Home / Regular Issue / JSSH Vol. 29 (1) Mar. 2021 / JSSH-6818-2020

 

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Arrest and Detention of Autists by Royal Malaysia Police (PDRM)

Zuliza Mohd Kusrin, Wan Nur A’ina Mardhiah Wan Rushdan, and Mohd Al Adib Samuri

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 29, Issue 1, March 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjssh.29.1.10

Published: 26 March 2021

An autist refers to a person who suffers from Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a complex disorder of mental development, causing the person to be adversely affected, especially in social and behavioral aspects of life. Prior to the introduction of a specific Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for the arrest and detention of autists, the Royal Malaysia Police applied the same standard operating procedure in the Criminal Procedure Code for typical individuals, to autists suspected of criminal offences. However, the issue arising is the legal rights of people with disabilities whereby this SOP is seen as inappropriate and unsuitable to be applied to cases involving autists. As a result, the authorities and parties involved in handling autists came up with the idea of the need for a specific SOP applicable for their arrest and detention. Finally, in the year 2019, the Royal Malaysia Police, in cooperation with NGOs directly involved with autist, successfully launched a specific SOP for autists. The objectives of this article are to study the significance of the specific SOP for autists, and analyse and compare it with the usual SOP for typical people. The methodology of this research is qualitative. Collection of research data used document analysis. Data obtained was thematically and comparatively analysed. Research results find that there are differences between the specific SOP for autists and standard SOP for typical suspects. The differences lie in the legal rights of the autists in Malaysia, namely, in the aspects of arrest and detention of autistic suspects.

  • Adnan, A. S. (2018, September 19). Ibu pemuda autisme rayu laporan polis ditarik balik [The mother of the autistic youth appealed for a police report to be withdrawn]. Berita Harian. https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/kes/2018/09/475769/ibu-pemuda-autisme-rayu-laporan-polis-ditarik-balik

  • Airunnisa. (2018, September 20). Autisme didakwa: Adil atau selayaknya? [Autism charged: Fair or appropriate]. Utusan Online. http://www.utusan.com.my/mega/rona/autisme-didakwa-%0Aadil-atau-selayaknya-1.751171

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder fifth edition (DSM-V). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

  • Archer, N., & Hurley, E. A. (2013). A justice system failing the autistic community. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, 4(1-2), 53-59. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIDOB-02-2013-0003

  • Bandi, N. A. (2019, March 25). PDRM lancar SOP kendali tahanan autisme [PDRM runs SOP to handle autistic detainee]. Sinar Harian Online. https://www.sinarharian.com.my/article/20077/BERITA/Nasional/PDRM-lancar-SOP-kendali-tahanan-autisme

  • Barry-Walsh, J. B., & Mullen, P. E. (2004). Forensic aspects of Asperger’s syndrome. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 15(1), 96-107. https://doi.org/10.1080/14789940310001638628

  • Bernama. (2019, October 15). Suspek autistik boleh digari jika agresif [Autistic suspects can be handcuffed if they act aggressive]. Astro Awani. http://www.astroawani.com/berita-malaysia/suspek-autistik-boleh-digari-jika-agresif-polis-220141

  • Berryessa, C. M. (2016). Brief report: Judicial attitudes regarding the sentencing of offenders with high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(8), 2770-2773. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2798-1

  • Brown, A. (2018, February 15). When should you worry about your child’s attachment to comfort items? Medicalxpress. https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-02-child-comfort-items.html

  • Brown, J., Hastings, B., Cooney-koss, L., Psy, D., Huntley, D., Brasch, D., Anderson, G., Chukuske, R., Arndt, C., Trnka, A., Burger, P., & Martindale, J. (2016). Autism spectrum disorder in the criminal justice system : A review for caregivers and professionals. Journal of Law Enforcement, 5(5), 1-13.

  • Cashin, A., & Newman, C. (2009). Autism in the criminal justice detention system: A review of the literature. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 5(2), 70-75. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-3938.2009.01037.x

  • Cheely, C. A., Carpenter, L. A., Letourneau, E. J., Nicholas, J. S., Charles, J., & King, L. B. (2012). The prevalence of youth with Autism spectrum disorders in the criminal justice system. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(9), 1856-1862. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-011-1427-2

  • Chokshi, N. (2016, July 21). North Miami police officers shoot man aiding patient with autism. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/22/us/north-miami-police-officers-shoot-man-aiding-patient-with-autism.html

  • Chown, N. (2010). ‘Do you have any difficulties that I may not be aware of?’ A study of autism awareness and understanding in the UK police service. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 12(2), 256-273. https://doi.org/10.1350/ijps.2010.12.2.174

  • Crane, L., Maras, K. L., Hawken, T., Mulcahy, S., & Memon, A. (2016). Experiences of autism spectrum disorder and policing in England and Wales: Surveying police and the autism community. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 2028-2041. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2729-1

  • Criminal Procedure Act (Act 593, Rev. Ed. Msia) (1999).

  • Fitzpatrick, S. E., Srivorakiat, L., Wink, L. K., Pedapati, E. V., & Erickson, C. A. (2016). Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: Presentation and treatment options. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 2016(12), 1525-1538. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S84585

  • Gardner, L., Campbell, J. M., & Westdal, J. (2019). Brief report: Descriptive analysis of law enforcement officers’ experiences with and knowledge of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(3), 1278-1283. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3794-4

  • George, R., Crane, L., Bingham, A., Pophale, C., & Remington, A. (2018). Legal professionals’ knowledge and experience of autistic adults in the family justice system. Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 40(1), 78-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/09649069.2018.1414381

  • Haskins, B. G., & Silva, J. A. (2006). Asperger’s disorder and criminal behavior: Forensic-psychiatric considerations. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 34(3), 374-384.

  • Helverschou, S. B., Rasmussen, K., Steindal, K., Søndanaa, E., Nilsson, B., & Nøttestad, J. A. (2015). Offending profiles of individuals with autism spectrum disorder: A study of all individuals with autism spectrum disorder examined by the forensic psychiatric service in Norway between 2000 and 2010. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 19(7), 850-858. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361315584571

  • Kamaruddin, F. (2019, March 25). SOP khas kendali tahanan autisme [Specific SOP to handle detained autistic individuals]. Berita Harian. https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/nasional/2019/03/545263/sop-khas-kendali-tahanan-autisme

  • Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2(3), 217-250.

  • Kasnoon, K. (2019, February 27). Demi anak-anak Autisme, SOP baharu akan diperkenal [For the sake of autistic children, a new SOP will be introduced]. Astro Awani. http://www.astroawani.com/gaya-hidup/demi-anak-anak-autisme-sop-baharu-akan-diperkenal-199664

  • Kumar, S., Devendran, Y., Radhakrishna, A., Karanth, V., & Hongally, C. (2017). A case series of five individuals with Asperger syndrome and sexual criminality. Journal of Mental Health and Human Behaviour, 22(1), 63-68. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-8990.210703

  • Kusrin, Z. M., Samuri, A.-A., Ali, M., Yusof, W., & Syakir, M. (2019). Individu autisme dan perlakuan melanggar undang-undang [Individuals with autism and lawlessness] (Security issues in the computerized land registration system in Malaysia: An overview ). Jurnal Undang-Undang Malaysia, 31(2), 219-237.

  • Kusrin, Z. M., Yusof, W., & Yaakub, Z. (2020). Keperluan SOP khusus untuk tahanan dan penyiasatan individu autisme [Necessity of standard operation procedure for detention and interrogation of individual with autism], Al-Irsyad: Journal Of Islamic and Contemporary Issues, 5(1), 179-187.

  • Illinois Attorney General. (2019). Law enforcement guide to interacting with people with autisme. https://ag.state.il.us/rights/disabilityrights.html

  • Långström, N., Grann, M., Ruchkin, V., Sjöstedt, G., & Fazel, S. (2009). Risk factors for violent offending in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(8), 1358-1370. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260508322195

  • Lashley, J. (2009). Autism spectrum disorders: A special needs subject response guide for police officers. Children’s Hospital and Health System. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Joel-Lashley/publication/235996329_Autism_Spectrum_Disorders_A_Special_Needs_Subject_Response_Guide_for_Police_Officers_C/links/00b7d5155dd685d7c1000000/Autism-Spectrum-Disorders-A-Special-Needs-Subject-Response-Guide-for-Police-Officers-C.pdf

  • Lerner, M. D., Haque, O. S., Northrup, E. C., Lawer, L., & Bursztajn, H. J. (2012). Emerging perspectives on adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders, violence, and criminal law. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 40(2), 177-190.

  • Mahyut, S. M. (2017). Inclusion of people with disabilities in Malaysia. Journal of Asian and African Social Science and Humanities, 3(1), 1-17.

  • Maras, K. L., Crane, L., Mulcahy, S., Hawken, T., Cooper, P., Wurtzel, D., & Memon, A. (2017). Brief report: Autism in the courtroom: Experiences of legal professionals and the autism community. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(8), 2610-2620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3162-9

  • Maras, K. L., Mulcahy, S., Memon, A., Picariello, F., & Bowler, D. M. (2014). Evaluating the effectiveness of the self-administered interview© for witnesses with autism spectrum disorder. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(5), 693-701. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3055

  • Mayes, T. A. (2003). Persons with autism and criminal justice: Core concepts and leading cases. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 92-100. https://doi.org/10.1177/10983007030050020401

  • Modell, S. J., & Davis, M. (2016). A law enforcement guide for working with children with autism, intellectual and communication disabilities. New Mexico Coalition of Sexual Assault Programs Inc. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.3729.6884

  • Mogavero, M. C. (2016). Autism, sexual offending, and the criminal justice system. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour Article Information, 7(3), 116-126. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIDOB-02-2016-0004

  • Mokhtar, N. A. (2018, September 16). Penahanan pemuda autisme cabul gadis ikut SOP - Polis [Detention of autistic youth who sexually assult girl according to SOP - Police]. Berita Harian. https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/kes/2018/09/474483/penahanan-pemuda-autisme-%0Acabul-gadis-ikut-sop-polis

  • Mouridsen, S. E. (2012). Current status of research on autism spectrum disorders and offending. Research in autism spectrum disorders, 6(1), 79-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.09.003

  • Murrie, D. C., Warren, J. I., Kristiansson, M., & Dietz, P. E. (2002). Asperger’s syndrome in forensic settings. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 1(1), 59-70. https://doi.org/10.1080/14999013.2002.10471161

  • Nisar, M. (2017). Effects of disabled children on their families (A case study of District Charsadda). Journal of Asian and African Social Science and Humanities, 3(2), 29-37.

  • Polis Diraja Malaysia. (2019). Autisme: Garis panduan Polis Diraja Malaysia [Autism: The Royal Malaysian Police guidelines]. Urus Setia KPN (Penyelidikan dan Pembangunan).

  • Rava, J., Shattuck, P., Rast, J., & Roux, A. (2017). The prevalence and correlates of involvement in the criminal justice system among youth on the autism spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(2), 340-346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-016-2958-3

  • Razali, S. A. (2019, July 29). Siasatan terhadap autisme, sindrom down ikut SOP [Investigation into autism, down syndrome according to SOP ]. Berita Harian. https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/nasional/2019/07/590405/siasatan-terhadap-autisme-sindrom-down-ikut-sop-kpn

  • Reynold, D. (2004, September 9). Community-police crisis team grows in shadow of Paul childs’ shooting death. Inclusion Daily Express. https://mn.gov/mnddc/news/inclusion-daily/2004/09/090904coadv.htm

  • Robertson, C. E., & McGillivray, J. A. (2015). Autism behind bars: A review of the research literature and discussion of key issues. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 26(6), 719-736.

  • Sharif, M. M. (2018). Kedudukan tertuduh dengan kecelaruan spektrum autisme menuru perundangan jenayah Barat dan Islam [Position of the accused with autisme spectrum according to the western criminal legislation and Islam] .Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

  • Syriopoulou-Delli, C. K., Polychronopoulou, S. A., Kolaitis, G. A., & Antoniou, A. S. G. (2019). Views of teachers on anxiety symptoms in students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(2), 704-720. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3752-1

  • Talbot, J., & Riley, C. (2007). No one knows: Offenders with learning difficulties and learning disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(3), 154-161. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3156.2007.00456.x

  • Vassolo, M. (2019, July 3). No prison, 1-year probation for North Miami cop who shot at autistic man with toy. Miami Herald. https://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/community/miami-dade/article232237527.html

  • Volkmar, F. R., & Klin, A. (2005). Issues in the classification of autism and related conditions. In F. R. Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

  • Woodbury-Smith, M., Clare, I., Holland, A. J., Watson, P. C., Bambrick, M., Kearns, A., & Staufenberg, E. (2010). Circumscribed interests and “offenders” with autism spectrum disorders: A case-control study. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 21(3), 366-377. https://doi.org/10.1080/14789940903426877

  • Yaakob, Z., & Kusrin, Z. (2019). Remaja Autisme dan perilaku seksual [Adolescent autism and sexual behavior]. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID

JSSH-6818-2020

Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles