Home / Pre-Press / JSSH-7665-2020


Machinery and Technical Efficiencies in Selected Paddy Areas in Malaysia

Siti ‘Aisyah Baharudin and Hayyan Nassar Waked

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Pre-Press

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjssh.29.4.07

Keywords: Farming efficiency, Malaysia, paddy production, socio-economic characteristics

Published: 2021-11-24

Malaysia’s paddy sector frequently relies on machinery in its activities, from land preparation until harvesting. However, the shortfall of meeting domestic demand, ineffective use of machinery, mismanagement, and technical inefficiency were among the sector’s challenges. This study analyses the socio-economic effect on machinery and technical efficiencies in Malaysia’s Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA) and Integrated Agricultural Development Area Barat Laut Selangor (IADA BLS) paddy areas. Qualitative data were collected using a face-to-face interview. The results confirmed that MADA respondents were highly trained, more educated, and more efficient in using machinery in the agriculture sector than IADA BLS. The same goes for MADA’s productivity, energy outputs, machinery efficiency, labour, and technology use, which were higher than IADA BLS. However, inadequate planning and managing farm activities led to poor paddy field conditions, including insufficient water supply system, irregularly shaped paddy field plots, and increasing difficulties in handling paddy diseases and maintaining the machinery. These challenges resulted in a frequent interruption of paddy production activities, incurring additional costs, decreasing profit, and jeopardising the farmers’ financial status. Therefore, it is recommended to use types of machinery that fit a particular purpose in terms of cost and technology and ensure the required services are carried out on time to maximise machinery efficiency. On the other hand, technical efficiency’s main challenges were the high operation cost and increasing fossil fuel use, combined with a lack of government subsidies. Research and development in agricultural energy use, environment, and government subsidies could decrease production costs and improve paddy production.

  • Alam, M. M., Molla, R. I., & Hossain, M. M. (2010a). Microentrepreneurship Development in Bangladesh: Achievements and Shortcomings. Saarbrucken, Germany: LAP Lambert Academic.

  • Alam, M. M., Siwar, C., Molla, R., Toriman, M., & Talib, B. (2010b). Socio-economic impacts of climatic change on paddy cultivation: an empirical investigation in Malaysia. Journal of Knowledge Globalization, 3(2), 71-84. Retrieved from SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2941310

  • Alam, M. M., Siwar, C., Talib, B., & Toriman, M. E. (2010c). The relationships between the socio-economic profile of farmers and paddy productivity in North-West Selangor, Malaysia. Asia-Pacific Development Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 18(1), 161-173.

  • Baharudin., S. A., & Arshad, F. M. (2014). Energy use in paddy production: NKEA’S estate in MADA area. Economic and Technology Management Review, 9, 51-59.

  • Boniphace, N. S., Fengying, N., & Chen, F. (2015). An analysis of smallholder farmers’ socio-economic determinants for inputs use: A case of major rice producing regions in Tanzania. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 38(2), 41-55. https://doi.org/ 10.18551/rjoas.2015-02.01

  • Chithranayana, R. D., & Punyawardena, B. V. (2008). Identification of drought prone agro-ecological regions in Sri Lanka. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 36(2), 117-123. https://doi.org/10.4038/jnsfsr.v36i2.143

  • Dardak, R. A. (2019,). Malaysia’s Agrofood Policy (NAP 2011-2020)- Performance and New Direction. FFTC Agricultural Policy. https://ap.fftc.org.tw/article/1368

  • Effiong, J. B., Effiong, G. B., & Udo, U. A. (2015). Socio-economic determinants of production of pro-vitamin a cassava varieties by farmers in Etim Ekpo local government area, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 21(2), 105-111. https://doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v21i2.2

  • Fahmi, Z., Samah, B. A., & Abdullah, H. (2013). Paddy industry and paddy farmers well-being: A success recipe for agriculture industry in Malaysia. Asian Social Science, 9(3), 177-181. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v9n3p177

  • Garcia, G. (2008). The agricultural machinery industry in Argentina: From restructuring to internationalisation? CEPAL Review, 96, 223-239. http://hdl.handle.net/11362/11348

  • Hussin, F., & Mat, A. W. (2013). Socio-economic level of paddy farmers under the management of MADA: A case study in the Pendang District, Kedah. Journal of Governance and Development, 9, 79-90. http://repo.uum.edu.my/id/eprint/11903

  • Integrated Agricultural Development Area. (2019). Agriculture report. http://www.iadapp.gov.my/Web/Page/Home.aspx

  • Juan, Z., Wu, J., & McDonald, M. (2003). The socio-economic impacts assessment of advanced convoy driving on motorway. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 37(9), 731-747. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0965-8564(03)00045-4

  • Khai, H. V., & Yabe, M. (2011). Technical efficiency analysis of rice production in Vietnam. International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences, 17(1), 135-146. http://issaas.org/journal/v17/01/journal-issaas-v17n1-15-khai_yabe.pdf

  • Khor, G. (2008). Food production strategies for improving household food security amidst rising food prices: Sharing the Malaysian experience. International Food Research Journal, 15(3), 249-257.

  • Livelihoods Outcome Indicator. (2013). Improving socio-economic conditions of paddy farmers in East Sri Lanka. Oxfam Great Britain. https://oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10546/303472/er-socio-economic-paddy-farmers-srilanka-effectiveness-review-010813-summ-report-en.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y

  • Muda Agricultural Development Authority. (2020). Maklumat asas MADA [Basic information of MADA]. http://www.mada.gov.my/?page_id=4115&lang=en

  • Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industries. (2020). Policy and Strategic Planning Division, MAFI. https://www.mafi.gov.my/bahagian-dasar-dan-perancangan-strategik

  • Mahidin, M. U. (2019). Selected agricultural indicators, Malaysia, 2019. Department of Statistics, Malaysia. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cthemeByCat&cat=72&bul_id=SEUxMEE3VFdBcDJhdUhPZVUxa2pKdz09&menu_id=Z0VTZGU1UHBUT1VJMFlpaXRRR0xpdz09

  • Man, N. (2009). Factors affecting the decision making in off farm employment among paddy farmers in Kemasin Semerak. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities,( ISSN: 0128-7702), 17(1), 7-15.

  • Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2019). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (4th ed.). Sage.

  • Nassiri, S. M., & Singh, S. (2009). Study on energy use efficiency for paddy crop using data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique. Applied Energy, 86(6-7), 1320-1325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.10.007

  • Noor, Z. M., & Hussein, M. A. (1986). The impact of free fertiliser subsidy scheme on economic efficiency of paddy farmers in West Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 3, 12-29.

  • Omar, S. C., Shaharudin, A., & Tumin, S. A. (2019). The status of the paddy and rice industry in Malaysia. Khazanah Research Institute (KRI). http://www.krinstitute.org/assets/contentMS/img/template/editor/20190409_RiceReport_FullReport_Final.pdf

  • Pingali, P. (2007). Agricultural mechanisation: Adoption patterns and economic impact. In R. Evenson, & P. Pingali (Eds.), Handbook of agricultural economics (Vol. 3, pp. 2779-2805). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0072(06)03054-4

  • Pishgar-Komleh, S. H., Sefeedpari, P., & Rafiee, S. (2011). Energy and economic analysis of rice production under different farm levels in Guilan province of Iran. Energy, 36(10), 5824-5831. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.08.044

  • Pryor, S. W., Smithers, J., Lyne, P., & Antwerpen, R. v. (2017). Impact of agricultural practices on energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for South African sugarcane production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 141, 137-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.09.069

  • Rahmat, S. R., Firdaus, R. R., Shaharudin, S. M., & Ling, L. Y. (2019). Leading key players and support system in Malaysian paddy production chain. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 5(1), 1708682. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2019.1708682

  • Tewari, V. K., Kumar, A. A., Kumar, S. P., & Nare, B. (2012). Farm mechanisation status of West Bengal in India. Basic Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Review, 1(6), 139-146.

  • The Star. (2019, January 23). Malaysia in bid to increase rice production by 5%. The Star. https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2019/01/23/malaysia-in-bid-to-increase-rice-production-by-5/

  • Yagi, H., & Hayashi, T. (2021). Machinery utilization and management organization in Japanese rice farms: Comparison of single‐family, multifamily, and community farms. Agribusiness, 37(2), 393-408. https://doi.org/10.1002/agr.21656

  • Yu, J. W. (2013). Green design for concurrent engineering in agriculture machinery. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 367, 151-155. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.367.151

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles