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Accumulation and Phytotoxicity of Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin to Aquatic Plants

Wilailuck Khompun, Chonlada Dechakiatkrai Theerakarunwong and Waraporn Chouychai

Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, Volume 47, Issue 1, February 2024


Keywords: Aquatic fern, Azolla, pyrethroid pesticide, Salvinia, Spirodela

Published on: 23 Febuary 2024

Synthetic pyrethroid contamination in water is a serious environmental concern as this pesticide is highly toxic to aquatic animals. Phytoremediation using aquatic plants that can tolerate and accumulate pyrethroid pesticides is an interesting alternative. In this study, the phytotoxicity of cypermethrin and deltamethrin, alone or in combination, to three aquatic plants, Azolla microphylla, Salvinia cucullate, and Spirodela polyrrhiza were tested. The results show that S. cucullate was the most sensitive species because the pigment content in the fronds significantly decreased when exposed to pyrethroid in water. Azolla microphylla was the most tolerant species because the pigment content in their fronds significantly increased when exposed to pyrethroid and cypermethrin, which could also significantly increase the plant fresh weight of A. microphylla. Both species could accumulate synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in their tissue. The bioconcentration factors of cypermethrin and deltamethrin in A. microphylla were 3,508.8 and 2,323.5, respectively, while the bioconcentration factors of cypermethrin and deltamethrin in S. cucullate were 453.0 and 381.7, respectively. Azolla microphylla is appropriate for use in pyrethroid phytoremediation in water.

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