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External Skeletal Fixator to Stabilize the Orthopedic Conditions in Avian Species: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series

Hossein Taiyari and Jalila Abu

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 30, Issue 3, July 2022


Keywords: Avian orthopedics, external skeletal fixator, fracture, luxation, raptor species, systematic review

Published on: 25 May 2022

Orthopedic conditions are among the most frequent avian emergency cases admitted to veterinary hospitals and clinics. An external skeletal fixator is commonly used as surgical treatment in avian orthopedics. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the use of external skeletal fixator (ESF) in published cases of avian orthopedics. Four electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant case reports and case series. Altogether, 24 primary reports met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 16 reports were case reports; and eight were case series. In total, 166 avian patients with different orthopedic conditions were undergone ESF stabilization techniques; and raptor species formed the majority of the patients. The characteristics of the fractured bone were the key factor in the suitability of different ESF techniques. In addition, other factors such as type, location, and severity of the orthopedic condition should be considered. ESF implants are promising techniques for treating avian orthopedic conditions, as the complications related to the fixators were few, and the percentage of successfully released raptors was high. Unfortunately, there are so many cases of avian orthopedics that were not published. Considering this caveat, it is not easy to draw a firm conclusion on this topic. However, this paper can serve as a guiding principle for clinicians.

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