Teaching, June 2013, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444813000189

  • Ministry of Finance. (2014). Budget 2015: People’s economy (Issue October 2014). Ministry of Finance.

  • Mohamed, M. (2008). Globalization and its impact on the medium of instruction in higher education in Malaysia. International Education Studies, 1(1), 89-94. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v1n1p89

  • Ming, T. S., & Alias, A. (2007). Investigating readiness for autonomy: A comparison of Malaysian ESL undergraduates of three public universities. Reflections on English Language Teaching, 6(1), 1-18.

  • Noijons, J., & Kuijper, H. (2010). Mapping the Dutch foreign language state examinations onto the CEFR. Aligning Tests with the CEFR: Reflections on Using the Council of Europe's Draft Manual, 33, 247.

  • Noor, S. N. F. M., & Kadir, Z. A. (2007, June 14-16). Students’ learning preferences of English for academic purposes -A KUiTTHO affair. In The Second Biennial International Conference on Teaching and Learning of English in Asia : Exploring New Frontiers (TELiA2) (pp. 1-11). UUM, Malaysia.

  • Nunan, A. (2014). Standardising assessment to meet student needs in foreign language modules in a university context: Is standardisation possible? Language Learning in Higher Education, 4(1), 117-135. https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2014-0008

  • Raoofi, S., Binandeh, M., & Rahmani, S. (2017). An Investigation into writing strategies and writing proficiency of university students. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 8(1), 191-198. https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0801.24

  • Shah, P. M., Mahmud, W. H., Din, R., Yusof, A., & Pardi, K. M. (2011). Self-efficacy in the writing of Malaysian ESL learners. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15(October), 8-11.

  • Singh, M. K. M. (2016). An emic perspective on academic writing difficulties among international graduate students in Malaysia. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 16(3), 83-96. https://doi.org/10.17576/gema-2016-1603-06

  • Samuel, R., & Bakar, Z. (2008). The effectiveness of ‘ VELT ’ in promoting English language communication skills : A case study in Malaysia. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 4(3), 109-126.

  • Schoonen, R., van Gelderen, A., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Simis, A., Snellings, P., & Stevenson, M. (2003). First language and second language writing: The role of linguistic knowledge, speed of processing, and metacognitive knowledge. Language Learning, 53(1), 165-202. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00213

  • Shakir, R. (2009). Soft skills at the Malaysian institutes of higher learning. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10(3), 309-315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-009-9038-8

  • Tajuddin, A. J. A. (2015). A Malaysian professional communication skills in English framework for English for occupational purposes courses [Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham]. Nottingham eTheses. http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/28747

  • Tan, K. E., & Miller, J. (2007). Writing in English in Malaysian high schools: The discourse of examinations. Language and Education, 21(2), 124-140. https://doi.org/10.2167/le663.0

  • Taylor, L., & Jones, N. (2006). Cambridge ESOL exams and the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). Research Notes, 24, 2-24.

  • Weigle, S.C. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511732997

  • Wu, J. R., & Wu, R. Y. (2007). Using the CEFR in Taiwan: The perspective of a local examination board. The Language Training and Testing Center Annual Report, 56, 1-20.

  • Wudthayagorn, J. (2018). Mapping the CU-TEP to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 11(2), 163-180.

  • Yang, W., & Sun, Y. (2012). The use of cohesive devices in argumentative writing by Chinese EFL learners at different proficiency levels. Linguistics and Education, 23(1), 31-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2011.09.004

  • Yoon, H. J. (2016). Association strength of verb-noun combinations in experienced NS and less experienced NNS writing: Longitudinal and cross-sectional findings. Journal of Second Language Writing, 34, 42-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2016.11.001

  • Yoon, H. J. (2017). Linguistic complexity in L2 writing revisited: Issues of topic, proficiency, and construct multidimensionality. System, 66, 130-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.03.007

  • Al Asmari, A. (2013). Investigation of writing strategies, writing apprehension, and writing achievement among Saudi EFL-major students. International Education Studies, 6(11), 130-143. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v6n11p130

  • Ali, N. L. (2013). A changing paradigm in language planning: English-medium instruction policy at the tertiary level in Malaysia. Current Issues in Language Planning, 14(1), 73-92. https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2013.775543

  • Allen, L. K., Snow, E. L., & Mcnamara, D. S. (2016). The narrative waltz: The role of flexibility in writing proficiency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(7), 911-924. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000109

  • Ansarimoghaddam, S., & Tan, B. H. (2014). Undergraduates’ experiences and attitudes of writing in L1 and English. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 14(1), 7-28. https://doi.org/10.17576/GEMA-2014-1401-02

  • Aryadoust, V. (2016). Understanding the growth of ESL paragraph writing skills and its relationships with linguistic features. Educational Psychology, 36(10), 1742-1770. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2014.950946

  • Chiang, S. (2003). The importance of cohesive conditions to perceptions of writing quality at the early stages of foreign language learning. System, 31(4), 471-484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2003.02.002

  • Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge University Press.

  • Council of Europe. (2020). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Cambridge University Press.

  • Crossley, S. A., Kyle, K., & McNamara, D. S. (2016). The development and use of cohesive devices in L2 writing and their relations to judgments of essay quality. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2016.01.003

  • Cummings, V. (1990). Speech and writing: An analysis of expository texts compared by native and non-native speakers of English at The City University of New York (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York.

  • Deygers, B., Van den Branden, K., & Peters, E. (2017). Checking assumed proficiency: Comparing L1 and L2 performance on a university entrance test. Assessing Writing, 32, 43-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.12.005

  • Don. Z. M. (Ed.). (2015). English language education reform in Malaysia: The roadmap 2015-2025. Ministry of Education Malaysia.

  • Eckstein, G., & Ferris, D.(2017). Comparing L1 and L2 texts and writers in first‐year composition. TESOL Quarterly, 52(1), 137-162. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.376

  • Finch, A. E. (2009). Europass and the CEFR: Implications for language teaching in Korea. English Language and Literature Teaching, 15(2), 71-92.

  • Ganapathy, M. (2015). Boosting Malaysian graduates’ employability via the new MUET policy. National Higher Education Research Institute (IPPTN).

  • Gyllstad, H., Granfeldt, J., Bernardini, P., & Källkvist, M. (2014). Linguistic correlates to communicative proficiency levels of the CEFR: The case of syntactic complexity in written L2 English, L3 French and L4 Italian. EUROSLA Yearbook, 14(August), 1-30. https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.14.01gyl

  • Harsch, C., & Hartig, J. (2015). What are we aligning tests to when we report test alignment to the CEFR? Language Assessment Quarterly, 12(4), 333-362. https://doi.org/10.1080/15434303.2015.1092545

  • Ivanic, R. (2004). Discourses of writing and learning to write. Language and Education, 18(3), 220-245. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500780408666877

  • Jafarpur, A. (1991). Cohesiveness as a basis for evaluating compositions. System, 19(4), 459-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(91)90026-L

  • Lee, Z. E. (2015). Colloquial Malaysian English (CMalE): A problem or a cool phenomenon? (Published Masters Thesis). Universitat Jaume I, Spain.

  • Liu, M., & Braine, G. (2005). Cohesive features in argumentative writing produced by Chinese undergraduates. System, 33(4), 623-636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2005.02.002

  • Llurda, E. (2013). English-medium instruction at universities: Global challenges. ELT Journal, 67(4), 497-500. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/cct045

  • Lowie, W. (2012). The CEFR and the dynamics of second language learning: trends and challenges. CercleS, 2(1), 17-34. https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2012-0002

  • McCarthy, M. (2013). Putting the CEFR to good use: Designing grammars based on learner-corpus evidence. Language Teaching, June 2013, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444813000189

  • Ministry of Finance. (2014). Budget 2015: People’s economy (Issue October 2014). Ministry of Finance.

  • Mohamed, M. (2008). Globalization and its impact on the medium of instruction in higher education in Malaysia. International Education Studies, 1(1), 89-94. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v1n1p89

  • Ming, T. S., & Alias, A. (2007). Investigating readiness for autonomy: A comparison of Malaysian ESL undergraduates of three public universities. Reflections on English Language Teaching, 6(1), 1-18.

  • Noijons, J., & Kuijper, H. (2010). Mapping the Dutch foreign language state examinations onto the CEFR. Aligning Tests with the CEFR: Reflections on Using the Council of Europe's Draft Manual, 33, 247.

  • Noor, S. N. F. M., & Kadir, Z. A. (2007, June 14-16). Students’ learning preferences of English for academic purposes -A KUiTTHO affair. In The Second Biennial International Conference on Teaching and Learning of English in Asia : Exploring New Frontiers (TELiA2) (pp. 1-11). UUM, Malaysia.

  • Nunan, A. (2014). Standardising assessment to meet student needs in foreign language modules in a university context: Is standardisation possible? Language Learning in Higher Education, 4(1), 117-135. https://doi.org/10.1515/cercles-2014-0008

  • Raoofi, S., Binandeh, M., & Rahmani, S. (2017). An Investigation into writing strategies and writing proficiency of university students. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 8(1), 191-198. https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0801.24

  • Shah, P. M., Mahmud, W. H., Din, R., Yusof, A., & Pardi, K. M. (2011). Self-efficacy in the writing of Malaysian ESL learners. World Applied Sciences Journal, 15(October), 8-11.

  • Singh, M. K. M. (2016). An emic perspective on academic writing difficulties among international graduate students in Malaysia. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 16(3), 83-96. https://doi.org/10.17576/gema-2016-1603-06

  • Samuel, R., & Bakar, Z. (2008). The effectiveness of ‘ VELT ’ in promoting English language communication skills : A case study in Malaysia. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 4(3), 109-126.

  • Schoonen, R., van Gelderen, A., de Glopper, K., Hulstijn, J., Simis, A., Snellings, P., & Stevenson, M. (2003). First language and second language writing: The role of linguistic knowledge, speed of processing, and metacognitive knowledge. Language Learning, 53(1), 165-202. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00213

  • Shakir, R. (2009). Soft skills at the Malaysian institutes of higher learning. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10(3), 309-315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-009-9038-8

  • Tajuddin, A. J. A. (2015). A Malaysian professional communication skills in English framework for English for occupational purposes courses [Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham]. Nottingham eTheses. http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/28747

  • Tan, K. E., & Miller, J. (2007). Writing in English in Malaysian high schools: The discourse of examinations. Language and Education, 21(2), 124-140. https://doi.org/10.2167/le663.0

  • Taylor, L., & Jones, N. (2006). Cambridge ESOL exams and the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). Research Notes, 24, 2-24.

  • Weigle, S.C. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511732997

  • Wu, J. R., & Wu, R. Y. (2007). Using the CEFR in Taiwan: The perspective of a local examination board. The Language Training and Testing Center Annual Report, 56, 1-20.

  • Wudthayagorn, J. (2018). Mapping the CU-TEP to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 11(2), 163-180.

  • Yang, W., & Sun, Y. (2012). The use of cohesive devices in argumentative writing by Chinese EFL learners at different proficiency levels. Linguistics and Education, 23(1), 31-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2011.09.004

  • Yoon, H. J. (2016). Association strength of verb-noun combinations in experienced NS and less experienced NNS writing: Longitudinal and cross-sectional findings. Journal of Second Language Writing, 34, 42-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2016.11.001

  • Yoon, H. J. (2017). Linguistic complexity in L2 writing revisited: Issues of topic, proficiency, and construct multidimensionality. System, 66, 130-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2017.03.007

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