Home / Regular Issue / JST Vol. 29 (4) Oct. 2021 / JST-2818-2021


Anomaly Detection of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Based on Degradation Rate: A Case Study in Malaysia

Mohamad Zhafran Hussin, Nor Diyana Md Sin, Hedzlin Zainuddin, Ahmad Maliki Omar and Sulaiman Shaari

Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, Volume 29, Issue 4, October 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47836/pjst.29.4.48

Keywords: Degradation, grid-connected, photovoltaic system, string current, string voltage

Published on: 29 October 2021

This paper presents the characterization and performance of six-year field data for two different systems of PV module technologies from the rooftop grid-connected system installed at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam. Two different PV module technologies are used as case studies to establish a method of anomaly detection on the system performance. The selected parameters such as string voltage, string current and AC power output are used in the analysis, while solar irradiance and module temperature are used as a reference basis. Based on the results obtained, both systems having degradation rates differently. System A had shown stable performance before it degraded by 16.09% after the 4th-year of operation, whereas system B continuously decreased by 39.35% during the monitored period. However, the string current of system A degraded up to 4.4% and, interestingly, no degradation for the string voltage. In contrast, system B has experienced a degradation of the string current by about 21.6%, whereas the string voltage was around 16.16%. Therefore, the string current and string voltage could identify the cause of the degradation rate of AC power. This analysis could be used to diagnose and identify the sources and causes of power degradation of grid-connected PV systems so that further action could be taken.

  • Bansal, N., Pany, P., & Singh, G. (2021). Visual degradation and performance evaluation of utility scale solar photovoltaic power plant in hot and dry climate in western India. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 26, Article 101010. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2021.101010

  • Dahmoun, M. E. H., Bekkouche, B., Sudhakar, K., Guezgouz, M., Chenafi, A., & Chaouch, A. (2021). Performance evaluation and analysis of grid-tied large scale PV plant in Algeria. Energy for Sustainable Development, 61, 181-195. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2021.02.004

  • Department of Standards Malaysia. (2020). MS 2692:2020 Testing and commissioning of grid-connected photovoltaic system (GCPV). In Malaysian Standard (pp. 1-61). Department of Standards Malaysia.

  • Dubey, R., Chattopadhyay, S., Kuthanazhi, V., Kottantharayil, A., Solanki, C. S., Arora, B. M., Narasimhan, K. L., Vasi, J., Bora, B., Singh, Y. K., & Sastry, O. S. (2017). Comprehensive study of performance degradation of field-mounted photovoltaic modules in India. Energy Science & Engineering, 5(1), 51-64. https://doi.org/10.1002/ese3.150

  • Fouad, M. M., Shihata, L. A., & Morgan, E. I. (2017). An integrated review of factors influencing the perfomance of photovoltaic panels. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 80, 1499-1511. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.141

  • Halwachs, M., Neumaier, L., Vollert, N., Maul, L., Dimitriadis, S., Voronko, Y., Eder, G. C., Omazic, A., Mühleisen, W., Hirschl, C., Schwark, M., Berger, K. A., & Ebner, R. (2019). Statistical evaluation of PV system performance and failure data among different climate zones. Renewable Energy, 139, 1040-1060. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.02.135

  • Husain, A., Phesal, M., Kadir, Z., & Amirulddin, U. A. U. (2020). Short review on recent solar PV policies in Malaysia. E3S Web of Conferences, 191, Article 01002. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202019101002

  • Hussin, M. Z., Hasliza, N., Yaacob, A., Zain, Z. M., Omar, A. M., & Shaari, S. (2012). A development and challenges of grid-connected photovoltaic system in Malaysia. In 2012 IEEE Control and System Graduate Research Colloquium (pp. 191-196). IEEE Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSGRC.2012.6287160

  • Hussin, M. Z., Shaari, S., Omar, A. M., & Zain, Z. M. (2015). Amorphous silicon thin-film: Behaviour of light-induced degradation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 43, 388-402. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.10.093

  • Ishii, T., & Masuda, A. (2017). Annual degradation rates of recent crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 25(12), 953-967. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/pip.2903

  • Islam, M. A., Hasanuzzaman, M., & Rahim, N. A. (2018). Investigation of the potential induced degradation of on-site aged polycrystalline PV modules operating in Malaysia. Measurement, 119, 283-294. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2018.01.061

  • Jamil, W. J., Rahman, H. A., Shaari, S., & Desa, M. K. M. (2020). Modeling of soiling derating factor in determining photovoltaic outputs. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 10(5), 1417-1423. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2020.3003815

  • Jumien, N. A., Hussin, M. Z., Omar, A. M., & Zulkapli, M. F. (2015). Performance of a 2.8 kWp monocrystalline free-standing grid-connected photovoltaic system at SIRIM berhad. In 2015 IEEE 6th Control and System Graduate Research Colloquium (ICSGRC) (pp. 93-97). IEEE Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSGRC.2015.7412471

  • Kazem, H. A., Chaichan, M. T., Al-Waeli, A. H. A., & Sopian, K. (2020). Evaluation of aging and performance of grid-connected photovoltaic system northern Oman: Seven years’ experimental study. Solar Energy, 207, 1247-1258. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2020.07.061

  • Köntges, M., Oreski, G., Jahn, U., Herz, M., Hacke, P., Weiss, K. A., Razongles, G., Paggi, M., Parlevliet, D., & Tanahashi, T. (2017). Assessment of photovoltaic module failures in the field. International Energy Agency.

  • Kunaifi, K., Reinders, A., Lindig, S., Jaeger, M., & Moser, D. (2020). Operational performance and degradation of PV systems consisting of six technologies in three climates. Applied Sciences, 10(16), Article 5412.

  • Lillo-Sánchez, L., López-Lara, G., Vera-Medina, J., Pérez-Aparicio, E., & Lillo-Bravo, I. (2021). Degradation analysis of photovoltaic modules after operating for 22 years. A case study with comparisons. Solar Energy, 222, 84-94. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2021.04.026

  • Limmanee, A., Songtrai, S., Udomdachanut, N., Kaewniyompanit, S., Sato, Y., Nakaishi, M., Kittisontirak, S., Sriprapha, K., & Sakamoto, Y. (2017). Degradation analysis of photovoltaic modules under tropical climatic conditions and its impacts on LCOE. Renewable Energy, 102, 199-204. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.10.052

  • Limmanee, A., Udomdachanut, N., Songtrai, S., Kaewniyompanit, S., Sato, Y., Nakaishi, M., Kittisontirak, S., Sriprapha, K., & Sakamoto, Y. (2016). Field performance and degradation rates of different types of photovoltaic modules: A case study in Thailand. Renewable Energy, 89, 12-17. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.11.088

  • Malvoni, M., Kumar, N. M., Chopra, S. S., & Hatziargyriou, N. (2020). Performance and degradation assessment of large-scale grid-connected solar photovoltaic power plant in tropical semi-arid environment of India. Solar Energy, 203, 101-113. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2020.04.011

  • Malvoni, M., Leggieri, A., Maggiotto, G., Congedo, P. M., & De Giorgi, M. G. (2017). Long term performance, losses and efficiency analysis of a 960kWP photovoltaic system in the Mediterranean climate. Energy Conversion and Management, 145, 169-181. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.04.075

  • Muhammad, N., Zakaria, N., Shaari, S., & Omar, A. (2017). System performance and detectable faults of a 10-year old 1.1 kWp GCPV system in Malaysia. Science Letters, 11(1), 10-17.

  • Okello, D., van Dyk, E. E., & Vorster, F. J. (2015). Analysis of measured and simulated performance data of a 3.2kWp grid-connected PV system in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Energy Conversion and Management, 100, 10-15. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.04.064

  • Phinikarides, A., Kindyni, N., Makrides, G., & Georghiou, G. E. (2014). Review of photovoltaic degradation rate methodologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 40, 143-152. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.155

  • Quansah, D. (2017). Reliability and degradation of solar PV modules - Case study of 19-year-old polycrystalline modules in Ghana. Technologies, 5(2), Article 22. https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies5020022

  • Roumpakias, E., & Stamatelos, A. (2019). Performance analysis of a grid-connected photovoltaic park after 6 years of operation. Renewable Energy, 141, 368-378. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.04.014

  • Saleheen, M. Z., Salema, A. A., Islam, S. M. M., Sarimuthu, C. R., & Hasan, M. Z. (2021). A target-oriented performance assessment and model development of a grid-connected solar PV (GCPV) system for a commercial building in Malaysia. Renewable Energy, 171, 371-382. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2021.02.108

  • SEDA. (2016). SEDA Malaysia grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems design course (2nd Ed.). Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) Malaysia.

  • Vaka, M., Walvekar, R., Rasheed, A. K., & Khalid, M. (2020). A review on Malaysia’s solar energy pathway towards carbon-neutral Malaysia beyond Covid’19 pandemic. Journal of cleaner production, 273, 122834-122834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122834

  • Velautham, S., Chen, W. N., & Han, T. W. (2019). National survey report of PV power applications in Malaysia-2019 (National Survey Reports). IEA-PVPS.

  • Yatim, Y., Hussin, F., Idris, M., Rahim, A., Baharudin, A., Mansur, T., & Alhassan, S. (2014). Economical analysis of grid-connected BiPV at UNIMAP building in Kuala Perlis, Malaysia. International Journal of Renewable Energy Resources, 4(2), 42-45.

  • Yatim, Y., Yahya, M. W., Tajuddin, M. F. N., Ismail, B., & Sulaiman, S. I. (2017). Tecno-economic analysis of PV module selection for residential BIPV with net metering implementation in Malaysia. In 2017 IEEE 15th Student Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD) (pp. 361-365). IEEE Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1109/SCORED.2017.8305364

  • Ye, J. Y., Reindl, T., Aberle, A. G., & Walsh, T. M. (2014). Performance degradation of various PV module technologies in tropical Singapore. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 4(5), 1288-1294. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2338051

ISSN 0128-7702

e-ISSN 2231-8534

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Related Articles