Home / Pre-Press / JSSH-8124-2021

 

Salience in the Media and Political Trust in Nigeria: The Mediating Role of Political Participation

Oladipupo Abdullahi Akinola, Bahiyah Omar and Lambe Kayode Mustapha

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Pre-Press

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjssh.29.4.03

Keywords: Corruption, political participation, political trust, salience in the media

Published: 2021-11-05

Political distrust is prevalent in many parts of the world. Scholars have discovered many factors affecting political trust, but they have paid little attention to the influence of issue salience in the media on political trust. Focusing on the role of media in assigning salience to corruption issues in Nigeria, this study examined the influence of mainstream media and social media on political trust. In addition, we treated political participation as a mediating factor and investigated its effect on the relationship between perceived salience of corruption in media and political trust. A survey was conducted on a sample of 688 Nigerians aged above 18 years old using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique. The data was later analyzed using Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). We found that salience in media predicted political trust, and the effect was stronger for social media than mainstream media contexts. Our findings also suggested that political participation directly affected political trust and was a significant mediator that affected the relationships between salience in the mainstream media (SMM) and political trust and between salience in the social media (SSM) and political trust. The results imply that salience in media leads to political participation, leading to political trust. This study supports the assumptions of both agenda-setting and agenda-melding theories. It suggests that policymakers in Nigeria should adopt media, especially social media, to restore the people’s trust in government.

  • Aarts, K., Fladmoe, A., & Strömbäck, J. (2012). Media, political trust, and political knowledge: A comparative perspective. In How media inform democracy (pp. 112-132). Routledge.

  • Albarran, A. B., & Moellinger, T. (2013). Traditional media companies in the US and social media: What’s the strategy? In Handbook of social media management (pp. 9-24). Springer.

  • Allen, L. P. (2016). College students’ trust in government, interpersonal trust, Facebook usage, and political efficacy (Master’s thesis). University of Louisiana.

  • Baltar, F., & Brunet, I. (2012). Social research 2.0: Virtual snowball sampling method using Facebook. Internet Research, 22(1), 57-74. https://doi.org/10.1108/10662241211199960

  • Bantimaroudis, P., Sideri, M., Ballas, D., Panagiotidis, T., & Ziogas, T. (2020). Conspiracism on social media: An agenda melding of group-mediated deceptions. International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, 16(2), 115-138. https://doi.org/10.1386/macp_00020_1

  • Berg, L. (2019). Citizens’ trust in trust in the European Union in challenging times. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcms.12558

  • Bonifácio, R., & Paulino, R. (2015). Corruption and political participation in the Americas and the Caribbean. Brazilian Political Science Review, 9(2), 54-80. https://doi.org/10.1590/1981-38212014000200011

  • Camaj, L. (2014) The media’s role in fighting corruption: Media effects on governmental accountability. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 18(1), 21-42. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161212462741

  • Ceron, A. (2015). Internet, news, and political trust: The difference between social media and online media outlets. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(5), 487-503. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12129

  • Ceron, A., & Memoli, V. (2016). Flames and debates: Do social media affect satisfaction with democracy? Social Indicators Research, 126(1), 225-240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s 11205-015-0893-x

  • Cheng, X. (2020). Malaise effect or virtuous effect? The dynamics of internet use and political trust in China. International Journal of Communication, 14(1), 1-22

  • Cheng, Y. (2021). Maxwell McCombs and Sebastián Valenzuela, setting the agenda: Mass media and public opinion. International Journal of Communication, 15(3), 1712-1714

  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

  • Dagona, Z. K., Karick, H., & Abubakar, F. M. (2013). Youth participation in social media and political attitudes in Nigeria. Journal of Sociology, Psychology and Anthropology in Practice, 5(1), 1-7.

  • Drakos, K., Kallandranis, C., & Karidis, S. (2019). Determinants of trust in institutions in times of crisis: Surveybased evidence from the European Union. Journal of Common Market Studies, 57(6),1228-1246. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcms.12884

  • Echeverría, M., & Mani, E. (2020). Effects of traditional and social media on political trust. Communication & Society, 33(2), 119-135. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.33.2.119-135.

  • Färdigh, M. A. (2013). What’s the use of a free media? The role of media in curbing corruption and promoting quality of government [Ph.D. dissertation, University of Gothenburg]. http://hdl.handle.net/2077/34302

  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312.

  • Gil de Zúñiga, H., Molyneux, L., & Zheng, P. (2014). Social media, political expression, and political participation: Panel analysis of lagged and concurrent relationships. Journal of Communication, 64(4), 612-634. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12103

  • Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). European Business Review, 26(2), 106-121. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-10-2013-0128

  • Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-11-2018-0203

  • Hair, J., Hollingsworth, C. L., Randolph, A. B., & Chong, A. Y. L. (2017). An updated and expanded assessment of PLS-SEM in information systems research. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 117(3). 442-458. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-04-2016-0130

  • Hänggli, R. (2020). Flow of frames: In the origin of dialogue in the news media. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-26582-3_7

  • Hetherington, M. (1998). The political relevance of trust. American Political Science Review, 92(4), 791-808. https://doi.org/10.2307/2586304

  • Huddy, L., Mason, L., & Aarøe, L. (2010, July 7-10). Measuring partisanship as a social identity, predicting political activism. Annual Meeting of the International Society for Political Psychology, Arhus University, San Francisco, CA, USA.

  • Iroghama, P. I. (2012). Trust in government: A note from Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 2(1), 258-267.

  • Jacob, M. S., & Schenke, G. (2020). Partisanship and institutional trust in Mongolia. Democratization, 27(4), 605-623. https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2019.1711060

  • Kiousis, S. (2004). Explicating media salience: A factor analysis of New York Times issue coverage during the 2000 US presidential election. Journal of Communication, 54(1), 71-87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2004.tb02614.x

  • Kiousis, S. (2011). Agenda-setting and attitudes: Exploring the impact of media salience on perceived salience and public attitude strength of us presidential candidates from 1984 to 2004. Journalism Studies, 12(3), 359-374. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2010.501149

  • Kleinnijenhuis, J., Hartmann, T., Tanis, M., & van Hoof, A. M. (2020). Hostile media perceptions of friendly media do reinforce partisanship. Communication Research, 47(2), 276-298. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650219836059

  • Krishna, S., & Jha, S. (2017) An assessment of the agenda between new media and traditional mainstream mass media. Journal of Advances and Scholarly Researches in Allied Education, 12(2), 103-108.

  • Kumar, D., Pratap, B., & Aggarwal, A. (2020). Public trust in state governments in India: Who are more confident and what makes them confident about the government? Asian Journal of Comparative Politics, 20(10), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1177/2057891119898763

  • Mare, A. (2013). A complicated but symbiotic affair: The relationship between mainstream media and social media in the coverage of social protests in southern Africa. Ecquid Novi: African Journalism Studies, 34(1), 83-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/02560054.2013.767426

  • Marien, S. (2017). Assessing the role of television, the family, and the school in the development of political trust in adolescence. Social Science Quarterly, 98(3), 818-835. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssqu.12433

  • McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36(2), 176-187.https://doi.org/10.1086/267990

  • McCombs, M. E., Shaw, D. L., & Weaver, D. H. (2014). New directions in agenda-setting theory and research. Mass Communication and Society, 17(6), 781-802.

  • Murtin, F., Fleischer, L, Siegerink, V., Aassve, A., Algan, Y., Boarini, R., González, S., Lonti, Z., Gianluca, G., Vallve, R.H., Kim, S., Lee, D., Putterman, L., & Smith, C. (2018). Trust and its determinants: Evidence from the Trustlab experiment [OECD Statistics Working Papers, 2018/02]. OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/869ef2ec-en

  • Mustapha, L. K., & Omar, B. (2020). Do social media matter? Examining social media use and youths’ political participation during the 2019 Nigerian general elections. The Round Table, 109(4), 441-457. https://doi.org/10.1080/00358533.2020.1788766

  • Mustapha, L. K., & Wok, S. (2015). Exploring the agenda-setting potential of homeland online newspapers on perceptions of elections issues among diasporic Nigerians in Malaysia. Intellectual Discourse, 23(2) 275-298.

  • National Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Demographic statistics bulletin. https://africaopendata.org/dataset/demographic-statistics-bulletin-nigeria-2017

  • Newton, K., Stolle, D., & Zmerli, S. (2018). Social and political trust. In The Oxford handbook of social and political trust. Oxford University Press.

  • Ogbeidi, M. M. (2012). Political leadership and corruption in Nigeria since 1960: A socio-economic analysis. Journal of Nigeria studies, 1(2), 1-25.

  • Okafor, O. N., Adebisi, F. A., Opara, M., & Okafor, C. B. (2020). Deployment of whistleblowing as an accountability mechanism to curb corruption and fraud in a developing democracy. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 33(6), 1335-1336

  • Omar, B. (2017). Online news production, consumption and immediacy: The remediation perspective. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 33(3), 250-266.

  • Omar, B., & Ahrari, S. (2020). Mainstream and nonmainstream media in Malaysia: Does lack of credibility lead to displacement? Newspaper Research Journal, 41(2), 127-145. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739532920919825

  • Park, S. Y. (2012). The effects of message framing and risk perceptions for HPV vaccine campaigns: Focus on the role of regulatory fit. Health Marketing Quarterly, 29(4), 283-302. https://doi.org/10.1080/07359683.2012.732847

  • Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 36(4), 717-731. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03206553

  • Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behaviour Research Methods, 40(3), 879-891. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

  • Ragas, M. W., & Roberts, M. S. (2009). Agenda setting and agenda melding in an age of horizontal and vertical media: A new theoretical lens for virtual brand communities. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86(1), 45-64. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769900908600104

  • Ramayah, T., Cheah, J., Chuah, F., Ting, H., & Memon, M. A. (2018). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) using SmartPLS 3.0. In An updated guide and practical guide to statistical analysis. Pearson.

  • Schneider, I. (2017). Can we trust measures of political trust? Assessing measurement equivalence in diverse regime types. Social Indicators Research, 133(3), 963-984. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-016-1400-8

  • Shahzad, S., & Omar, B. (2021). Social network matters: The influence of online social capital on youth political participation in Pakistan. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 18(4), 430-442 https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2021.1900018

  • Skamnakis, A. (2006). Politics, media and journalism in Greece [Doctoral dissertation]. Dublin City University.

  • Siapera, E. (2017). Understanding new media. Sage.

  • Wang, C. H. (2016). Government performance, corruption, and political trust in East Asia. Social Science Quarterly, 97(2), 211-231. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssqu.12223

  • Wilkes, R. (2015). We trust in government, just not in yours: Race, partisanship, and political trust, 1958-2012. Social Science Research, 49(3), 356-371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.08.008

  • Woo, C. W., Brigham, M. P., & Gulotta, M. (2020). Twitter talk and Twitter sharing in times of crisis: Exploring rhetorical motive and agenda-setting in the ray rice scandal. Communication Studies, 71(1), 40-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/10510974.2019.1 661866

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID

JSSH-8124-2021

Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles