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  • Abdullah, M. H., Wah, H. S., & Eng, W. B. (2015). Delivering the ELEx package: An English language experience approach for developing undergraduates' language proficiency. Journal of Language and Communication, 2(2), 283-296.

  • Ali, Z. M., Ali, F., Radzuan, N. M., Alwi, N. N. M., Abu, N. L., & Kassim, Z. (2018). Contextualising the CEFR: the Universiti Malaysia Pahang English language proficiency writing test. In 11th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2018) (pp. 4892-4902). IATED Publisher.

  • Alosani, M. S., Al-Dhaafri, H. S., & Yusoff, R. Z. (2016). Mechanism of benchmarking and its impact on organizational performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 11(10), 172-183. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v11n10p172

  • American Educational Research Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. American Educational Research Association.

  • Bogan, C. E., & English, M. J. (1994). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. Mcgraw-Hill.

  • Bruce, E., & Hamp-Lyons, L. (2015). Opposing tensions of local and international standards for EAP writing programmes: Who are we assessing for? Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 18, 65-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2015.03.003

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2016). Linguaskill. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/429191-linguaskill-listening-and-reading-trial-report.pdf

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2018). Meet the research team behind Linguaskill. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/521541-linguaskill-research-team.pdf

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2019). Linguaskill simplify your English language testing. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/466596-linguaskill-simplify-your-english-language-testing.pdf

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021a). BULATS. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams-and-tests/bulats/

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021b). Fitness for purpose. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/research-and-validation/fitness-for-purpose/#cefr-relationship

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021c). How results are presented. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams-and-tests/linguaskill/information-about-the-test/how-results-are-presented/

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021d). Malaysia: Ministry of Higher Education recognises English language exams from Cambridge. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/news/view/malaysia-ministry-of-higher-education-recognises-cambridge-english-exams/

  • Cambridge English Language Assessment. (2011). Using the CEFR: Principles of Good Practice. University of Cambridge. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/126011-using-cefr-principles-of-good-practice.pdf

  • Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2012). English as a second language for adults. Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/migration/ircc/english/pdf/pub/language-benchmarks.pdf

  • Centre for the Advancement of Language Competence. (2013). ELEx Package (English language experience) for undergraduates Centre for the Advancement of Language Competence. https://calc.upm.edu.my/dokumen/11203_ELEX_Briefing_BI.pdf

  • Cheung, H. (2012). Academic perspectives from Taiwan. In M. Byram, & L. Parmenter (Eds.), The Common European Framework of Reference: The globalisation of language education policy (pp. 224-230). Multilingual Matters.

  • Don, Z. M., & Abdullah, M. H. (2019, May 27). What the CEFR is and isn’t. Free Malaysia Today. https://www.moe.gov.my/en/menumedia/printed-media/newspaper-clippings/what-the-cefr-is-and-isn-t-free-malaysia-today-27-mei-2019

  • Etiken, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11

  • Fisher, J. G. (1996). A managers guide to staff incentives and performance improvements. Kogan Page Publication.

  • Foley, J. A. (2019). Issues on assessment using CEFR in the region. Language Education and Acquisition Research Network Journal, 12(2), 28-48.

  • Herman, J. L., & Osmundson, D. R. (2010). Benchmark assessment for improved learning (AACC Policy Brief). University of California. https://doi.org/10.1037/e685212011-001

  • Inguva, M. (2018). Effective use of benchmarking: The context of the centre for preparatory studies in Oman. Arab World English Journal, 93-104. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/MEC1.7

  • Jaafar, M. S. (2019). Syarat kompetensi Bahasa Inggeris kepada pelajar antarabangsa [English language competency requirements for international students]. Malaysian Qualifications Agency. https://www.mqa.gov.my/pv4/document/pekeliling/2019/JPT-Penambahbaikan%20Syarat%20Kompetensi%20BI%20Pelajar%20Antarabangsa%20IPTS%2009Dis.pdf

  • Jin, Y., Wu, Z., Alderson, C., & Song, W. (2017). Developing the common Chinese Framework of Reference for Languages: Challenges at macro and micropolitical levels. Language Testing in Asia, 7(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40468-017-0032-5

  • Keegan, R., & O'Kelly, E. (2012). Applied benchmarking for competitiveness: A guide for SME owner/ managers. Oaktree Press.

  • Kwak, S. K., & Kim, J. H. (2017). Statistical data preparation: Management of missing values and outliers. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 70(4), 407-411. https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2017.70.4.407

  • Lim, G. S. (2017). The Occupational English Test and IELTS: A Benchmarking Report. Cambridge Assessment English.

  • Malaysian Qualifications Agency. (2020). Kompilasi dasar jaminan kuasa pendidikan tinggi (2009-2020): Edisi ketiga [Compilation of higher education power guarantee policies (2009-2020): 3rd ed.]. https://www.mqa.gov.my/pv4/document/compilationPolicy/KOMPILASI%20DASAR%20JAMINAN%20KUALITI%20PENDIDIKAN%20TINGGI%2020092020.pdf

  • Malaysian Qualifications Agency. (2020). Malaysian qualification agency. Programme Standards: Language. https://www2.mqa.gov.my/qad/v2/garispanduan/2020/PS%20Language%20-%20updates%20Oct%202020.pdf

  • Markel, S. (2018). The CEFR and English education in Japan. Journal of Policy Studies, 56, 33-38.

  • Ministry of Education. (2015). English language education reform in Malaysia: The Roadmap 2015-2025. Ministry of Education Malaysia.

  • Murtaza, S. F., & Saleh, N. S. (2018). English language use in Malaysian government and private civil engineering workplaces. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 6(3), 84-91. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.6n.3p.84

  • Mustafa, Z. (2018, July 11). Proficient way to better English. New Strait Times. https://www.nst.com.my/education/2018/07/389562/proficient-way-better-english

  • New Strait Times. (2019, June 27). We can make CEFR work for us. New Straits Times. https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/letters/2019/06/499490/we-can-make-cefr-work-us

  • Nwabuko, L. O., Igwe, N. J., Okengwu, M. C., Nwabuko, M. A., & Ekere, O. (2020). Benchmark for partnership in human and material resources provision for adult education programmes in the South-East zone of Nigeria. Global Journal of Health Science, 12(5), 46-56. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v12n5p46

  • Parlimen Malaysia. (2019). Mesyuarat Kedua, Penggal Kedua Parlimen Keempat Belas 2019 [Second Meeting in the Second Term of the 14th Parliamentary]. Parlimen Malaysia. https://www.parlimen.gov.my/files/jindex/pdf/JDN22072019.pdf

  • Prakash, G. (2019, May 23). Education Ministry says using European benchmark for English-language option teachers. Malay Mail. https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2019/05/23/education-ministry-says-using-european-benchmark-for-english-language-optio/1755690

  • Read, J. (2019). The influence of the Common European framework of Reference (CEFR) in the Asia Pacific region. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network Journal, 12(1), 12-18.

  • Rethinasamy, S., & Chuah, K. M. (2011). The Malaysia university English test and its use for placement purposes: A predictive validity study. Electric Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 8(2), 234-245. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2146007

  • Rockinson-Szapkiw, A. J. (2012). Step 4: Selecting and justifying your research design. http://amandaszapkiw.com/artifacts/resources/tutorials/research-process/Step-4-Selecting-and-Justifying-Your-Research-Design.pdf

  • Sani, R. (2018, February 7). Building capacity to increase English Proficiency. New Strait Times. https://www.nst.com.my/education/2018/02/332968/building-capacity-increase-english-

  • Sani, R. (2020, March 18). Meeting university requirements. New Strait Times. https://www.nst.com.my/education/2020/03/575837/meeting-university-requirements

  • Schober, P., Boer, C., & Schwarte, L. A. (2018). Correlation coefficients: Appropriate use and interpretation. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 126(5), 1763-1768. https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000002864

  • Sufi, M. K. A., & Stapa, M. (2020). Should the CEFR illustrative scales be localised to Malaysian higher education standards? – A conceptual paper. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(9), 885-897. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v10-i9/7882

  • Thomas, J. (2019, November 28). Malaysia: Between education and skills. The Asean Post. https://theaseanpost.com/article/malaysia-between-education-and-skills

  • UPM. (n.d.). Specific Program Requirements for Bachelor Program. Universiti Putra Malaysia. https://fsktm.upm.edu.my/upload/dokumen/BGAKA1_Specific_Program_Requirements_(Bachelor).pdf

  • Wu, J. (2012). Policy perspectives from Taiwan. In M. Byram, & L. Parmenter (Eds.), The Common European Framework of Reference: The globalisation of language education policy (pp. 213-223). Multilingual Matters.

  • Xu, J., Brenchley, M., Jones, E., Pinnington, A., Benjamin, T., Knill, K., Seal-Coon, G., Robinson, M., & Geranpayeh, A. (2020). Linguaskill Building a validity argument for the Speaking test. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/589637-linguaskill-building-a-validity-argument-for-the-speaking-test.pdf

  • Zairi, M. (1996). Benchmarking for best practice: Continuous learning through sustainable. Heinemann.

  • Zulkefli, A. S. (2017, November 4). M'sian students, teachers show vast improvement in CEFR as per Cambridge Evaluation Study 2017. New Straits Times. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2017/11/299126/msian-students-teachers-show-vast-improvement-cefr-cambridge-evaluation

  • Abdullah, M. H., Wah, H. S., & Eng, W. B. (2015). Delivering the ELEx package: An English language experience approach for developing undergraduates' language proficiency. Journal of Language and Communication, 2(2), 283-296.

  • Ali, Z. M., Ali, F., Radzuan, N. M., Alwi, N. N. M., Abu, N. L., & Kassim, Z. (2018). Contextualising the CEFR: the Universiti Malaysia Pahang English language proficiency writing test. In 11th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2018) (pp. 4892-4902). IATED Publisher.

  • Alosani, M. S., Al-Dhaafri, H. S., & Yusoff, R. Z. (2016). Mechanism of benchmarking and its impact on organizational performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 11(10), 172-183. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v11n10p172

  • American Educational Research Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. American Educational Research Association.

  • Bogan, C. E., & English, M. J. (1994). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. Mcgraw-Hill.

  • Bruce, E., & Hamp-Lyons, L. (2015). Opposing tensions of local and international standards for EAP writing programmes: Who are we assessing for? Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 18, 65-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2015.03.003

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2016). Linguaskill. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/429191-linguaskill-listening-and-reading-trial-report.pdf

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2018). Meet the research team behind Linguaskill. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/521541-linguaskill-research-team.pdf

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2019). Linguaskill simplify your English language testing. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/466596-linguaskill-simplify-your-english-language-testing.pdf

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021a). BULATS. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams-and-tests/bulats/

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021b). Fitness for purpose. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/research-and-validation/fitness-for-purpose/#cefr-relationship

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021c). How results are presented. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams-and-tests/linguaskill/information-about-the-test/how-results-are-presented/

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021d). Malaysia: Ministry of Higher Education recognises English language exams from Cambridge. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/news/view/malaysia-ministry-of-higher-education-recognises-cambridge-english-exams/

  • Cambridge English Language Assessment. (2011). Using the CEFR: Principles of Good Practice. University of Cambridge. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/126011-using-cefr-principles-of-good-practice.pdf

  • Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2012). English as a second language for adults. Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/migration/ircc/english/pdf/pub/language-benchmarks.pdf

  • Centre for the Advancement of Language Competence. (2013). ELEx Package (English language experience) for undergraduates Centre for the Advancement of Language Competence. https://calc.upm.edu.my/dokumen/11203_ELEX_Briefing_BI.pdf

  • Cheung, H. (2012). Academic perspectives from Taiwan. In M. Byram, & L. Parmenter (Eds.), The Common European Framework of Reference: The globalisation of language education policy (pp. 224-230). Multilingual Matters.

  • Don, Z. M., & Abdullah, M. H. (2019, May 27). What the CEFR is and isn’t. Free Malaysia Today. https://www.moe.gov.my/en/menumedia/printed-media/newspaper-clippings/what-the-cefr-is-and-isn-t-free-malaysia-today-27-mei-2019

  • Etiken, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11

  • Fisher, J. G. (1996). A managers guide to staff incentives and performance improvements. Kogan Page Publication.

  • Foley, J. A. (2019). Issues on assessment using CEFR in the region. Language Education and Acquisition Research Network Journal, 12(2), 28-48.

  • Herman, J. L., & Osmundson, D. R. (2010). Benchmark assessment for improved learning (AACC Policy Brief). University of California. https://doi.org/10.1037/e685212011-001

  • Inguva, M. (2018). Effective use of benchmarking: The context of the centre for preparatory studies in Oman. Arab World English Journal, 93-104. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/MEC1.7

  • Jaafar, M. S. (2019). Syarat kompetensi Bahasa Inggeris kepada pelajar antarabangsa [English language competency requirements for international students]. Malaysian Qualifications Agency. https://www.mqa.gov.my/pv4/document/pekeliling/2019/JPT-Penambahbaikan%20Syarat%20Kompetensi%20BI%20Pelajar%20Antarabangsa%20IPTS%2009Dis.pdf

  • Jin, Y., Wu, Z., Alderson, C., & Song, W. (2017). Developing the common Chinese Framework of Reference for Languages: Challenges at macro and micropolitical levels. Language Testing in Asia, 7(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40468-017-0032-5

  • Keegan, R., & O'Kelly, E. (2012). Applied benchmarking for competitiveness: A guide for SME owner/ managers. Oaktree Press.

  • Kwak, S. K., & Kim, J. H. (2017). Statistical data preparation: Management of missing values and outliers. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 70(4), 407-411. https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2017.70.4.407

  • Lim, G. S. (2017). The Occupational English Test and IELTS: A Benchmarking Report. Cambridge Assessment English.

  • Malaysian Qualifications Agency. (2020). Kompilasi dasar jaminan kuasa pendidikan tinggi (2009-2020): Edisi ketiga [Compilation of higher education power guarantee policies (2009-2020): 3rd ed.]. https://www.mqa.gov.my/pv4/document/compilationPolicy/KOMPILASI%20DASAR%20JAMINAN%20KUALITI%20PENDIDIKAN%20TINGGI%2020092020.pdf

  • Malaysian Qualifications Agency. (2020). Malaysian qualification agency. Programme Standards: Language. https://www2.mqa.gov.my/qad/v2/garispanduan/2020/PS%20Language%20-%20updates%20Oct%202020.pdf

  • Markel, S. (2018). The CEFR and English education in Japan. Journal of Policy Studies, 56, 33-38.

  • Ministry of Education. (2015). English language education reform in Malaysia: The Roadmap 2015-2025. Ministry of Education Malaysia.

  • Murtaza, S. F., & Saleh, N. S. (2018). English language use in Malaysian government and private civil engineering workplaces. International Journal of Education & Literacy Studies, 6(3), 84-91. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.6n.3p.84

  • Mustafa, Z. (2018, July 11). Proficient way to better English. New Strait Times. https://www.nst.com.my/education/2018/07/389562/proficient-way-better-english

  • New Strait Times. (2019, June 27). We can make CEFR work for us. New Straits Times. https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/letters/2019/06/499490/we-can-make-cefr-work-us

  • Nwabuko, L. O., Igwe, N. J., Okengwu, M. C., Nwabuko, M. A., & Ekere, O. (2020). Benchmark for partnership in human and material resources provision for adult education programmes in the South-East zone of Nigeria. Global Journal of Health Science, 12(5), 46-56. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v12n5p46

  • Parlimen Malaysia. (2019). Mesyuarat Kedua, Penggal Kedua Parlimen Keempat Belas 2019 [Second Meeting in the Second Term of the 14th Parliamentary]. Parlimen Malaysia. https://www.parlimen.gov.my/files/jindex/pdf/JDN22072019.pdf

  • Prakash, G. (2019, May 23). Education Ministry says using European benchmark for English-language option teachers. Malay Mail. https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2019/05/23/education-ministry-says-using-european-benchmark-for-english-language-optio/1755690

  • Read, J. (2019). The influence of the Common European framework of Reference (CEFR) in the Asia Pacific region. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network Journal, 12(1), 12-18.

  • Rethinasamy, S., & Chuah, K. M. (2011). The Malaysia university English test and its use for placement purposes: A predictive validity study. Electric Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 8(2), 234-245. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2146007

  • Rockinson-Szapkiw, A. J. (2012). Step 4: Selecting and justifying your research design. http://amandaszapkiw.com/artifacts/resources/tutorials/research-process/Step-4-Selecting-and-Justifying-Your-Research-Design.pdf

  • Sani, R. (2018, February 7). Building capacity to increase English Proficiency. New Strait Times. https://www.nst.com.my/education/2018/02/332968/building-capacity-increase-english-

  • Sani, R. (2020, March 18). Meeting university requirements. New Strait Times. https://www.nst.com.my/education/2020/03/575837/meeting-university-requirements

  • Schober, P., Boer, C., & Schwarte, L. A. (2018). Correlation coefficients: Appropriate use and interpretation. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 126(5), 1763-1768. https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000002864

  • Sufi, M. K. A., & Stapa, M. (2020). Should the CEFR illustrative scales be localised to Malaysian higher education standards? – A conceptual paper. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(9), 885-897. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v10-i9/7882

  • Thomas, J. (2019, November 28). Malaysia: Between education and skills. The Asean Post. https://theaseanpost.com/article/malaysia-between-education-and-skills

  • UPM. (n.d.). Specific Program Requirements for Bachelor Program. Universiti Putra Malaysia. https://fsktm.upm.edu.my/upload/dokumen/BGAKA1_Specific_Program_Requirements_(Bachelor).pdf

  • Wu, J. (2012). Policy perspectives from Taiwan. In M. Byram, & L. Parmenter (Eds.), The Common European Framework of Reference: The globalisation of language education policy (pp. 213-223). Multilingual Matters.

  • Xu, J., Brenchley, M., Jones, E., Pinnington, A., Benjamin, T., Knill, K., Seal-Coon, G., Robinson, M., & Geranpayeh, A. (2020). Linguaskill Building a validity argument for the Speaking test. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/589637-linguaskill-building-a-validity-argument-for-the-speaking-test.pdf

  • Zairi, M. (1996). Benchmarking for best practice: Continuous learning through sustainable. Heinemann.

  • Zulkefli, A. S. (2017, November 4). M'sian students, teachers show vast improvement in CEFR as per Cambridge Evaluation Study 2017. New Straits Times. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2017/11/299126/msian-students-teachers-show-vast-improvement-cefr-cambridge-evaluation

  • Abdullah, M. H., Wah, H. S., & Eng, W. B. (2015). Delivering the ELEx package: An English language experience approach for developing undergraduates' language proficiency. Journal of Language and Communication, 2(2), 283-296.

  • Ali, Z. M., Ali, F., Radzuan, N. M., Alwi, N. N. M., Abu, N. L., & Kassim, Z. (2018). Contextualising the CEFR: the Universiti Malaysia Pahang English language proficiency writing test. In 11th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI 2018) (pp. 4892-4902). IATED Publisher.

  • Alosani, M. S., Al-Dhaafri, H. S., & Yusoff, R. Z. (2016). Mechanism of benchmarking and its impact on organizational performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 11(10), 172-183. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v11n10p172

  • American Educational Research Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. American Educational Research Association.

  • Bogan, C. E., & English, M. J. (1994). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. Mcgraw-Hill.

  • Bruce, E., & Hamp-Lyons, L. (2015). Opposing tensions of local and international standards for EAP writing programmes: Who are we assessing for? Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 18, 65-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2015.03.003

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2016). Linguaskill. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/429191-linguaskill-listening-and-reading-trial-report.pdf

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2018). Meet the research team behind Linguaskill. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/521541-linguaskill-research-team.pdf

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2019). Linguaskill simplify your English language testing. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/466596-linguaskill-simplify-your-english-language-testing.pdf

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021a). BULATS. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams-and-tests/bulats/

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021b). Fitness for purpose. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/research-and-validation/fitness-for-purpose/#cefr-relationship

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021c). How results are presented. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/exams-and-tests/linguaskill/information-about-the-test/how-results-are-presented/

  • Cambridge Assessment English. (2021d). Malaysia: Ministry of Higher Education recognises English language exams from Cambridge. Cambridge Assessment English. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/news/view/malaysia-ministry-of-higher-education-recognises-cambridge-english-exams/

  • Cambridge English Language Assessment. (2011). Using the CEFR: Principles of Good Practice. University of Cambridge. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/126011-using-cefr-principles-of-good-practice.pdf

  • Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2012). English as a second language for adults. Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/migration/ircc/english/pdf/pub/language-benchmarks.pdf

  • Centre for the Advancement of Language Competence. (2013). ELEx Package (English language experience) for undergraduates Centre for the Advancement of Language Competence. https://calc.upm.edu.my/dokumen/11203_ELEX_Briefing_BI.pdf

  • Cheung, H. (2012). Academic perspectives from Taiwan. In M. Byram, & L. Parmenter (Eds.), The Common European Framework of Reference: The globalisation of language education policy (pp. 224-230). Multilingual Matters.

  • Don, Z. M., & Abdullah, M. H. (2019, May 27). What the CEFR is and isn’t. Free Malaysia Today. https://www.moe.gov.my/en/menumedia/printed-media/newspaper-clippings/what-the-cefr-is-and-isn-t-free-malaysia-today-27-mei-2019

  • Etiken, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11

  • Fisher, J. G. (1996). A managers guide to staff incentives and performance improvements. Kogan Page Publication.

  • Foley, J. A. (2019). Issues on assessment using CEFR in the region. Language Education and Acquisition Research Network Journal, 12(2), 28-48.

  • Herman, J. L., & Osmundson, D. R. (2010). Benchmark assessment for improved learning (AACC Policy Brief). University of California. https://doi.org/10.1037/e685212011-001

  • Inguva, M. (2018). Effective use of benchmarking: The context of the centre for preparatory studies in Oman. Arab World English Journal, 93-104. https://doi.org/10.24093/awej/MEC1.7

  • Jaafar, M. S. (2019). Syarat kompetensi Bahasa Inggeris kepada pelajar antarabangsa [English language competency requirements for international students]. Malaysian Qualifications Agency. https://www.mqa.gov.my/pv4/document/pekeliling/2019/JPT-Penambahbaikan%20Syarat%20Kompetensi%20BI%20Pelajar%20Antarabangsa%20IPTS%2009Dis.pdf

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