Home / Pre-Press / JST-3626-2022


Properties of Sustainable Concrete Containing Different Percentages and Particles of Oil Palm Ash as Partial Sand Replacement

Farah Nora Aznieta Abdul Aziz, Al-Ghazali Noor Abbas, Law Kay Min, Kalaiyarasi Aramugam, Noor Azline Mohd Nasir and Teik Hua Law

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Pre-Press

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjst.31.4.03

Keywords: Different sieve size, oil palm shell (OPS), permeability properties, physical properties, sand replacement, sustainability

Published: 2023-05-24

Oil palm shell (OPS) in concrete is well studied as an alternative material of fine aggregate in concrete, as a way to use agricultural waste, and helps to contribute to environmental sustainability and economical construction cost. However, OPS addition will lead to lower properties of the concrete, and much research focuses on treating the OPS to overcome it. Many previous works focused on replacement without examining the effect of different particle sizes of OPS. Hence, this study focuses on the performance of concrete with different particle sizes of OPS as sand replacers in concrete at 25% and 50%. The physical and permeability properties of concrete prepared with OPS particle sizes in the ranges between 600μm to 4.75mm (L), 300μm to 1.18mm (M), and of less than 600μm (S) and two different percentages of 25% and 50% by weight as sand replacement are examined. More than 200 cubes, cylinders, and prisms were tested to determine their physical, mechanical, and permeability properties. The workability was measured by the slump height, the mechanical properties by the compressive strength test, flexural strength test, splitting tensile test, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test, and rebound hammer test. While the permeability properties by the water penetration test, sorptivity test, and rapid chloride permeability test. The findings showed that increasing the particle sizes of OPS would reduce concrete’s physical and permeability properties. The optimum OPS particle size for structural concrete grade 30 is less than 600μm. With OPS particles of 600um, green concrete using OPS can be made for medium to low-strength applications in the construction industry.

  • Akid, A. S. M, Hossain, S., Munshi, M. I. U., Elahi, M. M. A., Sobuz, M. H. R., Tam, V. W. Y., & Islam, M. S. (2021). Assessing the influence of fly ash and polypropylene fiber on fresh, mechanical and durability properties of concrete. Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences, 33, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksues.2021.06.005

  • Abbas, A. G. N., Aziz, F. N. A. A., Abdan, K., Nasir, N. A. M., & Huseien, G. F. (2022). A state-of-the-art review on fibre-reinforced geopolymer composites. Construction and Building Materials, 330, Article 127187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.127187

  • Alengaram, U. J., Mahmud, H., & Jumaat, M. Z. (2010). Comparison of mechanical and bond properties of oil palm kernel shell concrete with normal weight concrete. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 5(8), 1231-1239.

  • ASTM C 805-02. (2002). Standard test method for rebound number of hardened concrete C 805. United States: American Society for Testing and Material. https://www.academia.edu/14787775/Standard_Test_Method_for_Rebound_Number_of_Hardened_Concrete

  • ASTM C1202. (2012). Standard test method for electrical indication of concrete’s ability to resist chloride ion penetration. American Society for Testing and Materials https://doi.org/10.1520/C1202-12.2

  • ASTM C1585-13. (2013). Standard test method for measurement of rate of absorption of water by hydraulic cement concretes. ASTM International, 41(147), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1520/C158513.2

  • ASTM C597-09. (2010). Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. American Society for Testing and Materials. https://www.studocu.com/row/document/dogu-akdeniz-universitesi/civil-engineering/kupdfnet-astm-c-597-02-ultrasonic-pulse-velocity/36387906

  • Awal, A. S. M. A., & Mohammadhosseini, H. (2016). Green concrete production incorporating waste carpet fiber and palm oil fuel ash. Journal of Cleaner Production, 137, 157-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.162

  • Babafemi, A. J., & Olusola, K. O. (2012). Influence of curing media on the compressive strength of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) concrete. International Journal of Recent Research and Applied Studies, 13(1), 180-185.

  • BS EN 12390-3. (2009). Testing hardened concrete - Part 3 : Compressive strength of test specimens. https://www.thenbs.com/PublicationIndex/documents/details?Pub=BSI&DocID=288816

  • BS EN 12390-5. (2009). Testing hardened concrete - Part 5 : Flexural strength of test specimens. https://kupdf.net/download/bs-en-12390-5-2009-part-5-flexural-strength-of-test-specimens_58caa120dc0d60ab1033902f_pdf

  • BS EN 12390-6. (2009). Testing hardened concrete - Part 6 : Tensile splitting strength of test specimens. https://pdfcoffee.com/bs-en-12390-6-2009-testing-hardened-concrete-part-6-tensile-splitting-strength-of-test-specimens-pdf-free.html

  • BS EN 12390-8. (2009). Testing hardened concrete - Part8: Depth of penetration of water under pressure. British Standard. https://pdfcoffee.com/bs-en-12390-8-3-pdf-free.html

  • Guan, W., Qi, Q., Zhang, Z., & Nan, S. (2020). Effect of sand particle size on microstructure and mechanical properties of gypsum-cemented similar materials. Materials, 13(3), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030765

  • Huda, M. N., Jumat, M. Z. Bin, & Islam, A. B. M. S. (2016). Flexural performance of reinforced oil palm shell & palm oil clinker concrete (PSCC) beam. Construction and Building Materials, 127, 18-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.09.106

  • Joshi, P., & Chan, C. (2002). Rapid chloride permeability testing. Concrete Construction - World of Concrete, 47(12), 37-43.

  • Karakoç, M. B., Türkmen, I., Maraş, M. M., Kantarci, F., & Demirboğa, R. (2016). Sulfate resistance of ferrochrome slag based geopolymer concrete. Ceramics International, 42(1), 1254-1260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.09.058

  • Khan, M. M. H., Guong Wei, L., Deepak, T. J., & Nair, S. (2016). Use of oil palm shell as replacement of coarse aggregate for investigating properties of concrete. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 11(4), 2379-2383.

  • Lim, S. K., Tan, C. S., Chen, K. P., Lee, M. L., & Lee, W. P. (2013). Effect of different sand grading on strength properties of cement grout. Construction and Building Materials, 38, 348-355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.08.030

  • Maghfouri, M., Shafigh, P., & Aslam, M. (2018). Optimum oil palm shell content as coarse aggregate in concrete based on mechanical and durability properties. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2018, Article 4271497. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4271497

  • Manjunath, R., Narasimhan, M. C., & Umesha, K. M. (2019). Studies on high performance alkali activated slag concrete mixes subjected to aggressive environments and sustained elevated temperatures. Construction and Building Materials, 229, Article 116887. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.116887

  • Mannan, M. A., Alexander, J., Ganapathy, C., & Teo, D. C. L. (2006). Quality improvement of oil palm shell (OPS) as coarse aggregate in lightweight concrete. Building and Environment, 41(9), 1239-1242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.05.018

  • Mannan, M. A., & Ganapathy, C. (2004). Concrete from an agricultural waste-oil palm shell (OPS). Building and Environment, 39(4), 441-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2003.10.007

  • Mannan, M. A., & Ganapathy, C. U. (2002). Engineering properties of concrete with oil palm shell as coarse aggregate. Construction and Building Materials, 16, 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-0618(01)00030-7

  • Mo, K. H., Alengaram, U. J., Jumaat, M. Z., & Yap, S. P. (2015). Feasibility study of high volume slag as cement replacement for sustainable structural lightweight oil palm shell concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production, 91, 297-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.12.021

  • Mo, K. H., Yeoh, K. H., Bashar, I. I., Alengaram, U. J., & Jumaat, M. Z. (2017). Shear behaviour and mechanical properties of steel fibre-reinforced cement-based and geopolymer oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 148, 369-375. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.05.017

  • Momoh, E. O., & Osofero, A. I. (2019). Behaviour of oil palm broom fibres (OPBF) reinforced concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 221, 745-761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.06.118

  • Muthusamy, K., Zulkepli, N. A., & Mat Yahaya, F. (2013). Exploratory study of oil palm shell as partial sand replacement in concrete. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 5(7), 2372-2375. https://doi.org/10.19026/rjaset.5.4667

  • Nadh, V. S., Krishna, C., Natrayan, L., Kumar, K. M., Nitesh, K. J. N. S., Raja, G. B., & Paramasivam, P. (2021). Structural behavior of nanocoated oil palm shell as coarse aggregate in lightweight concrete. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2021, Article 4741296. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4741296

  • Olanipekun, E. A., Olusola, K. O., & Ata, O. (2006). A comparative study of concrete properties using coconut shell and palm kernel shell as coarse aggregates. Building and Environment, 41(3), 297-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.01.029

  • Qasem, A. A., Almekhlafi, M. A., & Yahaya, F. M. (2021). The effect of palm oil fuel clinker powder and cockleshell powder as cement replacement on durability properties of the concrete mortar. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 682(1), Article 012037. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/682/1/012037

  • Rahman, F. F., Prakoso, W. A., Tjahjono, E., Sentosa, B. O. B., & Orentilize, M. (2020). Load-displacement response of oil palm shell concrete compressive test using digital image correlation. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 498(1), 012037. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/498/1/012037

  • Stanish, K. D., Hooton, R. D., & Thomas, M. D. (1997). Testing the chloride penetration resistance of concrete : A literature review. Transportation Research Board. https://trid.trb.org/view/690568

  • Sutherland, W. J., Barnard, P., Broad, S., Clout, M., Connor, B., Cote, I. M., Dicks, L. V., Doran, H., Entwistle, A. C., Fleishman, E., Fox. M., Gaston, K. J., Gibbons, D. W., Jiang, Z., Keim, B., Lickorish, F. A., Markillie, P., Monk, K. A., Pearce-Higgins. J. W., … & Ockendon, N. (2017). A 2017 horizon scan of emerging issues for global conservation and biological diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 32(1), 31-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.11.005

  • Teo, D. C. L., Mannan, M. A., & Kurian, V. J. (2006). Structural concrete using oil palm shell (OPS) as lightweight aggregate. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 30(4), 251-257.

  • Teo, D. C. L., Mannan, M. A., Kurian, V. J., & Ganapathy, C. (2007). Lightweight concrete made from oil palm shell (OPS): Structural bond and durability properties. Building and Environment, 42(7), 2614-2621. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.06.013

  • Ting, T. Z. H., Rahman, M. E., & Lau, H. H. (2020). Sustainable lightweight self-compacting concrete using oil palm shell and fly ash. Construction and Building Materials, 264, Article 120590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.120590

  • Tripathi, M., Sahu, J. N., Ganesan, P., Monash, P., & Dey, T. K. (2015). Effect of microwave frequency on dielectric properties of oil palm shell (OPS) and OPS char synthesized by microwave pyrolysis of OPS. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 112, 306-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2015.01.007

  • UNEP. (2019). Sand and sustainability: Finding new solutions for environmental governance of global sand resources. United Nations Environment Programme. https://wedocs.unep.org/20.500.11822/28163

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles