Home / Regular Issue / JST Vol. 29 (3) Jul. 2021 / JST-2463-2021

 

Immobilized Microalgae using Alginate for Wastewater Treatment

Amanatuzzakiah Abdul Halim and Wan Nor Atikah Wan Haron

Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, Volume 29, Issue 3, July 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjst.29.3.34

Keywords: Alginate, ammonium removal, cell immobilization, COD, microalgae, nutrients removal, phosphate removal

Published on: 31 July 2021

Organic and inorganic substances are released into the environment because of domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities which contribute to the pollution of water bodies. Removal of these substances from wastewater using conventional treatment involves high energy cost for mechanical aeration to provide oxygen for aerobic digestion system. During this process, the aerobic bacteria rapidly consume the organic matter and convert it into single cell proteins, water, and carbon dioxide. Alternatively, this biological treatment step can be accomplished by growing microalgae in the wastewater. Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in calcium alginate was used to study the removal efficiency of main nutrients in wastewater such as ammonium and phosphate that act as an important factor in microalgae growth. The immobilized cells demonstrated higher percentage of ammonium and phosphate removal of 83% and 79% respectively, compared to free-suspended cells (76% and 56%). COD removal recorded was 89% and 83% for immobilized cells and free-suspended cells, respectively. The kinetics parameters of nutrients removal for immobilized C. vulgaris in synthetic wastewater were also determined. The specific ammonium removal rates (RA) and phosphate removal rates (RP) for Chlorella vulgaris in synthetic wastewater were 8.3 mg.L-1day-1 and 7.9 mg.L-1day-1, respectively. On the other hand, the kinetic coefficient for each nutrient removal determined were kA = 0.0462 L.mg-1 day-1 NH4 and kP = 0.0352 L.mg-1 day-1 PO43-. This study proves the application of immobilized microalgae cells is advantageous to the wastewater treatment efficiency. Furthermore, optimization on the immobilization process can be conducted to further improve the nutrients removal rates which potentially can be applied in the large-scale wastewater treatment process.

  • Acarregui, A., Murua, A., Pedraz, J. L., Orive, G., & Hernandez, R. M. (2012). A perspective on bioactive cell mircoencapsulation. BioDrugs, 26, 283-301. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03261887

  • Aguilar-May, B., & Sánchez-Saavedra, M. P. (2009). Growth and removal of nitrogen and phosphorus by free living and chitosan-immobilized cells of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongates. Journal of Applied Phycology, 21, 353-360. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-008-9376-7

  • APHA. (1999). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater part 4000 inorganic nonmetallic constituents. American Public Health Association. https://doi.org/10.2105/SMWW.2882.067

  • Aslan, S., & Kapdan, I. K. (2006). Batch kinetics of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from synthetic wastewater by algae. Ecological Engineering, 28, 64-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.04.003.

  • Banerjee, S., Tiwade, P. B., Sambhav, K., Banerjee, C., & Bhaumik, S. K. (2019). Effect of alginate concentration in wastewater nutrient removal using alginate-immobilized microalgae beads: Uptake kinetics and adsorption studies. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 149, Article 107241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2019.107241

  • Benedetti, M., Vecchi, V., Barera, S., & Dall’Osto, L. (2018). Biomass from microalgae: The potential of domestication towards sustainable biofactories. Microbial Cell Factories, 17(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-018-1019-3

  • Covarrubias, S. A., de-Bashan, L. E., Moreno, M., & Bashan, Y. (2012). Alginate beads provide a beneficial physical barrier against native microorganisms in wastewater treated with immobilized bacteria and microalgae. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 93, 2669-2680. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-011-3585-8

  • De-Bashan, L. E., & Bashan, Y. (2010). Immobilized microalgae for removing pollutants: Review of practical aspects. Bioresource Technology, 101(6), 1611-1627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.09.043

  • Delgadillo-Mirquez, L., Lopes, F., Taidi, B., & Pareau, D. (2016). Nitrogen and phosphate removal from wastewater with a mixed microalgae and bacteria culture. Biotechnology Reports, 11, 18-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2016.04.003

  • Gao, H., Khera, E., Lee, J. K., & Wen, F. (2016). Immobilization of multi-biocatalysts in alginate beads for cofactor regeneration and improved reusability. Journal of Visualized Experiments, (110), Article 53944. https://doi.org/10.3791/53944

  • Halim, A. A., Samsudin, A., Azmi, A. S., & Nawi, M. M. N. (2019). Nutrient and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by mircoalgae-bacteria co-culture system in palm mill oil effluent (POME). IIUM Engineering Journal, 20(2), 22-31. https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumej.v20i2.1109

  • Hernandez, J., Luz, E., & Bashan, Y. (2006). Starvation enhances phosphorus removal from wastewater by the with Azospirillum brasilense. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 38, 190-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2005.06.005

  • Kaparapu, J. (2017). Micro algal immobilization techniques. Journal of Algal Biomass Utilization, 8(1), 64-70.

  • Kaur, H., Rajor, A., & Kaleka, A. S. (2019). Role of phycoremediation to remove heavy metals from sewage water: Review article.  Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.3923/jest.2019.1.9

  • Lau, P. S., Tam, N. F. Y., & Wong, Y. S. (1998). Effect of carrageenan immobilization on the physiological activities of Chlorella vulgaris. Bioresource Technology, 63(2), 115-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(97)00111-9

  • Leenen, E. J. T. M., Dos Santos, V. A. P., Grolle, K. C. F., Tramper, J., & Wijffels, R. H. (1996). Characteristics of and selection criteria for support materials for cell immobilization in wastewater treatment. Water Research, 30(12), 2985-2996. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0043-1354(96)00209-6

  • Mujtaba, G., Rizwan, M., & Lee, K. (2015). Simultaneous removal of inorganic nutrients and organic carbon by symbiotic co-culture of Chlorella vulgaris and Pseudomonas putida. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 20(6), 1114-1122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12257-015-0421-5

  • Pacheco, M. M., Hoeltz, M., Moraes, M. S. A., & Schneider, R. C. S. (2015). Microalgae: Cultivation techniques and wastewater phycoremediation. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 50(6), 585-601. https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2015.994951

  • Qiu, S., Wang, L., Champagne, P., Cao, G., Chen, Z., Wang, S., & Ge, S. (2019). Effects of crystalline nanocellulose on wastewater-cultivated microalgal separation and biomass composition. Applied Energy, 239, 207-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.01.212

  • Rizwan, M., Mujtaba, G., Memon, S. A., Lee, K., & Rashid, N. (2018). Exploring the potential of microalgae for new biotechnology applications and beyond: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 92, 394-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.04.034

  • Ruiz-Marin, A., Mendoza-Espinosa, L. G., & Stephenson, T. (2010). Growth and nutrient removal in free and immobilized green algae in batch and semi-continuous cultures treating real wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 101(1), 58-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.02.076

  • Samsudin, A., Azmi, A. S., Nawi, M. N., & Halim, A. A. (2018). Wastewater treatment by microalgae-bacteria co-culture system. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, 14(2), 131-136. https://doi.org/10.21161/mjm.97818

  • Sanz-Luque, E., Chamizo-Ampudia, A., Llamas, A., Galvan, A., & Fernandez, E. (2015). Understanding nitrate assimilation and its regulation in microalgae. Frontiers in Plant Science, 6(10), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00899

  • Shen, Y., Gao, J., & Li, L. (2017). Municipal wastewater treatment via co-immobilized microalgal-bacterial symbiosis: Microorganism growth and nutrients removal. Bioresource Technology, 243, 905-913. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.07.041

  • Singh, Y. (2003). Photosynthetic activity, and lipid and hydrocarbon production by alginate-immobilized cells of Botryococcus in relation to growth phase. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 13(5), 687-691.

  • Soo, C. L., Chen, C. A., Bojo, O., & Hii, Y. S. (2017). Feasibility of marine microalgae immobilization in alginate bead for marine water treatment: Bead stability, cell growth, and ammonia removal. International Journal of Polymer Science, 2017, Article 6951212. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6951212

  • Stockenreiter, M., Haupt, F., Seppälä, J., Tamminen, T., & Spilling, K. (2016). Nutrient uptake and lipid yield in diverse microalgal communities grown in wastewater. Algal Research, 15, 77-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2016.02.013

  • Tejido-Nuñez, Y., Aymerich, E., Sancho, L., & Refardt, D. (2019). Treatment of aquaculture effluent with Chlorella vulgaris and Tetradesmus obliquus: The effect of pretreatment on microalgae growth and nutrient removal efficiency. Ecological Engineering, 136, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2019.05.021

  • Wu, Z., Zhu, Y., Huang, W., Zhang, C., Li, T., Zhang, Y., & Li, A. (2012). Evaluation of flocculation induced by pH increase for harvesting microalgae and reuse of flocculated medium. Bioresource Technology, 110, 496-502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.101.

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID

JST-2463-2021

Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles