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Quantifying Suspended Sediment using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler in Tidung Island Seawaters

Henry Munandar Manik and Randi Firdaus

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 29, Issue 1, January 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjst.29.1.21

Published: 22 January 2021

Tidung Island, located near Jakarta Bay, is a tourism and conservation area. It is necessary to keep these seawaters unpolluted. To calculate the level of pollution, it is necessary to know the sediment concentration. Quantifying concentration suspended sediment is important for knowledge of sediment transport. Researchers usually use water sample analysis and optical method for quantifying suspended sediment in seawater. Less accuracies of these methods are due to under sample of seawater and the existence of biological fouling. One promising method to measure concentration of suspended sediment is using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). ADCP is usually used by oceanographer and hydrographer to measure ocean current. In this research, ADCP with 300 kHz operating frequency was used effectively to measure suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and ocean current simultaneously. The echo intensity received from suspended sediment was computed using sonar equations to quantify SSC. The empirical equation between echo intensity and SSC was found. The SSC value obtained by ADCP was also compared with in situ measurement. The result showed that quantified SSC value obtained by ADCP was nearly equal with SSC obtained from in situ measurement with coefficient correlation of 0.98. The high concentration ranged from 55 mg/L to 80 mg/L at the surface layer to a depth 12 m, moderate concentration ranged from 45 mg/L to 55 mg/L at a depth 12 m to 40 m, and low concentration less than 45 mg/L at a depth greater than 40 m. The distribution of SSC was correlated with ocean current condition. In small currents, suspended solids will settle faster so that the concentration in the water column will decrease. Conversely, if the velocity is high, suspended solids will continue to float carried by the current in the water column so that the concentration is high.

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