Home / Regular Issue / JST Vol. 29 (1) Jan. 2021 / JST-2144-2020


Comparison of Proximate Composition of Raw and Cooked Intramuscle Tissue ofThunnus tonggol from Terengganu, Malaysia

Norhazirah Abd Aziz, Ahmad Shamsudin Ahmad, Adiana Ghazali, Nurul Izzah Ahmad, Ahmad Ali and Meng-Chuan Ong

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 29, Issue 1, January 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjst.29.1.33

Published: 22 January 2021

A study was carried out to determine the effects of the steaming process on the proximate composition of the dark and white muscle tissue ofThunnus tonggol sampled from Terengganu waters. The mean percentage of moisture, ash, lipid, and protein of the raw dark muscle was 59.1%, 3.8%, 12.1% and 33.9%, while in the raw white muscle were 66.7%, 2.9%, 2.7% and 33.9%, respectively. Both types of muscle showed a significantly different value in the lipid content. There was significant increase recorded in the protein content in both types of muscle after the steaming process (79.1% and 93.0% in dark and white muscles, respectively). Likewise, the percentage of ash showed some increment with 4.8% in the dark muscle and 7.9% in the white muscle. However, the cooking process decreased the percentage of moisture and lipid in both dark and white muscles. The percentage of moisture in dark muscle was reduced to 7.7%, and 9.7% in white muscle. On the other hand, percentage of lipid content in both types of muscles after the steaming process was 0.43% in dark muscle and 0.03% in white muscle. This study reveals that the cooking process had considerable effects on the proximate composition of both dark and white muscles.

  • Abraha, B., Admassu, H., Mahmud, A., Tsighe, N., Shui, X.W., & Fang, Y. (2018). Effect of processing methods on nutritional and physico–chemical composition of fish: A review. MOJ Food Processing and Technology, 6(4), 376-382. doi: 10.15406/mojfpt.2018.06.00191.

  • Adepoju, M. A., Omitoyin, B. O., Mohan, C. O., & Zynudheen, A. A. (2017). Heat penetration attributes of milkfish (Chanos chanos) thermal processed in flexible pouches: A comparative study between steam application and water immersion. Food Science Nutrition, 5(3), 521-524. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.426.

  • Ahmad, N. I., Noh, M. F. M., Mahiyuddin, W. R. W., Jaafar, H., Ishak, I., Azmi, W. N. F. W., … & Hairi M. H. (2015). Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 3672-3686. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3538-8.

  • Ahmad, N. I., Mahiyuddin, W. R. W., Mohamad, T. R. R., Ling, C. Y., Daud, S. F., Hussein, N. C., … & Sulaiman, L. H. (2016). Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia. Food Nutrition Research, 60(1), 1-15. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v60.32697.

  • Al-Mamari, D., Al-Kharusi, L., Al-Kiyumi, F., Al-Shogebai, S., Al-Anboori, I., Al-Seneadi, R., & Khrorv, S. (2014). Record of the largest longtail tuna, Thunnus tonggol (Bleeker 1851) from offshore Salalah in the Sultanate of Oman. Journal of Fisheries, 2(3), 215-216.

  • Alia, T. T. N., Hing, L. S., Sim, S. F., Pradit, S., Ahmad, A., & Ong, M. C. (2020). Comparative study of raw and cooked farmed sea bass (Lates calcarifer) in relation to metal content and its estimated human health risk. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 153, 1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111009.

  • Antonina, A. N., Shazili, N. A. M., Kamaruzzaman, B. Y., Ong, M. C., Rosnan, Y., & Sharifah, F. N. (2013). Geochemistry of the rare earth elements (REE) distribution in Terengganu coastal waters: A study case from Redang Island marine sediment. Open Journal of Marine Science, 3(3), 1-6. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2013.33017.

  • AOAC Official Method 990.03. (2006). Protein (crude) in animal feed, combustion method, chapter 4. In W. Horowitz & G. W. Jr Latimer (Eds.), Official methods of analysis of AOAC International (18th Ed.) (pp. 30-31). Gaithersburg, Maryland: AOAC International.

  • Arias, M. I. G., Pontes, E. A., Linares, M. C. G., Fernandez, M. C. G., & Muniz, F. J. S. (2003). Cooking-freezing-reheating (CFR) of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets. Effect of different cooking and reheating procedures on the proximate and fatty acid compositions. Food Chemistry, 83(3), 349-356. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00095-5

  • Azmi, W. N. F. W., Ahmad, N. I., & Mahiyuddin, W. R. W. (2019). Heavy metal levels and risk assessment from consumption of marine fish in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Protection, 10(11), 1-22. doi: 10.4236/jep.2019.1011086.

  • Basir, S., Jamon, S., Faizal, E. M., & Mokhtar, N. A. (2016). Data collection system and tuna statistical in Malaysia (IOTC-2013-WPDCS09-10). Malaysia National Report to the Scientific Committee of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission for 2015. Retrieved August 19, 2020 from wqww.iotc.org.

  • Burger, J., Stern, A. H., & Gochfeld, M. (2003). Mercury in commercial fish: Optimizing individual choices to reduce risk. Environmental Health Perspective, 113, 266-271. doi: 10.1289/ehp.7315.

  • Daramola, J. A., Fasakin, E. A., & Adeparusi, E. O. (2007). Changes in physiochemical and sensory characteristics of smoke–dried fish species stored at ambient temperature. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 7(6), 1-16.

  • Daud, N. R., Akhir, M. F., & Husain, M. L. (2016). Water circulation in the shallow shelf areas off the Terengganu coast affected by wind stress force using a hydrodynamic model. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, SI1, 81-92.

  • Eduardo, T. V., Arlett, R. R., Lia, M., & Elena, P. (2016). Changes in fatty acids, sterols, pigments, lipid classes, and heavy metals of cooked or dried meals, compared to fresh marine by-product. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 221, 195-205. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.09.004.

  • Elmadfa, I., & Meyer, A. L. (2017). Animal proteins as important contributors to a healthy human diet. Annual Review of Animal Biosciences, 5, 111-131. doi: 10.1146/annurev-animal-022516-022943.

  • Ersoy, B., & Ozeren, A. (2009). The effect of cooking methods on mineral and vitamin contents of African catfish. Food Chemistry, 115(2), 419-422. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.018.

  • Ersoy, B., Yanar, Y., Aygul, K., & Mehmet, C. (2016). Effects of four cooking methods on the heavy metals concentrations of seabass fillets (Dicentrarchus labrax L. 1785). Food Chemistry, 99(4), 748-751. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.055

  • Feng, X., Fu, C., & Yang, H. (2017). Gelatin addition improves the nutrient retention, texture, and mass transfer of fish balls without altering their nanostructure during boiling. LWT, 77, 142-151. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2016.11.024.

  • Gan, J., Lv, L., Peng, J. Li, J., Xiong, Z., Chen, D., & He, L. (2016). Multi–residue method for the determination of organofluorine pesticides in fish tissue by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 207, 195-204. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.02.098.

  • Garcı́a–Arias, M. T., Álvarez Pontes, E., Garcı́a–Linares, M. C., Garcı́a–Fernández, M. C., & Sánchez–Muniz, F. J. (2003). Cooking–freezing–reheating (CFR) of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) fillets. Effect of different cooking and reheating procedures on the proximate and fatty acid compositions. Food Chemistry, 83(3), 349-356. doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00095-5.

  • Goswami, S., & Manna, K. (2020). Comparison of the effects of cooking methods on nutritional composition of fresh and salted Tenualosa ilisha. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 5(6), 294-299. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaf.2020.01.006

  • Griffiths, S. P., Fry, G. C., Manson, F. J., & Lou, D. C. (2010). Age and growth of longtail tuna (Thunnus tonggol) in tropical and temperate waters of the central Indo–Pacific. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67, 125-134. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsp223.

  • Hosseini, H., Mahmoudzadeh, M., Rezaei, M., Mahmoudzadeh, L., Khaksar, R., Khoroshahi, N. K., & Badakhani, A. (2014). Effect of different cooking methods on minerals, vitamins, and nutritional quality indices of kutum roach (Rutilus Frisii kutum). Food Chemistry, 148, 86-91. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.012.

  • Lira, G. M., Cabral, C. C. V. Q., Oliveira, I. B. A., Bruno, C. F., Simon, S. J. G. B., & Bragagnolo, N. (2017). Changes in the lipid fraction of king mackerel pan fried in coconut oil and cooked in coconut milk. Food Research International, 101, 198-202. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.08.070

  • Lombardo–Agüí, M., García–Campaña, A. M., Cruces–Blanco, C., & Gámiz–Gracia, L. (2015). Determination of quinolones in fish by ultra–high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection using QuEChERS as sample treatment. Food Control, 50, 864-868. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.10.027.

  • Mohamed, K. N., & Amil, R. (2005). Nutrients enrichment experiment on seawater samples at Pulau Perhentian, Terengganu. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 30, 262-267. doi: 10.1016/j.proenv.2015.10.047.

  • Mohanty, B. P., Ganguly, S., Mahanty, A., Mitra, T., Patra, S., Karunakaran, D., … & Ayyappan, S. (2019). Fish in human health and nutrition. Advances in Fish Research, 7, 189-218.

  • Moussa, E. W. H., Shereen, A. N., Manal, A., Mehanni, A. E., & Rasha, A. E. (2014). Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of household cooking on fish fatty acids profile using atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Journal of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, 2(1), 27-41.

  • Murray, J., & Burt, J. R. (2001). The composition of fish (Torry Advisory Note No. 38). Aberdeen, UK: Torry Research Station.

  • Mustafa, M. G., Begum, S. R., Khaleque, M. A., Jannat, M., & Ahsan, D. A. (2012). Nutritional qualities of Hilsha and Sarpunti in different salt curing methods. Dhaka University Journal of Biological Sciences, 21(1), 97-104. doi: https://doi.org/10.3329/dujbs.v21i1.9749

  • Nalan, G., Pinar, Y., & Emel, C. (2004). Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition and mineral contents of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food Chemistry, 84, 19-22. doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00161-4.

  • Ng, Z. X., & Rosman, N. F. (2019). In vitro digestion and domestic cooking improved the total antioxidant activity and carbohydrate-digestive enzymes inhibitory potential of selected edible mushroom. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 56(2), 865-877. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3547-6

  • Norhazirah, A. A., Adiana, G., Yunus, K., Annual, Z. F., Ahmad, A., & Ong, M. C. (2020). Longtail tuna (Thunnus tonggol) consumption frequency in Terengganu, Malaysia. Open Journal of Marine Science, 10, 141-148. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2020.103011

  • Norimah, A. K., Safiah, M., Jamal, K., Haslinda, S., Zuhaida, H., & Rohida, S. (2008). Food consumption patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS). Malaysia Journal Nutrition, 14(1), 25-39.

  • Puwastien, P., Judprasong, K., Kettwan, E., Vasanachitt, K., Yupaporn, N., & Bhattacharjee, L. (1999). Proximate composition on raw and cooked Thai freshwater and marine fish. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 12, 9-16. doi: https://doi.org/10.1006/jfca.1998.0800

  • Rahman, M. M., Zamri, M., & Fadilla, N. (2012). Effects of deep frying on proximate composition and micronutrient of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 15, 589-594. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2012.589.594.

  • Rasmussen, R. S., & Ostenfeld, T. H. (2000). Effect of growth rate on quality traits and feed utilisation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Aquaculture, 184(3-4), 327-337. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(99)00324-5.

  • Sofoulaki, K., Kalantzi, I., Machias, A., Mastoraki, M., Chatzifotis, S., Mylona, K., … & Tsapakis, M. (2018). Metals and elements in sardine and anchovy: Species specific differences and correlation with proximate composition and size. Science of the Total Environment, 645, 329-338. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.133.

  • Sullivan, D. M., & Carpenter, D. E. (1993). Methods of analysis for nutrition labeling. Arlington, USA: AOAC International.

  • Tang, W., Cheng, J., Zhao, W., & Wang, W. (2015). Mercury levels and estimated total daily intakes for children and adults from an electronic waste recycling area in Taizhou, China: Key role of rice and fish consumption. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 34(1), 107-115. doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2015.01.029.

  • Terengganu Tourism. (2018). Reasons to visit Terengganu. Retrieved August 19, 2020, from http://terengganutourism.com.

  • Turkkan, A. U., Cakli, S., & Kilinc, B. (2008). Effects of cooking methods on the proximate composition and fatty acid composition of seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus, 1758). Food and Bioproducts Processing, 86, 163-166.

  • Weber, J., Bochi, V. C., Ribeiro, C. P., Victorio, A. D. M., & Emanuelli, T. (2018). Effect of different cooking methos on oxidation, proximate and fatty acid composition of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fillets. Food Chemistry, 106, 140-146. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.052.

  • York, R., & Grossard, M. H. (2004). Cross–national meat and fish consumption: Exploring the effects of modernization and ecological context. Ecological Economics, 48, 293-302. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2003.10.009.

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles