PERTANIKA JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES

 

e-ISSN 2231-8534
ISSN 0128-7702

Home / Regular Issue / JSSH Vol. 46 (2) May. 2023 / JTAS-2617-2022

 

Effects of Spacing on Early Growth Rate and Yield of Hybrid Eucalyptus Stands

Guilherme Luiz Fernandes, Gianmarco Goycochea Casas, Leonardo Pereira Fardin, Gilciano Saraiva Nogueira, Rodrigo Vieira Leite, Laercio Couto and Hélio Garcia Leite

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 46, Issue 2, May 2023

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjtas.46.2.15

Keywords: Growth and yield modeling, harvest planning, mean annual increment, optimal harvest age

Published on: 16 May 2023

Optimizing tree spacing in a forest plantation is one of the main management techniques to improve stand quality and productivity. Its influence on growth from an early age is an important matter for forest management. This study aims to evaluate the effect of tree spacing on early growth rate and yield over time in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis hybrids. The data were obtained from an experiment in Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The plots were composed of five planting spacing (3.00 m × 0.50 m, 3.00 m × 1.00 m, 3.00 m × 1.50 m, 3.00 m × 2.00 m, and 3.00 m × 3.00 m) measured at the ages of 7, 12, 24, 36, 48, 61, 77, 85, and 102 months. Growth and yield were analyzed by fitting the Gompertz model and a baseline exponential model up to 36 months of age to evaluate the influence of early growth on the harvest age. A Pearson correlation matrix was also generated to find out the relationship between the mean annual increment in the respective treatments during the studied period. It was observed that a positive correlation in the average annual increase in the 3 × 2 and 3 × 3 spacings. It was verified that tree spacing influenced the yielded wood volume and the optimal harvest age. The early growth rate influences the optimal harvest, which may explain a possible loss of yield during the productive cycle of the forest stand.

  • Alvares, C. A., Stape, J. L., Sentelhas, P. C., de Moraes Gonçalves, J., & Sparovek, G. (2013). Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 22(6), 711–728. https://doi.org/10.1127/0941-2948/2013/0507

  • Berger, R., Schneider, P. R., Finger, C. A. G., & Haselein, C. R. (2002). Efeito do espaçamento e da adubação no crescimento de um clone de Eucalyptus saligna Smith [Growth rate of Eucalyptus saligna Smith clone affected by spacing and fertilization]. Ciência Florestal, 12(2), 75–87. https://doi.org/10.5902/198050981682

  • Bettinger, P., Boston, K., Siry, J. P., & Grebner, D. L. (2017). Forest management and planning (2nd ed.). Academic Press.

  • Buongiorno, J., & Gilless, J. K. (2003). Decision methods for forest resource management (1st ed.). Academic Press.

  • Campos, J. C. C., & Leite, H. G. (2017). Mensuração florestal: Perguntas e respostas (5. ed. atual. e ampl.) [Forest measurement: Questions and answers (5th ed.)]. Universidade Federal de Viçosa.

  • Clutter, J. L., Fortson, J. C., Pienaar, L. V., Brister, G. H., & Bailey, R. L. (1983). Timber management: A quantitative approach. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

  • Cockerham, S. T. (2004). Irrigation and planting density affect river red gum growth. California Agriculture, 58(1), 40–43. https://doi.org/10.3733/ca.v058n01p40

  • Corrêa, R. S., Soares, T. S., Alves, M. A., Souza, J. P., & Vieira, E. M. (2020). Plant spacing promote distinct production in eucalypt hybrid. Advances in Forestry Science, 7(3), 1073–1079. https://doi.org/10.34062/afs.v7i3.7887

  • da Silva, C. M. S., Silva, M. L., de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro, A., Donato, D. B., & de Magalhães, M. A. (2017). Cavacos e partículas de madeira – Concentração mundial de mercado e contribuição para a balança comercial Brasileira [Wood chips and particles - Global trade concentration and contribution to the Brazilian commercial balance]. Revista Ciência da Madeira, 8(2), 74–81. https://doi.org/10.12953/2177-6830/rcm.v8n2p74-81

  • de Alcantra, A. E. M., de Albuquerque Santos, A. C., da Silva, M. L. M., Binoti, D. H. B., Soares, C. P. B., Gleriani, J. M., & Leite, H. G. (2018). Use of artificial neural networks to assess yield projection and average production of eucalyptus stands. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 13(42), 2285-2297. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2017.12942

  • de Oliveira Neto, S. N., dos Reis, G. G., das Graças Ferreira Reis, M., & Neves, J. C. L. (2003). Produção e distribuição de biomassa em Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. em resposta à adubação e ao espaçamento [Biomass production and distribution in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. as influenced by fertilization and spacing]. Revista Árvore, 27(1), 15–23. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-67622003000100003

  • dos Santos, J., Lima, V. O. B., de Oliveira, J. C., Matos, P. S., & Trazzi, P. A. (2017). Avaliação do crescimento de clones de eucalipto no norte de Minas Gerais [Evaluation of the growth of eucalyptus clones in the north of Minas Gerais]. Enciclopédia Biosfera, 14(26), 75-83. https://doi.org/10.18677/EnciBio_2017B7

  • dos Santos Leles, P. S., dos Reis G. G., das Graças Ferreira Reis, M., & de Moraes E. J. (2001). Crescimento, produção e alocação de matéria seca de Eucalyptus camaldulensis e E. pellita sob diferentesespaçamentos na região de cerrado, MG [Growth and biomass distribution in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. pellita under different spacing in the savannah region, Brazil]. Scientia Forestalis, 59, 77–87.

  • Gompertz, B. (1833). On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies. In a letter to Francis Baily, Esq. F. R. S. &c. By Benjamin Gompertz, Esq. F. R. S. Abstracts of the Papers Printed in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 2, 252–253. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspl.1815.0271

  • Gonçalves, J. L. M., Stape, J. L., Laclau, J.-P., Bouillet, J.-P., & Ranger, J. (2008). Assessing the effects of early silvicultural management on long-term site productivity of fast-growing eucalypt plantations: The Brazilian experience. Southern Forests: A Journal of Forest Science, 70(2), 105–118. https://doi.org/10.2989/SOUTH.FOR.2008.70.2.6.534

  • Gross, J., & Ligges, M. U. (2015). Nortest: Tests for normality. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=nortest

  • Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. (2021). Produção da extração vegetal e da silvicultura [Production of plant extraction and forestry]. IBGE. https://www.ibge.gov.br/estatisticas/economicas/agricultura-e-pecuaria/9105-producao-da-extracao-vegetal-e-da-silvicultura.html?edicao=29153&t= fresultados

  • Lacerda, J., J. (2016). Estresse salino e seus efeitos no crescimento inicial de clones de Eucalyptus spp. [Salt stress and its effects on initial growth of Eucalyptus spp. clones] [Master’s dissertation, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia]. Institutional Repository of the Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia. http://www2.uesb.br/ppg/ppgagronomia/dissertacoes-e-teses/

  • Leite, H. G., Nogueira, G. S., & Moreira, A. M. (2006). Efeito do espaçamento e da idade sobre variáveis de povoamentos de Pinus taeda L. [Effect of spacing and age on stand variables of Pinus taeda L.]. Revista Árvore, 30(4), 603–612. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-67622006000400013

  • Moreira, J. M. M. Á. P., Simioni, F. J., & de Oliveira, E. B. (2017). Importância e desempenho das florestas plantadas no contexto do agronegócio Brasileiro [Importance and performance of planted forests in the context of Brazilian agribusiness]. Floresta, 47(1), 85-94. https://doi.org/10.5380/rf.v47i1.47687

  • Moulin, J. C., Arantes, M. D. C., de Oliveira, J. G. L., Campinhos, E., Gomes, F., & Vidaurre, G. B. (2017). Efeito do espaçamento, idade e irrigação no volume e densidade básica do Eucalipto [Effect of spacing, age and irrigation on the volume and basic density in Eucalyptus]. Floresta e Ambiente, 24, e00073914. https://doi.org/10.1590/2179-8087.073914

  • Paulino, E. J. (2012). Influência do espaçamento e da idade na produção de biomassa e na rotação econômica em plantios de eucalipto [Influence of spacing and the age on biomass production and economic rotation in eucalypt plantations] [Master’s dissertation, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri]. Acervo. http://acervo.ufvjm.edu.br/jspui/handle/1/492

  • Pinkard, E. A., & Neilsen, W. A. (2003). Crown and stand characteristics of Eucalyptus nitens in response to initial spacing: Implications for thinning. Forest Ecology and Management, 172(2–3), 215–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00803-9

  • Porté, A., & Bartelink, H. H. (2002). Modelling mixed forest growth: A review of models for forest management. Ecological Modelling, 150(1–2), 141–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(01)00476-8

  • Reis, T., Silva, S., Junior, I. T., Leite, R., Atanazio, K., Fardin, L., Cruz J., & Leite, H. (2022). Assessing alternatives for growth and yield modelling in eucalypt stands. Southern Forests: A Journal of Forest Science, 84(1), 34-43. https://doi.org/10.2989/20702620.2021.2011468

  • R Core Team. (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

  • Salles, T. T., Leite, H. G., Oliveira Neto, S. N. D., Soares, C. P. B., Paiva, H. N. D., & Santos, F. L. D. (2012). Modelo de Clutter na modelagem de crescimento e produção de eucalipto em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária-floresta [Clutter model in modeling growth and yield of eucalyptus in crop-livestock-forest integration systems]. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 47(2), 253-260. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2012000200014

  • Schneider, P. R., & Schneider, P. S. P. (2008). Introdução ao manejo florestal (2a ed.) [Introduction to forest management (2nd ed.)]. Universidade Federal de Santa Maria.

  • Schumacher, F. X., & dos Santos Hall, F. (1933). Logarithmic expression of timber-tree volume. Journal of Agricultural Research, 47(9), 719–734.

  • Soares, C. P. B., Leite, H. G., de Oliveira, M. L. R., & Carvalho, A. (2004). Especificação de um modelo de crescimento e produção florestal [Specifying a model of forest growth and yield]. Revista Árvore, 28(6), 831–837. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-67622004000600007

  • Souza, H. S., da Silva Lopes, A., Baretta, M. C., dos Santos, J. O. P., & de Arruda Tsukamoto Filho, A. (2020). Crescimento de eucalipto em diferentes arranjos espaciais de sistemas silvipastoris no município de Santa Rita do Trivelato – Mato Grosso [Growth of eucalyptus in different spatial arrangements of silvipastoral systems in the municipality of Santa Rita do Trivelato - Mato Grosso]. Advances in Forestry Science, 7(1), 847-853. https://doi.org/10.34062/afs.v7i1.5511

  • Stape, J. L., & Binkley, D. (2010). Insights from full-rotation Nelder spacing trials with Eucalyptus in São Paulo, Brazil. Southern Forests: A Journal of Forest Science, 72(2), 91–98. https://doi.org/10.2989/20702620.2010.507031

  • Watzlawick, L. F., & Benin, C. C. (2020). Variáveis dendrométricas e produção de Eucalyptus benthamii em diferentes espaçamentos [Dendrometric variables and Eucalyptus benthamii production in different spaces]. Colloquium Agrariae, 16(6), 111–120. https://doi.org/10.5747/ca.2020.v16.n6.a413

  • Wei, T., Simko, V., Levy, M., Xie, Y., Jin, Y., Zemla, J., Freidank, M., Cai, J., & Protivinsky, T. (2021). Corrplot: Visualization of a correlation matrix. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/corrplot