Home / Regular Issue / JSSH Vol. 31 (1) Mar. 2023 / JSSH-8742-2022


Gender Differences in Binge-Watching by Teenagers: A Uses and Gratification Analysis

Hayam Qayyoum and Qurat-ul-Ain Malik

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 31, Issue 1, March 2023

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjssh.31.1.23

Keywords: Binge-watching, gender differences, teenagers, uses and gratification

Published on: 17 March 2023

The research was aimed at exploring whether there are gender differences in binge-watching patterns of urban-educated youth of Pakistan. Using the Uses and Gratification approach as the theoretical foundation of the research, the research investigated whether the motivations for binge-watching differed between males and females. The research also analyzed differences between genders on the negative impact of binge-watching. The methodology adopted for the research was the quantitative survey method. The purposive sample selected for the study comprised 300 male and female teenagers (13–19 years) who binge-watch online streamed content. The study’s findings revealed that Entertainment, Escape, and Excitement were the primary motivations of Pakistani teenagers to resort to binge-watching. However, it was found that Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) and Social Interaction were more important for females, while Excitement was deemed an important motivation by the males. Findings revealed that Sleep Disorder and Obesity were reported to be more of an issue than Depression and Productivity Issues. Furthermore, male binge-watchers reported a reduction in their Productivity, while female binge-watchers reported a disturbance in their sleeping patterns.

  • Ahmed, A. (2019). Marathon TV Watching among Emiratis 1 Marathon TV watching among Emiratis in the Interactive Media Environment. Arab Media & Society, (27), 1-24.

  • Ahmed, A. A. M. (2017). New era of TV watching Behaviour: Binge-watching and its psychological effects. Media Watch, 8(2), 192-207.

  • Anghelcev, G., Sar, S., Martin, J. D., & Moultrie, J. L. (2021). Binge-watching serial video content: Exploring the subjective phenomenology of the binge-watching experience. Mass Communication and Society, 24(1), 130-154. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2020.1811346

  • Anghelcev, G., Sar, S., Martin, J., & Moultrie, J. L. (2022). Is heavy binge-watching a socially driven behaviour? Exploring differences between heavy, regular and non-binge-watchers. Journal of Digital Media & Policy, 13(2), 201-221. https://doi.org/10.1386/jdmp_00035_1

  • Budzinski, O., Gaenssle, S. & Lindstädt Dreusicke, N. (2021). The battle of YouTube, TV and Netfix: An empirical analysis of competition in audiovisual media markets. Springer Nature Business and Economics, 1, 116-141. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43546-021-00122-0

  • Cabral, D., Castro, D., Rigby, J. M., Vasanth, H., Cameirão, M. S., Badia, S. B., & Nisi, V. (2020). To binge or not to binge: viewers’ moods and behaviors during the consumption of subscribed video streaming. In N. J. Nunes, L. Ma, M. Wang, N. Correia, & Z. Pan (Eds.), Entertainment Computing – ICEC 2020 (pp. 369-381). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-65736-9_33

  • Castro, D., Rigby, J. M., Cabral, D., & Nisi, V. (2019). The binge-watcher’s journey: Investigating motivations, contexts, and affective states surrounding Netflix viewing. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 20(10), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856519890856

  • Dandamudi, V. A., & Sathiyaseelan, A. (2018). Binge-watching: Why are college students glued to their screens? Journal of Indian Health Psychology, 12(2), 41-52.

  • De Keere, K., Thunnissen, E., & Kuipers, G. (2020). Defusing moral panic: Legitimizing binge-watching as manageable, high-quality, middle-class hedonism. Media, Culture & Society, 43(4), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443720972315

  • Divya, R. (2020). Binge-watching TV series: The attractive and the addictive. Journal of Brain and Neurological Disorders, 2(1), 1-2.

  • Erickson, S. E., Cin, S. D., & Byl, H. (2019). An experimental examination of binge-watching and narrative engagement. Social Sciences, 8(19), 19-27. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010019

  • Fernandes, A. I., & Pinto, M. S. (2020). Binge-watching behaviour among college students: A Uses and gratifications perspective. Mass Communicator International Journal of Communication Studies, 14(4), 17-24. https://doi.org/10.5958/0973-967X.2020.00021.6

  • Flayelle, M., Maurage, P., Karila, L., Vögele, C., & Billieux, J. (2019). Overcoming the unitary exploration of binge-watching: A cluster analytical approach. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 8(3), 586-602. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.53

  • Granow, V. C., Reinecke, L., & Ziegele, M. (2018). Binge-watching and psychological well-being: Media use between lack of control and perceived autonomy. Communication Research Reports, 35, 392-401. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2018.1525347

  • Greenberg, B. S. (1974). Gratifications of television viewing and their correlates for British children. In J. G. Blumler & E. Katz (Eds.), The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratification research (pp. 71-92). Sage.

  • Gregory, A. K. (2021). Complete analysis of Netflix, Inc. [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. University of Mississippi.

  • Halder, A., Ravindran, N. P., Das, A., & Harshe, D. (2021). Binge-watching and clinical depression- one harbinger for another. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 7(5), 79-81. https://doi.org/10.36713/epra2013

  • Halfmann, A., & Reinecke, L. (2021). Binge-watching as case of escapist entertainment use. In P. Vorderer & C. Klimmt (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Entertainment Theory (pp. 181-203). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190072216.013.11

  • Horeck, T., Jenner, M., & Kendal, T. (2018). On binge-watching: Nine critical propositions. Critical Studies in Television: The International Journal of Television Studies, 13(4), 499-504. https://doi.org/10.1177/1749602018796754

  • Jenner, M. (2019). Control issues: Binge-watching, channel-surfing and cultural value. Participations: Journal of Audience and Reception Studies, 16(2), 298-317.

  • Karim, F., Oyewande, A. A., Abdalla, L. F., Ehsanullah, R. C., & Khan, S. (2020). Social media use and its connection to mental health: A systematic review. Cureus, 12(6), 18-27. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8627

  • Katz, E., Blumler, J., & Gurevitch, M. (1973a). Uses and gratifications research. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 37(4), 509-523. https://doi.org/10.1086/268109

  • Katz, E., Haas, H., & Gurevitch, M. (1973b). On the use of the mass media for important things. American Sociological Review, 38(2), 164-181. https://doi.org/10.2307/2094393

  • Kroese, F. M., Nauts S., Anderson J., & Ridder D. (2016). Bedtime procrastination: A behavioral perspective and sleep insufficiency. In W. F. Sirois & T. Pychyl (Eds.), Perspectives on procrastination, health and well-being (pp. 93-119). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802862-9.00005-0

  • Krstić, S. (2018). “Binge-watching”: The new way of watching TV series. AM Journal of Art and Media Studies, 17, 15-23. https://doi.org/10.25038/am.v0i17.266

  • Matrix, S. (2014). The Netflix effect: Teens, binge-watching, and on-demand digital media trends. Jeunesse: Young People, Texts, Cultures, 6(1), 119-138. https://doi.org/10.1353/jeu.2014.0002

  • Merrill, K. Jr., & Rubenking, B. (2019). Go long or go often: Influences on binge-watching frequency and duration among college students. Social Sciences, 8(1), Article 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010010

  • Moore A. E. (2015, July 23). Binge-watching: Exploring the relationship of binge-watched television genres and colleges at Clemson University [Poster presentation]. Graduate Research and Discovery Symposium, Clemson, South Carolina, USA. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/grads_symposium/138

  • Nanda, A. P., & Banerjee, R. (2020). Binge-watching: An exploration of the role of technology. Psychology & Marketing, 37(9), 1212-1230. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.21353

  • Nathanson, A. I., Perse, E. M., & Ferguson, D. A. (1997). Gender differences in television use: An exploration of the instrumental-expressive dichotomy. Communication Research Reports, 14(2), 176-188. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824099709388659

  • Ort, A., Wirz, D. S., & Fahr, A. (2020). Is binge-watching addictive? Effects of motives for TV series use on the relationship between excessive media consumption and media addiction. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 13, Article 100325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2020.100325

  • Panda, S., & Pandey, S. C. (2017). Binge-watching and college students: Motivations and outcomes. Young Consumers, 18(4), 425-438. https://doi.org/10.1108/YC-07-2017-00707

  • Peper, E., & Harvey, R. (2018). Digital addiction: Increased loneliness, anxiety, and depression. Neuro Regulation, 5, 3-8. https://doi.org/10.15540/nr.5.1.3

  • Pierce-Grove, R. (2016). Just one more: How journalists frame binge-watching. First Monday, 22(1), 41-49. https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v22i1.7269

  • Pittman, M., & Sheehan, K. (2015). Sprinting a media marathon: Uses and gratifications of binge-watching television through Netflix. First Monday, 20(10), 31-42. https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v20i10.6138

  • Raheel, M. (2021, April 4). Spotlight: Why Netflix cannot afford to Chill. Dawn. https://www.dawn.com/news/1616352

  • Raza, S. H., Yousaf, M., Sohail, F., Munawar, R., Ogadimma, E. C., & Siang, J. M. L. D. (2021). Investigating binge-watching adverse mental health outcomes during Covid-19 pandemic: Moderating role of screen time for web series using online streaming. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 14, 1615-1629. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S328416

  • Rezende, H., & Gomide, J. V. B. (2017). Binge-watching and the new dominant way of consuming and producing TV series. Revista Lusófona de Estudos Culturais, 4(1), 73-88. https://doi.org/10.21814/rlec.178

  • Riddle K., Peebles A., Davis C., Xu, F., & Schroeder, E. (2017). The addictive potential of television binge-watching: Comparing intentional and unintentional binges. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 7(4), 589-604. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000167

  • Rosen, L. D., Cheever, N. A., & Carrier, L. M. (2012). iDisorder: Understanding our obsession with technology and overcoming its hold on us. Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Rubenking, B., & Bracken, C. C. (2018). Binge-watching: A suspenseful, emotional habit. Communication Research Reports, 35(5), 381-391. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2018.1525346

  • Rubenking, B., & Bracken, C. C. (2021). Binge-watching and serial viewing: Comparing new media viewing habits in 2015 and 2020. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 14, Article 100356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2021.100356

  • Rubenking, B., Bracken, C. C., Sandoval, J., & Rister, A., (2018). Defining new viewing behaviours: What makes and motivates TV binge-watching? International Journal of Digital Television, 9(1), 69-85. https://doi.org/10.1386/jdtv.9.1.69_1

  • Rubin, A. M. (1983). Television uses and gratifications: The interactions of viewing patterns and motivations. Journal of Broadcasting, 27(1), 37-51. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838158309386471

  • Ruggiero, T. E. (2000). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Communication and Society, 3(1), 3-37. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327825MCS0301_02

  • Schweidel, D. A., & Moe, W. W. (2016). Binge-watching and advertising. Journal of Marketing, 80(5), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.15.0258

  • Starosta, J. A., & Izydorczyk, B. (2020). Understanding the phenomenon of binge-watching—A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(2), Article 4469. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124469

  • Steiner, E., & Xu, K. (2018). Binge-watching motivates change: Uses and gratifications of streaming video viewers challenge traditional TV research. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 26(1), 82-101. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354856517750365

  • Sun, J.-J., & Chang, Y.-J. (2021). Associations of problematic binge-watching with depression, social interaction anxiety, and loneliness. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3), Article 1168. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031168

  • Trouleau, W. (2016). Just one more: Modeling binge-watching behaviour. Proceeding of the 22nd ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Association for Computing Machinery, 1215-1224. https://doi.org/10.1145/2939672.2939792

  • Upreti, B. R., Merikivi, J., Bragge, J., & Malo, P. (2017). Analyzing the ways IT has changed our TV consumption: Binge watching and marathon watching. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems. http://aisel.aisnet.org/icis2017/HumanBehavior/Presentations/31/

  • Vytiaz, A. (2018). Youtube – A new Era of TV? [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. Masaryk University.

  • Wagner, C. W. (2016). Glued to the sofa: exploring guilt and television binge-watching behaviors [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. Trinity University.

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles