e-ISSN 2231-8526
ISSN 0128-7680

Home / Regular Issue / JST Vol. 46 (4) Nov. 2023 / JTAS-2745-2023


Genetic Variability and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Mycoplasma synoviae Isolated from Various Bird Species in Peninsular Malaysia

Hossein Taiyari, Jalila Abu, Nik Mohd Faiz and Zunita Zakaria

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 46, Issue 4, November 2023


Keywords: Bird species, microdilution, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, targeted gene sequencing

Published on: 27 November 2023

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and M. synoviae (MS) can infect many bird species. Susceptible species of birds are responsible for spillover infections from poultry to wild birds. In Malaysia, previous studies reported the detection of MG in free-flying birds, but there is a lack of information on the characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of these isolates. Therefore, this study aims to molecular characterize and assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of MG and MS isolated from different bird species, including aviary, free-flying, and pet birds. Altogether 54 choanal slit swab samples were collected. All the swab samples were subjected to isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection. Positive samples were subjected to molecular characterization and MIC assay. Molecular characterization was done using targeted gene sequencing, and microdilution MIC assay was employed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates. Using both culture and PCR techniques, 5.6% (3/54) of the samples were positive for MG, while MS was detected in 29.6% (16/54) and 40.7% (22/54) of samples using culture and PCR, respectively. The partial sequence of the mgc2 gene showed a distinct pattern of this gene in one of the MG isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of this isolate indicated that this isolate is a progeny of a Thailand poultry strain. Microdilution MIC assay indicated 100% resistance to erythromycin and chlortetracycline. The findings of this study indicate the possibility of avian interspecies transmission of MG and MS in Malaysia and the need for antimicrobial treatment dosage optimization.

  • Bailey, T. A. (2016). Capture and handling. In J. Samour (Ed.), Avian medicine (3rd ed., pp. 36–48). Mosby Ltd.

  • Bencina, D. (2002). Haemagglutinins of pathogenic avian mycoplasmas. Avian Pathology, 31(6), 535–547.

  • Benčina, D., Dorrer, D., & Tadina, T. (1987). Mycoplasma species isolated from six avian species. Avian Pathology, 16(4), 653-664.

  • Bradbury, J. M. (2002). Avian mycoplasmas. In F. T. W. Jordan, M. Alexander D. Pattison, & T. Faragher (Eds.), Poultry diseases (pp.178-193). Saunders.

  • Bradbury, J. M., Yavari, C. A., & Giles, C. J. (1994). In vitro evaluation of various antimicrobials against Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae by the micro‐broth method, and comparison with a commercially‐prepared test system. Avian Pathology, 23(1), 105-115.

  • Davidson, W. R., Nettles, V. F., Couvillion, C. E., & Yoder Jr., H. W. (1982). Infectious sinusitis in wild turkeys. Avian Diseases, 26(2), 402-405.

  • Dhondt, A. A., DeCoste, J. C., Ley, D. H., & Hochachka, W. M. (2014). Diverse wild bird host range of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in Eastern North America. PLOS One, 9(7), e103553.‏

  • Dhondt, A. A., Dhondt, K. V., & McCleery, B. V. (2008). Comparative infectiousness of three passerine bird species after experimental inoculation with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Pathology, 37(6), 635-640.

  • Elbehiry, A., Al-Dubaib, M., & Marzouk, E. (2016). Serological, rapid molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance for field isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in chicken in Saudi Arabia. Alexandria Journal for Veterinary Sciences, 49(2), 70-79.

  • Farmer, K. L., Hill, G. E., & Roberts, S. R. (2005). Susceptibility of wild songbirds to the house finch strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41(2), 317-325.

  • Ferguson, N. M., Hepp, D., Sun, S., Ikuta, N., Levisohn, S., Kleven, S. H., & García, M. (2005). Use of molecular diversity of Mycoplasma gallisepticum by gene-targeted sequencing (GTS) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for epidemiological studies. Microbiology, 151(6), 1883-1893.

  • Ferguson-Noel, N., & Kleven, S. H. (2016). Mycoplasma species. In S. M. Williams, L. Dufour-Zavala, M. W. Jackwood, M. D. Lee, B. Lupiani, W. M. Reed, E. Spackman, & P. R. Woolcock (Eds.), A laboratory manual for the isolation, identification, and characterization of avian pathogens (pp. 63-70). American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  • Ferguson-Noel, N., & Noormohammadi, A. H. (2013). Mycoplasma synoviae infection. In D. E. Swayne, J. R. Glisson, L. R. McDougald, L. K. Nolan, D. L. Suarez, & V. L. Nair (Eds.), Diseases of poultry (pp. 875–943). Iowa State University Press.

  • Friend, M. (1999). Mycoplasmosis. In M. Friend & J. C. Franson (Eds.), Field manual of wildlife diseases: General field procedures and diseases of birds (pp.115–119). United States Geological Survey Publication.

  • Ganapathy, K., & Bradbury, J. M. (1999). Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma imitans in mixed infection with infectious bronchitis virus in chickens. Avian Pathology, 28(3), 229-237.

  • Ganapathy, K., Saleha, A. A., Jaganathan, M., Tan, C. G., Chong, C. T., Tang, S. C., Ideris, A., Dare, C. M., & Bradbury, J. M. (2007). Survey of Campylobacter, Salmonella and mycoplasmas in house crows (Corvus splendens) in Malaysia. Veterinary Record, 160(18), 622-624.

  • Gerchman, I., Levisohn, S., Mikula, I., Manso-Silván, L., & Lysnyansky, I. (2011). Characterization of in vivo-acquired resistance to macrolides of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains isolated from poultry. Veterinary Research, 42(1), 90.

  • Gerchman, I., Lysnyansky, I., Perk, S., & Levisohn, S. (2008). In vitro susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones in current and archived Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from meat-type turkeys. Veterinary Microbiology, 131(3-4), 266-276.

  • Hannan, P. C. T. (2000). Guidelines and recommendations for antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing against veterinary mycoplasma species. Veterinary Research, 31(4), 373-395.

  • Hannan, P. C., Windsor, G. D., de Jong, A., Schmeer, N., & Stegemann, M. (1997). Comparative susceptibilities of various animal-pathogenic mycoplasmas to fluoroquinolones. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 41(9), 2037-2040.

  • Kempf, I., Gesbert, F., & Guittet, M. (1997). Experimental infection of chickens with an atypical Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain: Comparison of diagnostic methods. Research in Veterinary Science, 63(3), 211-213.

  • Khatoon, H., Afzal, F., Tahir, M. F., Hussain, M., & Khan, S. U. (2018). Prevalence of mycoplasmosis and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in commercial chicken flocks of Rawalpindi division, Pakistan. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 38(4), 446-448.

  • Kleven, S. H. (2008). Control of avian Mycoplasma infections in commercial poultry. Avian Diseases, 52(3), 367-374.

  • Levisohn, S., & Kleven, S. H. (2000). Avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum). Revue Scientifique et Technique, 19(2), 425-442.

  • Ley, D. H. (2003). Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. In Y. M. Saif, H. J. Barnes, J. R. Glisson, A. M. Fadly, L. R. McDougald, & D. E. Swayne (Eds.), Diseases of poultry (pp. 722-744). Iowa State University Press.

  • Li, B.-B., Shen, J.-Z., Cao, X.-Y., Wang, Y., Dai, L., Huang, S.-Y., & Wu, C.-M. (2010). Mutations in 23S rRNA gene associated with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin in Mycoplasma gallisepticum. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 308(2), 144-149.

  • Luttrell, P., & Fischer, J. R. (2007). Mycoplasmosis. In N. J. Thomas, D. B. Hunter, & C. T. Atkinson (Eds.), Infectious diseases of wild birds (pp. 317-331). Blackwell Publishing.

  • Markham, P. F., Glew, M. D., Whithear, K. G., & Walker, I. D. (1993). Molecular cloning of a member of the gene family that encodes pMGA, a hemagglutinin of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Infection and Immunity, 61(3), 903-909.

  • Moscoso, H., Thayer, S. G., Hofacre, C. L., & Kleven, S. H. (2004). Inactivation, storage, and PCR detection of mycoplasma on FTA® filter paper. Avian Diseases, 48(4), 841-850.

  • Nicholas, R., & Baker, S. (1998). Recovery of mycoplasma from birds. In R. Miles & R. Nicholas (Eds.), Mycoplasma protocols: Methods in molecular biology™ (Vol. 104, pp. 37-43). Humana Press.

  • Raviv, Z., & Ley, D. H. (2013). Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection. In D. E. Swayne, J. R. Glisson, L. R. McDougald, L. K. Nolan, D. L. Suarez, & V. L. Nair (Eds.), Diseases of poultry (pp. 877– 893). Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Reece, R. L., Ireland, L., & Scott, P. C. (1986). Mycoplasmosis in racing pigeons. Australian Veterinary Journal, 63(5), 166–167.

  • Reinhardt, A. K., Gautier-Bouchardon A. V., Gicquel-Bruneau M, Kobisch M, & Kempf I. (2005). Persistence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in chickens after treatment with enrofloxacin without development of resistance. Veterinary Microbiology, 106(1-2), 129-137.

  • Shah-Majid, M. (1988). Survival and isolation of avian mycoplasmas from drinking water of infected chickens. Pertanika, 11(3), 483-485.

  • Stanley, W. A., Hofacre, C. L., Speksnijder, G., Kleven, S. H., & Aggrey, S. E. (2001). Monitoring Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae infection in breeder chickens after treatment with enrofloxacin. Avian Diseases, 45(2), 534-539.

  • Taiyari, H., & Abu, J. (2020). House finch-associated Mycoplasma gallisepticum responsible for epizootic conjunctivitis in passerines. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 43(1), 19-34.

  • Taiyari, H., Faiz, N. M., Abu, J., & Zakaria, Z. (2021). Antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentration of Mycoplasma gallisepticum: A systematic review. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 30(2), 100160.

  • Tanner, A. C., & Wu, C.-C. (1992). Adaptation of the Sensititre® broth microdilution technique to antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Avian Diseases, 36(3), 714-717.

  • Yasmin, F., Ideris, A., Omar, A. R., Hair-Bejo, M., Tan, S. W., Tan, C. G., & Ahmad, K. (2014). Molecular detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum by real time PCR. Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 26(1), 1-7.