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  • Ahmed, M., & Alansari, B. (2004). Gender differences in anxiety among undergraduates from ten Arab countries. International Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 32(7), 649-655. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2004.32.7.649

  • Ahmed, N., Pathan, Z. H., & Khan, F. S. (2017). Exploring the causes of English language speaking anxiety among postgraduate students of University of Baluchistan, Pakistan. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(2), 99-105. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v7n2p99

  • Akkakoson, S. (2016). Speaking anxiety in English conversation classrooms among Thai students. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 13, 63-82. https://doi.org/10.32890/mjli2016.13.1.4

  • Alawiyah, T. (2018). Speaking self-efficacy and EFL student teachers’ speaking achievement. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran, 5(1), 87-96. https://doi.org/10.19109/ejpp.v5i1.2052

  • Alderson, J. C. (2017). The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) for English language assessment in China (Foreword to special issue). Language Testing in Asia, 7, Article 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40468-017-0049-9

  • Ali, M. A. K. (2017). English language anxiety: Development and validation of a brief measure. International Journal of Psychology and Educational Studies, 4(2), 42-53. https://doi.org/10.17220/ijpes.2017.02.005

  • Al-Sibai, D. (2004). Promoting oral fluency of second language learners: Educational linguistics. King Saud University.

  • Amiri, F., & Puteh, M. (2018). Oral communication apprehension among international doctoral students. English Language Teaching, 11(2), 164-171. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v11n2p164

  • Badrasawi, K. J., Solihu, A., & Ahmad, T. B. (2020). Second language speaking anxiety among Malaysian postgraduate students at a Faculty of Education. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 8(2), 54-61. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.8n.2p.54

  • Batiha, J., Noor, N., & Mustaffa, R. (2016). Speaking anxiety among English as a foreign language learner in Jordan: Quantitative research. International Journal of Education and Research, 4(10), 63-82.

  • Bond, T., & Fox, C. M. (2015). Applying the Rasch Model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences. Routledge.

  • Božić, D. L., & Pintarić, L. (2018). Comparison of employers’ and students’ perceptions regarding communication skills. The Journal of Teaching English for Specific and Academic Purposes, 6(1), 63-82. https://doi.org/10.22190/jtesap1801063b

  • Brown, H. D. (2004). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Harper and Row Publisher.

  • Bux, I. G., Ali, F. B., Umrani, T., & Ali, S. L. (2015). English speaking anxiety: A study of undergraduates at Lasbela University, Baluchistan. International Researchers, 4(1), 54-61.

  • Chin, C. (2016, February 28). Nation builders wanted. The Star Online. https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2016/02/28/nation-builders-wanted-malaysias-dream-of-becoming-a-highincome-nation-by-2020-could-crumble-if-we-d/

  • Clement, A., & Murugavel, T. (2015). English for employability: A case study of the English language training need analysis for engineering students in India. English language teaching, 8(2), 116-125. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v8n2p116

  • Council of Europe (2018). Common European Framework of Reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment - Companion volume. Council of Europe Publishing.

  • Crystal, D. (2004). The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language. Ernst Klett Sprachen Verlag.

  • David, A., Thang, S., & Azman, H. (2015). Accommodating low proficiency ESL students’ language learning needs through an online writing support system. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Special Issue1(2015), 118-271.

  • Desmaliza, D., & Septiani, T. (2017). Students’ self- efficacy and their speaking skill at lower secondary school. In International Conference on Education in Muslim Society (ICEMS 2017) (pp. 122-127). Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/icems-17.2018.24

  • Dewi, Z. Z., Azlin, M. Z., Bakar, S. B. A., & Sumaiyyah, O. (2015). English language communication needs at workplace as perceived by students. Journal of Science & Engineering Technology, 3(2), 27-31.

  • Dordinejad, F. G., & Ahmadabad, R. M. (2014). Examination of the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety and English achievement among male and female Iranian high school students. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 6(4), 446-460.

  • Elaldi, S. (2016). Foreign language anxiety of students studying English Language and Literature: A Sample from Turkey. Journal of Educational Research and Reviews, 11(6), 219-228. https://doi.org/10.5897/err2015.2507

  • Free Malaysia Today. (2017, November 13). Economist: Poor English, lack of experience costing grads jobs. Free Malaysia Today. https://bit.ly/2XFBWXk

  • Gürler, İ. (2015). Correlation between self-confidence and speaking skill of English language teaching and English language and literature preparatory students. Current Research in Social Sciences, 1(2), 14-19.

  • Hart, L. E. (1989). Classroom processes, sex of student, and confidence in learning mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 20(3), 242-260. https://doi.org/10.2307/749514

  • Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. A. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 125-132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1986.tb05256.x

  • Hossain, J. (2013). ESP needs analysis for engineering students: A learner-centered approach. Journal of PU, Part B, 2(2), 16-26.

  • Hudson, P., & Hudson, S. (2003). An evaluation of an English language immersion programme for ESL pre-service teachers. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 3(1), 42-65.

  • Ismail, N. A. (2011). Graduates’ characteristics and unemployment: A study among Malaysian graduates. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(16), 94-102.

  • Kakepoto, I. (2013). Oral presentation and communication skills in workplace environments among engineers and engineering students in Pakistan [Doctoral thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia]. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository. http://eprints.utm.my/id/eprint/44038/

  • Kalanzadeh, G., Mahnegar, F., Hassannejad, E., & Bakhtiarvand, M. (2013). The influence of EFL students’ self-esteem on their speaking skills. The International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 2(2), 77-84. https://doi.org/10.5430/wjel.v2n4p24

  • Kamaruddin, S. F., Daneil, I. L., Rijeng, J. S., Bohari, M. M., & Eng, T. H. (2019). The impact of listening and speaking anxieties on the Fourth Industrial Revolution: What can educators do? Language & Communication, 6(1), 409-423.

  • Kassim, N. L. A., & Zubairi, A. M. (2003, July 22-23). Interaction between test-taker characteristics, task facets and L2 oral proficiency test performance [Paper presentation]. Language Testing Research Colloquium, Reading, United Kingdom.

  • Koriat, A., Lichtenstein, S., & Fischhoff, B. (1980). Reasons for confidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 107-118. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.6.2.107

  • Kumar, U. H. (2018). English language anxiety and academic achievement. North Asian International Research Journal of Social Science & Humanities, 4(3), 138-147.

  • Linacre, J. M. (2018). A user’s guide to WINSTEPS MINISTEP Rasch-model computer programs (Program Manual No. 4.1.0). www.winsteps.com

  • Linacre, J.M. (2019). A user’s guide to Winsteps & Ministeps (Rasch-Model Computer Programs). (Program Manual 4.4.5). www.winsteps.com

  • Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2003). The role of self-efficacy beliefs in student engagement and learning in the classroom. Reading &Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 119-137. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573560308223

  • MacIntyre, P. D. (1999). Language anxiety: A review of literature for language teachers. In D. J. Young (Ed.), Effect in Foreign Language and Second language learning (pp.24-43). McGraw Hill Companies.

  • Malaysian Employers Federation. (2016). English proficiency critical to enhance employability of graduates. https://www.mef.org.my/Attachments/PR161124b.pdf

  • Mandokhail, S., Khan, F. R., & Malghani, M. (2018). Impact of ESL learners’ self-esteem on their oral proficiency. International Journal of English Linguistics, 8(3), 210-222. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v8n3p210

  • McCroskey, J. (1970). Measures of communication‐bound anxiety. Speech Monographs, 37(4), 269-277. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637757009375677

  • McDonough, K. (2004). Learner-learner interaction during pair and small group activities in a Thai EFL context. System, 32(2), 207-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2004.01.003

  • Ministry of Education. (2012). Malaysia education blueprint 2013-2025. Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.

  • Mulyono, H., Sari, R. N., & Ningsih, S. K. (2019). Factors contributing to EFL students’ speaking anxiety. Register Journal, 12(1), 13-27. https://doi.org/10.18326/rgt.v12i1.13-27

  • Musa, N. C., Koo, Y. L., & Azman, H. (2012). Exploring English language learning and teaching in Malaysia. GEMA: Online Journal of Language Studies, 12(1), 35-51.

  • Nair, G. K. S., Rahim, R. A., Setia, R., Husin, N., Sabapathy, E., Jalil, N. A. A., & Yusoff, N. I. M. (2012). Malaysian graduates English adequacy in the job sector. Asian Social Science, 8(4), 143-147. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v8n4p143

  • Nishanti, R. (2018). The importance of learning English in today world. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, 3(1), 871-874. https://doi.org/10.31142/ijtsrd19061

  • Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 543-578. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543066004543

  • Pandarangga, S. (2015). The transformation of English as a global language in the world. LiNGUA, 10(2), 90-96. https://doi.org/10.18860/ling.v10i2.3132

  • Pappamihiel, N. E. (2002). English as a second language students and English language anxiety: Issues in the mainstream classroom. Research in the Teaching of English, 36(3), 327-355.

  • Pennycook, A. (2014). The cultural politics of English as an international language. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315843605

  • Rajprasit, K., & Hemchua, S. (2015). The English language & communication in the international workplace: An examination of Thai computer engineering professionals. The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 21(3), 109-124.

  • Ramamuruthy, V. (2019). The effects of task-based approach on speaking anxiety among ESL low proficiency diploma students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 7(6), 1363-1375. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2019.070604

  • Reddy, R. (2016). Development of communication skills in English for engineering graduates. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 21(5), 102-104.

  • Riasati, M. J. (2011). Language learning anxiety from EFL learners’ perspective. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 7(6), 907-914.

  • Roshid, M. M., & Chowdhury, R. (2013). English language proficiency and employment: A case study of Bangladeshi graduates in Australian employment market. Online Submission, 3(1), 68-81. https://doi.org/10.13054/mije.13.06.3.1

  • Rusli, R., Yunus, M. M., & Hashim, H. (2018, April 23-24). Low speaking proficiency among the Malaysian undergraduates: Why and how? In e-Persidangan Antarabangsa Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan (pp. 678-689). Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor.

  • Sadighi, F., & Dastpak, M. (2017). The sources of foreign language speaking anxiety of Iranian English language learners. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 5(4), 111-115. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.5n.4p.111

  • Salem, M. S., & Al Dyiar, M. A. (2014). The relationship between speaking anxiety and oral fluency of special education Arab learners of English. Asian Social Science, 10(12), 170-176. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v10n12p170

  • Scrivener, J. (2005). Learning teaching: A guidebook for English teachers. Macmillan Education.

  • Shakir, R. (2009). Soft skills at the Malaysian institutes of higher learning. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10(3), 309-315. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-009-9038-8

  • Sheth, T. D. (2016). Communication skill: A prerequisite for engineers. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL), 3(7), 51-54.

  • Shrauger, J. S., & Schohn, M. (1995). Self-confidence in college students: Conceptualization, measurement, and behavioral implications. Assessment, 2(3), 255-278. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191195002003006

  • Spence, P., & Liu, G. (2013). Engineering English and the high-tech industry: A case study of an English needs analysis of process integration engineers at a semiconductor manufacturing company in Taiwan. English for Specific Purposes, 32, 97-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2012.11.003

  • Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety (From Y). Consulting Psychologists Press.

  • Stenstrom, A. B. (2014). An introduction to spoken interaction. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315845449

  • Sunyi, D. P. (2017). Investigating students’ self-efficacy of public speaking. International Journal of Education and Research, 5(10), 97-108.

  • Tanveer, M. (2007). Investigation of the factors that cause language anxiety for ESL/EFL learners in learning speaking skills and the influence it casts on communication in the target language [Master’s thesis, University of Glasgow]. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/293263722

  • Ting, S., Marzuki E., Chuah K., Misieng, J., & Jerome, C. (2017). Employers’ views on the importance of English proficiency and communication skill for employability in Malaysia. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7(2), 315-327. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v7i2.8132

  • Tridinanti, G. (2018). The correlation between speaking anxiety, self-confidence, and speaking achievement of undergraduate EFL students of private university in Palembang. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 6(4), 35-39. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.6n.4p.35

  • The Sun Daily. (2018, January 22). Language main barrier to grads getting jobs (Updated). The Sun Daily. https://www.thesundaily.my/archive/language-main-barrier-grads-getting-jobs-updated-BUARCH520890

  • Tsou, W. (2005). The effects of cultural instruction on foreign language learning. RELC Journal, 36(1), 39-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688205053481

  • UNESCO. (2012). Graduate employability in Asia. UNESCO Bangkok.

  • Ur, P. (1996). A course in language teaching: Practice and theory. Cambridge University Press.

  • Wijewardene, L., Yong, D., & Chinna, K. (2014). English for Employability-the need of the hour for Sri Lankan graduates. British Journal or Arts and Social Sciences, 17(1), 137-145.

  • Xue, J., & Zuo, W. (2013). English dominance and its influence on international communication. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(12), 2262-2266. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.3.12.2262-2266

  • Yim, S. Y., & Yu, Y. L. (2011). Validating the English learning anxiety scale for primary school students in Korea. English Teaching, 66(2), 101-123. https://doi.org/10.15858/engtea.66.2.201106.101

  • Zahiri, A., Sibarani, B., & Sumarsih (2017). To what extent do anxiety and self-efficacy effect the EFL students’ English monologue speaking skill? International Journal of Education and Research, 5(9), 151-160.

  • Zhang, R., & Zhong, J. (2012). The hindrance of doubt: Causes of language anxiety. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2(3), 27-33. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v2n3p27

  • Ahmed, M., & Alansari, B. (2004). Gender differences in anxiety among undergraduates from ten Arab countries. International Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 32(7), 649-655. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2004.32.7.649

  • Ahmed, N., Pathan, Z. H., & Khan, F. S. (2017). Exploring the causes of English language speaking anxiety among postgraduate students of University of Baluchistan, Pakistan. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(2), 99-105. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v7n2p99

  • Akkakoson, S. (2016). Speaking anxiety in English conversation classrooms among Thai students. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 13, 63-82. https://doi.org/10.32890/mjli2016.13.1.4

  • Alawiyah, T. (2018). Speaking self-efficacy and EFL student teachers’ speaking achievement. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran, 5(1), 87-96. https://doi.org/10.19109/ejpp.v5i1.2052

  • Alderson, J. C. (2017). The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) for English language assessment in China (Foreword to special issue). Language Testing in Asia, 7, Article 20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40468-017-0049-9

  • Ali, M. A. K. (2017). English language anxiety: Development and validation of a brief measure. International Journal of Psychology and Educational Studies, 4(2), 42-53. https://doi.org/10.17220/ijpes.2017.02.005

  • Al-Sibai, D. (2004). Promoting oral fluency of second language learners: Educational linguistics. King Saud University.

  • Amiri, F., & Puteh, M. (2018). Oral communication apprehension among international doctoral students. English Language Teaching, 11(2), 164-171. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v11n2p164

  • Badrasawi, K. J., Solihu, A., & Ahmad, T. B. (2020). Second language speaking anxiety among Malaysian postgraduate students at a Faculty of Education. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 8(2), 54-61. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.8n.2p.54

  • Batiha, J., Noor, N., & Mustaffa, R. (2016). Speaking anxiety among English as a foreign language learner in Jordan: Quantitative research. International Journal of Education and Research, 4(10), 63-82.

  • Bond, T., & Fox, C. M. (2015). Applying the Rasch Model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences. Routledge.

  • Božić, D. L., & Pintarić, L. (2018). Comparison of employers’ and students’ perceptions regarding communication skills. The Journal of Teaching English for Specific and Academic Purposes, 6(1), 63-82. https://doi.org/10.22190/jtesap1801063b

  • Brown, H. D. (2004). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Harper and Row Publisher.

  • Bux, I. G., Ali, F. B., Umrani, T., & Ali, S. L. (2015). English speaking anxiety: A study of undergraduates at Lasbela University, Baluchistan. International Researchers, 4(1), 54-61.

  • Chin, C. (2016, February 28). Nation builders wanted. The Star Online. https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2016/02/28/nation-builders-wanted-malaysias-dream-of-becoming-a-highincome-nation-by-2020-could-crumble-if-we-d/

  • Clement, A., & Murugavel, T. (2015). English for employability: A case study of the English language training need analysis for engineering students in India. English language teaching, 8(2), 116-125. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v8n2p116

  • Council of Europe (2018). Common European Framework of Reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment - Companion volume. Council of Europe Publishing.

  • Crystal, D. (2004). The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language. Ernst Klett Sprachen Verlag.

  • David, A., Thang, S., & Azman, H. (2015). Accommodating low proficiency ESL students’ language learning needs through an online writing support system. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Special Issue1(2015), 118-271.

  • Desmaliza, D., & Septiani, T. (2017). Students’ self- efficacy and their speaking skill at lower secondary school. In International Conference on Education in Muslim Society (ICEMS 2017) (pp. 122-127). Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/10.2991/icems-17.2018.24

  • Dewi, Z. Z., Azlin, M. Z., Bakar, S. B. A., & Sumaiyyah, O. (2015). English language communication needs at workplace as perceived by students. Journal of Science & Engineering Technology, 3(2), 27-31.

  • Dordinejad, F. G., & Ahmadabad, R. M. (2014). Examination of the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety and English achievement among male and female Iranian high school students. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 6(4), 446-460.

  • Elaldi, S. (2016). Foreign language anxiety of students studying English Language and Literature: A Sample from Turkey. Journal of Educational Research and Reviews, 11(6), 219-228. https://doi.org/10.5897/err2015.2507

  • Free Malaysia Today. (2017, November 13). Economist: Poor English, lack of experience costing grads jobs. Free Malaysia Today. https://bit.ly/2XFBWXk

  • Gürler, İ. (2015). Correlation between self-confidence and speaking skill of English language teaching and English language and literature preparatory students. Current Research in Social Sciences, 1(2), 14-19.

  • Hart, L. E. (1989). Classroom processes, sex of student, and confidence in learning mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 20(3), 242-260. https://doi.org/10.2307/749514

  • Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. A. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 125-132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1986.tb05256.x

  • Hossain, J. (2013). ESP needs analysis for engineering students: A learner-centered approach. Journal of PU, Part B, 2(2), 16-26.

  • Hudson, P., & Hudson, S. (2003). An evaluation of an English language immersion programme for ESL pre-service teachers. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 3(1), 42-65.

  • Ismail, N. A. (2011). Graduates’ characteristics and unemployment: A study among Malaysian graduates. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(16), 94-102.

  • Kakepoto, I. (2013). Oral presentation and communication skills in workplace environments among engineers and engineering students in Pakistan [Doctoral thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia]. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository. http://eprints.utm.my/id/eprint/44038/

  • Kalanzadeh, G., Mahnegar, F., Hassannejad, E., & Bakhtiarvand, M. (2013). The influence of EFL students’ self-esteem on their speaking skills. The International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 2(2), 77-84. https://doi.org/10.5430/wjel.v2n4p24

  • Kamaruddin, S. F., Daneil, I. L., Rijeng, J. S., Bohari, M. M., & Eng, T. H. (2019). The impact of listening and speaking anxieties on the Fourth Industrial Revolution: What can educators do? Language & Communication, 6(1), 409-423.

  • Kassim, N. L. A., & Zubairi, A. M. (2003, July 22-23). Interaction between test-taker characteristics, task facets and L2 oral proficiency test performance [Paper presentation]. Language Testing Research Colloquium, Reading, United Kingdom.

  • Koriat, A., Lichtenstein, S., & Fischhoff, B. (1980). Reasons for confidence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 107-118. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.6.2.107

  • Kumar, U. H. (2018). English language anxiety and academic achievement. North Asian International Research Journal of Social Science & Humanities, 4(3), 138-147.

  • Linacre, J. M. (2018). A user’s guide to WINSTEPS MINISTEP Rasch-model computer programs (Program Manual No. 4.1.0). www.winsteps.com

  • Linacre, J.M. (2019). A user’s guide to Winsteps & Ministeps (Rasch-Model Computer Programs). (Program Manual 4.4.5). www.winsteps.com

  • Linnenbrink, E. A., & Pintrich, P. R. (2003). The role of self-efficacy beliefs in student engagement and learning in the classroom. Reading &Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 119-137. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573560308223

  • MacIntyre, P. D. (1999). Language anxiety: A review of literature for language teachers. In D. J. Young (Ed.), Effect in Foreign Language and Second language learning (pp.24-43). McGraw Hill Companies.

  • Malaysian Employers Federation. (2016). English proficiency critical to enhance employability of graduates. https://www.mef.org.my/Attachments/PR161124b.pdf

  • Mandokhail, S., Khan, F. R., & Malghani, M. (2018). Impact of ESL learners’ self-esteem on their oral proficiency. International Journal of English Linguistics, 8(3), 210-222. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v8n3p210

  • McCroskey, J. (1970). Measures of communication‐bound anxiety. Speech Monographs, 37(4), 269-277. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637757009375677

  • McDonough, K. (2004). Learner-learner interaction during pair and small group activities in a Thai EFL context. System, 32(2), 207-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2004.01.003

  • Ministry of Education. (2012). Malaysia education blueprint 2013-2025. Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.

  • Mulyono, H., Sari, R. N., & Ningsih, S. K. (2019). Factors contributing to EFL students’ speaking anxiety. Register Journal, 12(1), 13-27. https://doi.org/10.18326/rgt.v12i1.13-27

  • Musa, N. C., Koo, Y. L., & Azman, H. (2012). Exploring English language learning and teaching in Malaysia. GEMA: Online Journal of Language Studies, 12(1), 35-51.

  • Nair, G. K. S., Rahim, R. A., Setia, R., Husin, N., Sabapathy, E., Jalil, N. A. A., & Yusoff, N. I. M. (2012). Malaysian graduates English adequacy in the job sector. Asian Social Science, 8(4), 143-147. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v8n4p143

  • Nishanti, R. (2018). The importance of learning English in today world. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, 3(1), 871-874. https://doi.org/10.31142/ijtsrd19061

  • Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 543-578. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543066004543

  • Pandarangga, S. (2015). The transformation of English as a global language in the world. LiNGUA, 10(2), 90-96. https://doi.org/10.18860/ling.v10i2.3132

  • Pappamihiel, N. E. (2002). English as a second language students and English language anxiety: Issues in the mainstream classroom. Research in the Teaching of English, 36(3), 327-355.

  • Pennycook, A. (2014). The cultural politics of English as an international language. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315843605

  • Rajprasit, K., & Hemchua, S. (2015). The English language & communication in the international workplace: An examination of Thai computer engineering professionals. The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 21(3), 109-124.

  • Ramamuruthy, V. (2019). The effects of task-based approach on speaking anxiety among ESL low proficiency diploma students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 7(6), 1363-1375. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2019.070604

  • Reddy, R. (2016). Development of communication skills in English for engineering graduates. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 21(5), 102-104.

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  • Stenstrom, A. B. (2014). An introduction to spoken interaction. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315845449

  • Sunyi, D. P. (2017). Investigating students’ self-efficacy of public speaking. International Journal of Education and Research, 5(10), 97-108.

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  • Ting, S., Marzuki E., Chuah K., Misieng, J., & Jerome, C. (2017). Employers’ views on the importance of English proficiency and communication skill for employability in Malaysia. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7(2), 315-327. https://doi.org/10.17509/ijal.v7i2.8132

  • Tridinanti, G. (2018). The correlation between speaking anxiety, self-confidence, and speaking achievement of undergraduate EFL students of private university in Palembang. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 6(4), 35-39. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.6n.4p.35

  • The Sun Daily. (2018, January 22). Language main barrier to grads getting jobs (Updated). The Sun Daily. https://www.thesundaily.my/archive/language-main-barrier-grads-getting-jobs-updated-BUARCH520890

  • Tsou, W. (2005). The effects of cultural instruction on foreign language learning. RELC Journal, 36(1), 39-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688205053481

  • UNESCO. (2012). Graduate employability in Asia. UNESCO Bangkok.

  • Ur, P. (1996). A course in language teaching: Practice and theory. Cambridge University Press.

  • Wijewardene, L., Yong, D., & Chinna, K. (2014). English for Employability-the need of the hour for Sri Lankan graduates. British Journal or Arts and Social Sciences, 17(1), 137-145.

  • Xue, J., & Zuo, W. (2013). English dominance and its influence on international communication. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(12), 2262-2266. https://doi.org/10.4304/tpls.3.12.2262-2266

  • Yim, S. Y., & Yu, Y. L. (2011). Validating the English learning anxiety scale for primary school students in Korea. English Teaching, 66(2), 101-123. https://doi.org/10.15858/engtea.66.2.201106.101

  • Zahiri, A., Sibarani, B., & Sumarsih (2017). To what extent do anxiety and self-efficacy effect the EFL students’ English monologue speaking skill? International Journal of Education and Research, 5(9), 151-160.

  • Zhang, R., & Zhong, J. (2012). The hindrance of doubt: Causes of language anxiety. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2(3), 27-33. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v2n3p27

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