Home / Regular Issue / JST Vol. 29 (3) Jul. 2021 / JST-2456-2021


Comparative Analyses on Synthetic Membranes for Artificial Blood Feeding of Aedes aegypti using Digital Thermo Mosquito Blood Feeder (DITMOF)

Mohd Farihan Md Yatim, Aishah Hani Azil, Nazarudin Safian, Ahmad Firdaus Mohd Salleh and Mohd Khadri Shahar

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 29, Issue 3, July 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjst.29.3.31

Keywords: Aedes aegypti, artificial feeding, blood feeding device, collagen sausage casing, DITMOF, Parafilm-M, PTFE tape, synthetic membrane

Published on: 31 July 2021

The use of live animal to blood feeding mosquito colony is proven to be expensive and inconvenient. As an alternative, artificial feeding (AF) is used to rear mosquito colony. The use of synthetic membrane in AF provided a more convenient method as compared to natural membrane which require extensive preparation. In this study, three synthetic membranes were compared (Parafilm-M, Polytetrafluoroethylene tape or PTFE tape and collagen sausage casing) to blood feeding Aedes aegypti. The membranes were incorporated with our in-house developed device named as Digital Thermo Mosquito Blood Feeder (DITMOF) to heat cattle blood for mosquito feeding. Results showed that PTFE tape recorded the highest blood feeding rate (95.00% ± 1.67%) with significant mean difference (p <0.001) as compared to both Parafilm-M (72.00% ± 2.60%) and collagen sausage casing (71.50% ± 3.50%). However, there was no difference in term of fecundity for mosquito feed with all three membranes tested (p=0.292). In conclusion, PTFE tape should be considered as the preferred membrane to blood feeding Ae. aegypti. Furthermore, this artificial blood feeding system, DITMOF successfully feed Ae. aegypti conveniently and effectively, thus should be further tested to feed other mosquito species.

  • AMCOR(2019).PARAFILM® M laboratory film - technical datasheet.Retrieve April 4, 2019, from http: //www.bemis.com/Bemis/media/Library/pdf/unrestricted/amcor-techdata-parafilm-m-lab.pdf

  • Balestrino, F., Benedict, M., & Gilles, J. (2012). A new larval tray and rack system for improved mosquito mass rearing. Journal of Medical Entomology, 49(3), 595-605. https://doi.org/10.1603/ME11188

  • Barbut, S. (2010). Microstructure of natural, extruded and co-extruded collagen casings before and after heating. Italian Journal of Food Science, 22(2), 126-133.

  • Baumans, V., Zutphen, L., & Beynen, A. (1993). Principles of laboratory animal science: A contribution to the humane use and care of animals and to the quality of experimental results. Elseveir

  • Bender, J. A., & Frye, M. A. (2009). Invertebrate solutions for sensing gravity. Current Biology, 19(5), 186-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.024

  • Ciota, A. T., Styer, L. M., Meola, M. A., & Kramer, L. D. (2011). The costs of infection and resistance as determinants of West Nile virus susceptibility in Culex mosquitoes. BMC Ecology, 11(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6785-11-23

  • Costa-da-Silva, A. L., Navarrete, F. R., Salvador, F. S., Karina-Costa, M., Ioshino, R. S., Azevedo, D. S., Rocha, D. R., Romano, C. M., & Capurro, M. L. (2013). Glytube: A conical tube and parafilm M-based method as a simplified device to artificially blood-feed the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. PLoS One, 8(1), Article e53816. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053816

  • Deng, L., Koou, S., Png, A., Ng, L., & Lam-Phua, S. (2012). A novel mosquito feeding system for routine blood-feeding of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Tropical Biomedicine, 29(1), 169-174. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12101

  • Finlayson, C., Saingamsook, J., & Somboon, P. (2015). A simple and affordable membrane-feeding method for Aedes aegpyti and Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae). Acta Tropica, 152, 245-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.09.026

  • Gonzales, K. K., Rodriguez, S. D., Chung, H. N., Kowalski, M., Vulcan, J., Moore, E. L., Li, Y., Willette, S. M., Kandel, Y., Van Voorhies, W. A., Holguin, F. O., Hanley, K. A., & Hansen, I. A. (2018). The effect of SkitoSnack, an artificial blood meal replacement, on Aedes aegypti life history traits and gut microbiota. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29415-5

  • Gunathilaka, N., Ranathunge, T., Udayanga, L., & Abeyewickreme, W. (2017). Efficacy of blood sources and artificial blood feeding methods in rearing of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for sterile insect technique and incompatible insect technique approaches in Sri Lanka. Hindawi BioMed Research International 2017, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3196924

  • Klun, J. A., Kramer, M., & Debboun, M. (2005). A new in vitro bioassay system for discovery of novel human-use mosquito repellents. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 21(1), 64-70.

  • Ledesma, E., Rendueles, M., & Díaz, M. (2015). Characterization of natural and synthetic casings and mechanism of BaP penetration in smoked meat products. Food Control, 51, 195-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.11.025

  • Luo, Y. P. (2014). A novel multiple membrane blood‐feeding system for investigating and maintaining Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Journal of Vector Ecology, 39(2), 271-277. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12101

  • Lyski, Z. L., Saredy, J. J., Ciano, K. A., Stem, J., & Bowers, D. F. (2011). Blood feeding position increases success of recalcitrant mosquitoes. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases, 11(8), 1165-1171. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2010.0164

  • Nasirian, H., & Ladonni, H. (2006). Artificial bloodfeeding of Anopheles stephensi on a membrane apparatus with human whole blood. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 22(1), 54-56. https://doi.org/10.2987/8756-971X(2006)22[54:ABOASO]2.0.CO;2

  • Novak, M., Berry, W., & Rowley, W. (1991). Comparison of four membranes for artificially bloodfeeding mosquitoes. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 7(2), 327-329.

  • Paris, V., Cottingham, E., Ross, P. A., Axford, J. K., & Hoffmann, A. A. (2018). Effects of alternative blood sources on Wolbachia infected Aedes aegypti females within and across generations. Insects, 9(4), Article 140. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9040140

  • Peng, Z., Beckett, A. N., Engler, R. J., Hoffman, D. R., Ott, N. L., & Simons, F. E. R. (2004). Immune responses to mosquito saliva in 14 individuals with acute systemic allergic reactions to mosquito bites. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 114(5), 1189-1194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2004.08.014

  • Pothikasikorn, J., Boonplueang, R., Suebsaeng, C., Khaengraeng, R., & Chareonviriyaphap, T. (2010). Feeding response of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus (Diptera: Culicidae) using out‐of‐date human blood in a membrane feeding apparatus. Journal of Vector Ecology, 35(1), 149-155. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2010.00071.x

  • Romano, D., Stefanini, C., Canale, A., & Benelli, G. (2018). Artificial blood feeders for mosquitoes and ticks-Where from, where to? Acta Tropica, 183, 43-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.009

  • Ross, P. A., Lau, M. J., & Hoffmann, A. A. (2019). Does membrane feeding compromise the quality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes? PLoS One, 14(11), Article e0224268. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224268

  • RSPRO. (2020). RS PRO White PTFE Tape 12mm x 12m x 0.075mm. Retrieve May 9, 2020, from https://my.rs-online.com/web/p/ptfe-tapes/0512238/

  • Rudmann, S. V. (2005). Textbook of blood banking and transfusion medicine (2nd Ed.). Elsevier Saunders.

  • Siria, D. J., Batista, E. P., Opiyo, M. A., Melo, E. F., Sumaye, R. D., Ngowo, H. S., Eiras, A. E., & Okumu, F. (2018). Evaluation of a simple polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-based membrane for blood-feeding of malaria and dengue fever vectors in the laboratory. Parasites Vectors, 11(1), Article 236. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2823-7

  • Van der Linden, W. (1983). Membrane separation in flow injection analysis: Gas diffusion. Analytica Chimica Acta, 151, 359-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(00)80097-5

  • Wade, J. O. (1976). A new design of membrane feeder incorporating an electrical blood stirring device. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, 70(1), 113-120. https://doi.org/10.1080/00034983.1976.11687102

  • WHO. (1995). Manual on practical entomology in Malaria. Retrieve April 4, 2020, from http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42481.

  • Zhang, D., Zhang, M., Wu, Y., Gilles, J. R. L., Yamada, H., Wu, Z., Xi, Z., & Zheng, X. (2017). Establishment of a medium-scale mosquito facility: Optimization of the larval mass-rearing unit for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasites & Vectors, 10(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2511-z

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles