e-ISSN 2231-8542
ISSN 1511-3701

Home / Regular Issue / JTAS Vol. 29 (3) Jul. 2021 / JST-2195-2020


Measurement of Thermal Comfort in Urban Public Spaces Semarang, Indonesia

Rina Kurniati, Wakhidah Kurniawati, Diah Intan Kusumo Dewi and Mega Febrina Kusumo Astuti

Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, Volume 29, Issue 3, July 2021


Keywords: Public space, thermal comfort, urban design element

Published on: 31 July 2021

Indonesia reported a maximum annual temperature rise of 0.3°C in urban regions. Semarang, the largest metropolitan city in the province of Central Java, is also experiencing an increase in temperature due to climate change therefore activities in urban public spaces are disrupted due to the absence of a comfortable temperature. Urban design elements, including land cover materials, road geometry, vegetation and traffic frequency expressed significant effects on micro-climate. Measurement of Thermal Comfort in Urban Public Spaces Semarang was carried out s at the micro level as an old historical district The Old Town and Chinatown. This increment indeed influences thermal comfort level in its outdoor environments which are important for comfortability of outdoor activity. This study aims to analyse surface temperature through Thermal Comfort Measurement. Data was obtained by measuring air temperature, wind speed and humidity in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Inverse distance weighted (IDW), thermal comfort calculations and micro-climate model were employed to evaluate existing physical conditions of these settlements. The results showed both Old Town and Chinatown observed thermal comfort value above 27°C and are categorized as uncomfortable for outdoor activities. This research is contributing to the need to further develop public spaces to potentially adapt to environmental changes.

  • Bourbia, F., & Awbi, H. B. (2004). Building cluster and shading in urban canyon for hot dry climate part 2: Shading simulations. Renewable Energy, 29(2), 291-301.

  • Boutet, T. S. (1987). Controlling air movement: A manual for architects and builder. McGraw-Hill.

  • Djukic, A., Vukmirovic, M., & Stankovic, S. (2016). Principles of climate sensitive urban design analysis in identification of suitable urban design proposals. Case study: Central zone of Leskovac competition. Energy and Buildings, 115, 23-35.

  • Donaghy, K. (2007). Climate change and planning: Responding to the challenge. The Town Planning Review, 78(4), i-ix.

  • Dursun, D., & Yavas, M. (2015). Climate-sensitive urban design in cold climate zone: The city of Erzurum, Turkey. International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, 3(1), 17-38.

  • Emmanuel, M. R. (2005). An urban approach to climate-sensitive design. Spon Press.

  • Gholipour, Y., Shahbazi, M. M., & Behnia, A. (2013). An improved version of inverse distance weighting metamodel assisted harmony search algorithm for truss design optimization. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, 10(2), 283-300.

  • Groat, L., & Wang, D. (2002). Architectural research methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  • Hakim, L. (2013). Kajian arsitektur lanskap rumah tradisional Bali sebagai pendekatan desain arsitektur ekologis [Study of traditional balinese house landscape architecture as an ecological architectural design approach]. NALARs, 12(1), 85-103.

  • Handayani, W., Rudiarto, I., Setyono, J. S., Chigbu, U. E., & Sukmawati, A. M. (2017). Vulnerability assessment : A comparison of three different city sizes in the coastal area of Central Java, Indonesia. Advances in Climate Change Research, 8(4), 286-296.

  • Handoko. (1995). Klimatologi dasar: Landasan pemahaman fisik atmosfer dan unsur-unsur iklim (Ed. 2) [Basic climatology: The foundation for physical understanding of the atmosphere and the elements of climate (2nd Ed.)]. Pustaka Jaya.

  • Hendrawati, D. (2016). Air sebagai alat pengendali iklim mikro dalam bangunan studi kasus: Taman Sari Royal Heritage Spa, Hotel Sheraton Mustika Yogyakarta [Water as microclimate control tool in buildings case study: Taman Sari Royal Heritage Spa, Hotel Sheraton Mustika Yogyak]. Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan, 18(2), 97-106.

  • Johansson, E. (2006). Influence of urban geometry on outdoor thermal comfort in a hot dry climate: A study in Fez, Morocco. Building and Environment, 41, 1326-1338.

  • Kaya, N., & Mengi, O. (2011, October 24-28). How sensitive we build to climate? Design for comfortable urban environment. 47th ISOCARP Congress, Wuhan, China.

  • Koch-Nielsen, H. (2002). Stay cool: A design guide for the built environment in hot climates (1st Ed.). Routledge.

  • Koerniawan, M. D. (2015). The simulation study of thermal comfort in urban open spaces of commercial area using EnviMet software. AIJ Japan.

  • Kusumastuty, K. D., Poerbo, H. W., & Koerniawan, M. D. (2018). Climate-sensitive urban design through Envi-Met simulation: Case study in Kemayoran, Jakarta. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 129, No. 1, p. 012036). IOP Publishing.

  • Lakitan, B. (2004). Fundamental of plant physiology. PT Raja Grafindo Persada.

  • Laurie, M. (1990). Pengantar kepada arsitektur pertamanan [Introduction to landscape architecture]. Bandung Intermatra.

  • Lembaran Daerah Kota Semarang. (2003). Rencana tata bangunan dan lingkungan (RTBL) kawasan Kota Lama (No. 4, Seri E) [Building and environmental planning in old town]. Kota Semarang, Indonesia.

  • Li, Z., Zhang, H., Wen, C., Yang, A., & Juan, Y. (2020). Effects of frontal area density on outdoor thermal comfort and air quality. Building and Environment, 180(June), Article 107028.

  • Lin, T. P. (2009). Thermal perception, adaptation and attendance in a public square in hot and humid regions. Building and Environment, 44(10), 2017–2026.

  • Mathew, A., Khandelwal, S., & Kaul, N. (2018). Investigating spatio-temporal surface urban heat island growth over Jaipur City using geospatial techniques. Sustainable Cities and Society, 40, 484-500.

  • McGregor, G. R., & Nieuwolt, S. (1998). Tropical climatology, an introduction to the climate low latitude (2nd Ed.). Wiley.

  • Meziani, R. (2016). Study of the relationship between building arrangement and visibility of open spaces based on a simplified area evaluation. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 10(12), 1364-1372.

  • Mirzaei, P. A., & Haghighat, F. (2010). A novel approach to enhance outdoor air quality: Pedestrian ventilation system. Building and Environment, 45(7), 1582-1593.

  • Nichol, J. E., Fung, W. Y., Lam, K., & Wong, M. S. (2009). Urban heat island diagnosis using ASTER satellite images and ‘ in situ ’ air temperature. Atmospheric Research, 94, 276-284.

  • Nikolopoulou, M., & Lykoudis, S. (2006). Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: Analysis across different european countries. Building and Environment, 41(11), 1455-1470.

  • Oke, T. R. (1976). The distinction between canopy and boundary ‐ layer urban heat islands. Atmosphere, 14(4), 268-277.

  • Oke, T. R. (2006). Towards better scientific communication in urban climate. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 84(December), 179-190.

  • Pamungkas, B. A., Munibah, K., & Soma, S. (2019). Land use changes and relation to urban heat island. Case study: Semarang City, Central Java. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 399, No. 1, p. 012069). IOP Publishing.

  • Pramono, G. H. (2008). Akurasi metode IDW dan kriging untuk interpolasi sebaran sedimen tersuspensi [IDW and kriging method accuracy for interpolation of suspended sediment distribution]. Forum Geografi, 22(1), 97-110.

  • Pratiwo. (2004, August 23-25). The city lanning of Semarang 1900-1970. The 1st International Urban Conference, Surabaya, Indonesia.

  • Purwantara, S. (2015). Studi temperatur udara terkini di wilayah di Jawa Tengah dan DIY [Study of air temperature in in Central Java and DI Yogyakarta]. Geomedia Majalah Ilmiah dan Informasi Kegeografian, 13(1).

  • Purwanto, E. (2014). Privatisasi ruang publik dari civic centre menjadi central business district [A case study of Simpang Lima Area Semarang]. Jurnal Tataloka, 16(3), 153.

  • Putri, S. N. A. K. (2020). Revitalisasi kawasan Kota Lama Semarang periode tahun 2019: Persepsi wisatawan dan ahli terhadap daya tarik wisata [Revitalization of the Old City of Semarang in 2019: Perceptions of tourists and experts on tourist attractions]. Diponegoro University.

  • Ragheb, A. A., El-Darwish, I. I., & Ahmed, S. (2016). Microclimate and Human comfort considerations in planning a historic urban quarter. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 5(1), 156-167.

  • Shashua-bar, L., & Hoffman, M. E. (2003). Geometry and orientation aspects in passive cooling of canyon streets with trees. Energy and Buildings, 35, 61-68.

  • Shishegar, N. (2013). Street design and urban microclimate: Analyzing the effects of street geometry and orientation on airflowand solar access in urban canyons. Journal of Clean Energy Technologies, 1(1), 52-56.

  • Stathopoulos, T., Wu, H., & Zacharias, J. (2004). Outdoor human comfort in an urban climate. Building and Environment, 39, 297-305.

  • Tapias, E., & Schmitt, G. (2014). Climate-sensitive urban growth: Outdoor thermal comfort as an indicator for the design of urban spaces. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 191, 623-634.

  • Yeang, K. (2006). Ecodesign: A manual for ecological design. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • Yu, C., & Hien, W. N. (2009). Thermal impact of strategic landscaping in cities: A Review. Advances in Building Energy Research, 3(1), 237-260.

  • Zikra, M., Suntoyo, & Lukijanto. (2015). Climate change impacts on Indonesian coastal areas. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 14, 57-63.

ISSN 1511-3701

e-ISSN 2231-8542

Article ID


Download Full Article PDF

Share this article

Recent Articles