Home / Regular Issue / JST Vol. 29 (1) Jan. 2021 / JST-2227-2020

 

Synthesis of Magnetic Activated Carbon Treated with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate

Palsan Sannasi Abdullah, Huda Awang and Jayanthi Barasarathi

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 29, Issue 1, January 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjst.29.1.24

Published: 22 January 2021

Magnetic activated carbon (MAC) is found to be effective for the adsorption of methylene blue due to its physico-chemical properties such as strong adsorption of magnetization. The use of activated carbon (AC) for methylene blue adsorption was ineffective compared to MAC. MAC was prepared by incorporating different types of iron powder and chemicals [sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), citric acid (CA), dimethicone (D350), and epichlorohydrin (C3H5ClO)] to strengthen the magnetism and stabilize the MAC. The methylene blue test and iodine test were tested on different samples. Characterization test on physical and chemical properties was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The yield of MAC was higher because of the addition of magnetic particles. The incorporation of magnetic particles had been proven by the SEM and XRD analysis that showed the presence of iron compound. The performance study of the adsorbent sample showed that MAC_A3II presented better qualities with highest removal percentage (98.81 % of removal) in methylene blue adsorption and low magnetic contact time that showed strong magnetism. MAC_A3II was prepared by incorporating iron powder and treated by using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). Among all the adsorbent sample, MAC_B2III performed the weakest quality because the dye removal percentage was low, and the preparation process was complicated compared with others.

  • Anyika, C., Asri, N. A. M., Majid, Z. A., Yahya, A., & Jaafar, J. (2017). Synthesis and characterization of magnetic activated carbon developed from palm kernel shells. Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering, 2(1), 1-16. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41204-017-0027-6

  • Arslanoglu, H. (2019). Direct and facile synthesis of highly porous low cost carbon from potassium-rich wine stone and their application for high-performance removal. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 374, 238-247. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.04.042

  • ASTM D4607-14. (2014). Standard test method for determination of iodine number of activated carbon. West Conshohocken, USA: ASTM International.

  • Cobb, A., Warms, M., Maurer, E. P., & Chiesa, S. (2012). Low-tech coconut shell activated charcoal production. International Journal for Service Learning in Engineering, 7(1), 93-104.

  • Deng, H., Li, G., Yang, H., Tang, J., & Tang, J. (2010). Preparation of activated carbons from cotton stalk by microwave assisted KOH and K2CO3 activation. Chemical Engineering Journal, 163(3), 373-381. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2010.08.019

  • Ewadh, H. M. (2020). Removal of methylene blue by coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) using phytoremediation concept. Plant Archives, 20(1), 2677-2681.

  • Hindryawati, N., Dirgarini, J. N. S. R. R., Panggabean, A. S., & Wilsoma. (2020). Ultrasound assisted the degradation of methylene blue using WO3- deoiled spent bleaching earth as a catalyst. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 854(1), 1-8.

  • Islam, M. A., Ahmed, M. J., Khanday, W. A., Asif, M., & Hameed, B. H. (2017). Mesoporous activated coconut shell-derived hydrochar prepared via hydrothermal carbonization-NaOH activation for methylene blue adsorption. Journal of Environmental Management, 203, 237-244. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.07.029

  • Jadhav, A., & Mohanraj, G. (2016). Synthesis of activated carbon from Cocos nucifera leaves agrowaste by chemical activation method. Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 10(2), 201-208.

  • Jamaludin, M. Z. (2020). Study on removal of pollutant from batik wastewater using coal bottomash (CBA). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 476(1), 1-6.

  • Lee, C. L., H’ng, P. S., Paridah, M. T., Chin, K. L., Rashid, U., Maminski, M., & Khoo, P. S. (2018). Production of bioadsorbent from phosphoric acid pretreated palm kernel shell and coconut shell by two-stage continuous physical activation via N2 and air. Royal Society Open Science, 5(12), 1-19. doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180775

  • Li, C., Gao, Y., Li, A., Zhang, L., Ji, G., Zhu, K., & Wang, X. (2019). Synergistic effects of anionic surfactants on adsorption of norfloxacin by magnetic biochar derived from furfural residue. Environmental Pollution, 254, 1-8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113005

  • Machrouhi, A., Alilou, H., Farnane, M., El Hamidi, S., Sadiq, M., Abdennouri, M., ... & Barka, N. (2019). Statistical optimization of activated carbon from Thapsia transtagana stems and dyes removal efficiency using central composite design. Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices, 4(4), 544-553. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsamd.2019.09.002

  • Mianowski, A., Owczarek, M., & Marecka, A. (2007). Surface area of activated carbon determined by the iodine adsorption number. Energy Sources part A, 29(9), 839-850. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00908310500430901

  • Ooi, C. H., Lee, T., Pung, S. Y., & Yeoh, F. Y. (2015) Activated carbon fiber derived from single step carbonization-activation process. ASEAN Engineering Journal, 4(1), 40-50. doi: https://doi.org/10.11113/aej.v4.15426

  • Ramakreshnan, L., Rajandra, A., Aghamohammadi, N., Fong, C. S., & Nalatambi, S. (2020). A preliminary insight into the environmental awareness of community in the vicinity of batik manufacturing units in Kelantan, Malaysia. GeoJournal, 85, 1745-1753. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-019-10046-w

  • Shokry, H., Elkady, M., & Salama, E. (2020). Eco-friendly magnetic activated carbon nano-hybrid for facile oil spills separation. Scientific Reports, 10(1),1-17. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67231-y

  • Suresh K. P., Prot, T., Korving, L., Keesman, K. J., Dugulan, I., van Loosdrecht, M. C. M., & Witkamp, G. J. (2017). Effect of pore size distribution on iron oxide coated granular activated carbons for phosphate adsorption - Importance of mesopores. Chemical Engineering Journal, 326, 231-239. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2017.05.147

  • Vyavahare, G., Jadhav, P., Jadhav, J., Patil, R., Aware, C., Patil, D., … & Gurav, R. (2019). Strategies for crystal violet dye sorption on biochar derived from mango leaves and evaluation of residual dye toxicity. Journal of Cleaner Production, 207, 296-305. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.193

  • Wang, Z., Rorvik, S., Ratvik, A. P., & Grande, T. (2017). Formation of carbon build-up on the flue wall of anode baking furnace. In A. P. Ratvik (Ed.), Light Metals 2017 (pp. 1265-1274). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51541-0_151

  • Yang, Z., Ning, H. L., Jia, H., Li, Y., Meng, Z., & Chen, Z. (2020) Preparation of porous composite materials with semi-coke based activated carbon doped with graphene oxide. IOP Conference Series: Material Science Engineering, 729(1), 1-5.

  • Yao, Y., Gao, B., Wu, F., Zhang, C., &Yang, L. (2015). Engineered biochar from biofuel residue: Characterization and its silver removal potential. ACS Applied Material International, 7(19), 10634-10640. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b03131